College History I

  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus's Discovery

    Columbus's Discovery
    After six weeks at sea, Columbus and his crew discovered an island in the Bahamas. A "New World" was now in the vision of the Europeans.
  • Nov 11, 1493

    Columbus Returns

    Columbus Returns
    Columbus returned back to Hispaniola with seventeen ships of men, cattle, swine, and horses. He also brought seedlings of sugar cane along with diseases from the germs the men brought over. Kentucky bluegrass, dandelions, and daises were carried over from dirt and dust on the travelers shoes and clothes.
  • Jan 1, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Treaty of Tordesillas
    Spain claimed Columbus's discovery of the New World by dividing the "heathen lands" with Portugal. Portugal recieved territory in Asia, Africa, and what would be Brazil.
  • Mar 1, 1513

    Vasco Nuñez Balboa

    Vasco Nuñez Balboa
    Vasco claimed to have discovered the Pacific Ocean and claimed all the lands for his king that were washed by that sea.
  • Sep 6, 1519

    Ferdinand Magellan

    Ferdinand Magellan
    Magellan sailed from Spain, through the tip of South America with five small ships, in bad storms only to be killed by the inhabitants of the Phillipines.
  • Sep 6, 1519

    Hernán Cortés

    Hernán Cortés
    Sailed from Cuba with eleven ships of several hundred men and sixteen horses, heading for Mexico.
  • Jun 30, 1520

    Aztecs Attack

    Aztecs Attack
    The Aztecs attacked the Spanish causing them to retreat from Tenochtitlán.
  • Aug 13, 1521

    Cortés Responds

    Cortés Responds
    Cortés then laid seige to the city and it eventually fell.
  • Sep 6, 1521

    Juan Ponce de León

    Juan Ponce de León
    Juan explored "the island" of Florida. He was seeking gold, but only found angry inhabitants who murdered Juan with an Indian arrow.
  • May 6, 1522

    Magellan's Vessel Returns

    Magellan's Vessel Returns
    Only one of Magellan's vessels returned, completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
  • Nov 1, 1532

    Francisco Pizarro

    Francisco Pizarro
    Pizarro crushed the Incas of Peru and took their riches for the Spanish.
  • Aug 1, 1539

    Hernando de Soto

    Hernando de Soto
    With six-hundred men, he went on a gold-seeking expedition from Florida westward, only to discover the Mississippi River.
  • Jun 1, 1542

    Francisco Coronado

    Francisco Coronado
    Francisco wandered through Arizona, New Mexico and reached as far as Kansas. Searching for golden cities, he ended up discovering the Grand Canyon and enormous herds of Bison.
  • Jan 1, 1558

    Queen Elizabeth

    Queen Elizabeth
    Protestant Elizabeth ascended to the english throne and Protestantism became dominant in England.
  • Aug 1, 1565

    St. Augustine

    St. Augustine
    The Spanish erected a fortress at St. Augustine, Florida, founding the oldest continually inhabitated European settlement in the future US.
  • Sep 1, 1580

    Francis Drake

    Francis Drake
    After traveling around the world he returned with a ship full of Spanish booty. In secret, Queen Elizabeth backed him financially.
  • Battle of Acoma

    Battle of Acoma
    Led by Don Juan Oñate, the Spanish severed one foot of each Pueblo survivor and cruelly abused each one they encountered.
  • Jamestown

    English men founded the first English settlement Jamestown, VA, which was at first a nightmare for all. Population decreased due to malnutrition, starvation, and disease.
  • Captain John Smith

    Captain John Smith
    Smith was kidnapped and subjected to a mock execution by Indian chieftain Powhatan, but was saved when Pocahontas threw her head between his and her father's weapon.
  • Province of New Mexico

    Province of New Mexico
    The Spaniards claimed the land they fought the Battle of the Acoma in as the province of New Mexico and founded its capital at Sante Fe the following year.
  • John Peter Zenger

    John Peter Zenger
    Zenger was arrested for seditious libel due to his newspaper assailing the corrupt royal governor. However the jury found him not guilty which in time established a doctrine that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel. This affected all newspaper and critics' writings to come.
  • Jonathan Edwards

    Jonathan Edwards
    Edwards's stark doctrines helped to begin the religious revival movement referred to as the Great Awakening. He helped to promote the importance of religion and God's grace.
  • George Whitefield

    George Whitefield
    The Great Awakening religious revival movement was spread by George Whitefield. He expressed his message of human helplessness and devine omnipotence.
  • England declares war

    England declares war
    England declares war on Spain. As a result, in America, hostilities break out between Florida, Spaniards, Georgia and South Carolina colonists.
  • Ben Franklin

    Ben Franklin
    The American Philosophical Society is founded in Philadelphia by Ben Franklin and his associates
  • Georgia Slavery

    Georgia Slavery
    Georgia obtains permission from the Parliament to revoke their prohibition on slavery which will eventually lead to the plantation system in the South.
  • Iron Act

    Iron Act
    Being one of the British Trade and Navigation Acts, it was intended to expand the development of colonial manufacturing in competition with home industry. It restricted the growth of the American iron industry to the supply of raw metals.
  • University of PA

    University of PA
    Ben Franklin made a contribution to launch the University of Pennsylvania. Significantly this was the first American college free from denominational control.
  • Currency Act

    Currency Act
    This act restricted the emission of paper money by the colonies of New England. Since more paper money was issued than what was taxed out , the currency depreciated in relation to the British pound sterling.
  • First General Hospital

    First General Hospital
    The first general hospital is founded. It is created in Philidelphia.
  • Postmasters General

    Postmasters General
    Benjamin Franklin and William Hunter are appointed as postmasters general for the American colonies.
  • Fort Necessity

    Fort Necessity
    George Washington leads a small group of American colonists to victory over the French, then builds Fort Necessity in the Ohio territory.
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
    Seven Years' War or The French and Indian War begins between the French and Algonquin Indians and the Iroquois, allied by the English.
  • Washington Retreats

    Washington Retreats
    After being attacked by French forces with a great number of soldiers, General Washington surrenders the fort and retreats.
  • Chief of English Forces

    Chief of English Forces
    English General Edward Braddock arrives in Virginia with two regiments of English troops. General Braddock assumes the post of commander in chief of all English forces in America.
  • William Pitt

    William Pitt
    William Pitt becomes England's Secretary of State and escalates the French and Indian War in the colonies by establishing a policy of unlimited warfare.
  • English King

    English King
    George III becomes the new English King following his grandfather George II.
  • Chief Pontiac

    Chief Pontiac
    Pontiac's forces are defeated by the British near Pittsburgh. The siege of Detroit ends in November, but conflicts between the British and Chief Pontiac continue for several years.
  • Seven Year's War Ends

    Seven Year's War Ends
    The French and Indian War, known in Europe as the Seven The Seven Year's War ends with the Treaty of Paris. Under the treaty, France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.
  • Suar Act

    Suar Act
    Parliament passed the first law ever used for raising revenue for the crown. It increased the duty fr foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.
  • Quartering Act

    Quartering Act
    This act required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for the British troops.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    A stamp tax was imposed to raise revenues to support the new military force. The act mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps.
  • Stamp Act Congress

    Stamp Act Congress
    The congress brought together 27 deligates from nine colonies to New York City. This congress was a significant step toward intercolonal unity.
  • Parliament Repealed Stamp Act

    Parliament Repealed Stamp Act
    After the Stamp Act failed, parliament passed the Declaratory Act which assrted British goernment's power to have absolute sovereignty over its North American colonies.
  • New York legislature suspended by parliament

    New York legislature suspended by parliament
    The London government also suspended the legislature of New York in 1767 for failure to comply with the Quartering Act.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    The new Prime Minister Charley Townshend persuaded parliament to pass the Townshend Acts, which put a light import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea.This wasn't a tax paid directly to the British.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    A crowd of 60 townspeople began taunting and throwing snowballs at a squad of 10 redcoats. The Bostonians were still angry over the death of an 11-year old boy, shot 10 days earlier during a protest against a merchant who had defied the colonial boycott of British goods. The nervous and provoked soldiers opened fire and killed or wounded 11 citizens.
  • Correspondence Committees

    Correspondence Committees
    Samuel Adam’s main contribution was to organize in Massachusetts the local committees of correspondence in 1772. Its function was to spread the spirit of resistance by exchanging letters, ideas, and information, keeping opposition to British policy alive.
  • First American Congresses

    First American Congresses
    By 1773, every colony had established a committee of correspondence. These intercolonial groups were significant because they evolved directly into the first American congresses.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    About 100 Bostonians who were a part of the Sons of Liberty loosely disguised themselves as Indians. They boarded the docked ships, smashed open 342 chests of tea, and dumped their contents into the Atlantic.
  • Boston Port Act

    Boston Port Act
    This act was passed to close the harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured. Town meetings were also closed.
  • New Quartering Act Passed

    New Quartering Act Passed
    This intolerable act gave local authorities the power to lodge British soldiers anywhere, even in private homes.
  • Quebec Act

    Quebec Act
    Although it was passed at the same time the other acts were passed to punish Boston, this act was not intended to do so. Under this act the French in Canada were guaranteed their Catholic religion and they were permitted to retain many of their old customs and institutions, which did not include a representative assembly or trial by jury. The old boundaries of the province of Quebec were also extended southward.
  • First Continental Congress

    First Continental Congress
    The purpose was to consider ways of redressing colonial grievances. 12 of the 13 colonies, all but GA, sent at least one delegate to the meeting in Philadelphia. All intercolonial rivalries melted away.
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    General Gage, the British commander in Boston, suspected the colonists of housing a stockpile of weaponry in Concord. He sent troops through Lexington to Concord to seize the stockpile and to capture the rebel ringleaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock.
  • Second Continental Congress

    Second Continental Congress
    All 13 colonies met at the 2nd Continental Congress in Philidelphia. It served as our first government and met for 5 years until the Articles of Confederation took place.
  • Bunker Hill

    Bunker Hill
    A tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold seized a hill, now known as Bunker Hill from the British.
    They held the British off until they ran out of ammunition and was overrun.
  • Richard Henry Lee

    Richard Henry Lee
    Lee motioned for the independence of the colonies and shortly after Lee made his motion, Congress appointed a committee to prepare a more formal statement of separation. Among this committee were Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    In mid-June 1776, a five-man committee were tasked with drafting a formal statement of the colonies' intentions. The Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia on July 4. This is a date now celebrated as the birth of American independence.
  • Public libraries

    Public libraries
    Philidelphia had the first privately owned supported circulatinng library library. Finally in 1776 about 50 public libraries and collections supported by subscription existed.
  • Marquis de Lafayette

    Marquis de Lafayette
    Marquis arrived at Philidelphia to volunteer to serve without pay. He was appointed as a major general in the Continental army and became one of Washington's most trusted aides.
  • Battle of Saratoga Results

    Battle of Saratoga Results
    This was the first major American victory in the Revolutionary War. General Horatio Gates and General Benedict Arnold defeat General Burgoyne, causing 600 British casualties and 150 American losses.
  • Articles of Confederation Adopted

    Articles of Confederation Adopted
    Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation as the government of the new United States of America, but were waiting on ratification by the individual states. Under the Articles, Congress was the sole authority of the new national government.
  • Capture of Charleston

    Capture of Charleston
    America faces their worst defeat of the Revolutionary War. The British capture Charleston and its 5400 men, four ships and a military arsenal.
  • Benedict Arnold Flees

    Benedict Arnold Flees
    A British major in civilian clothing was captured near Tarrytown, New York. He was found carrying plans indicating that Benedict Arnold intended to turn traitor and surrender West Point. Two days later, Arnold heard of the spy's capture and fled West Point.
  • Peace Comission

    Peace Comission
    Congress creates a Peace Commission comprised of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Jay and Henry Laurens. It appointed John Adams as the sole negotiator with the British.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    After the Battle of York town the Revolutionary War was pretty much over, but small battles still broke out. In 1783, Great Britain and the United States formally ended the war and recognized the new nation by signing the Treaty of Paris.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    The Constitutional Convention in Philidelphia was called in 1786, and held at Independence Hall in 1787. 55 men from throughout the colonies convened for the purpose of strengthening the Articles of Confederation. George Washington was chosen to preside over the convention.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    Rioters protested high taxation, the governor's high salary, high court costs and the assembly's refusal to issue paper money. Shays responded by raising a militia of 700 men. They marched first for Worcester where they closed down the commonwealth's supreme court, then turned west to Springfield where they broke into the jail to free imprisoned debtors.
  • Federalist Papers

    Federalist Papers
    In attempt to persuade the eleven other states to ratify, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay wrote the eighty five essays known as the Federalist Papers. They were published in New York newspapers.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    When the first Congress met in New York in 1789, most members voted to include a bill of rights because they promised the people they would. Even though James Madison was against it, he helped guide the amendments through Congress. On December 15, 1791 ten out of twelve proposed amendments were ratified.
  • The White House

    The White House
    In 1790, however, George Washington made the decision to move the capital to a brand new area called the District of Columbia. While in District of Columbia, Washington and Pierre L'Enfant, a city planner, helped find a location that would house the president of the United States.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    They felt the tax was oppressive to the poor and were irate about paying such taxes to a government that failed to represent their interests. In 1794, residents of Washington County, Pennsylvania carried out their threats and staged a rebellion.
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers

    Battle of Fallen Timbers
    The encounter took place on August 20, in an area where a recent storm had brought down many trees, hence the name "fallen timbers." The U.S. forces used their superior numbers and arms to advantage, forcing a disorganized retreat on the Native Americans led by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    In 1798 Congress was close to declaring war on France. As a result, John Adams and congress passed several laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. The acts were designed by the Federalists to strengthen the power of the Federal Government and to squash any political opposition.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was needed in order to secure free navigation of the Mississippi River. President Jefferson sent James Madison and Robert Livingston to France to convince Napoleon I to sell the city of New Orleans. Surprisingly, Napoleon offered not only New Orleans, but the entire Louisiana Territory for sale.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    After the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, Thomas Jefferson selected Meriwether Lewis to lead an expedition to explore the wilderness, Indians, etc. of the new lands acquired in the deal. On May 14, 1804, the historic journey began, as Lewis, Clark, and 38 other Corps members sailed from St. Charles, Missouri west on the Missouri River.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    Fearing the growing strength of Tecumseh’s confederacy, Harrison decided to strike. He marched an army of 1,100 men toward Prophet’s Town. Tecumseh was temporarily out of the area, but his brother prepared the men for battle. On November 7, 1811, Harrison’s soldiers were attacked. After a two-hour battle, the natives were forced to flee and their village was destroyed.
  • War of 1812 Begins

    War of 1812 Begins
    On August 19, 1812, British forces and their allied Indians invaded and took Detroit, Michigan. U.S. Naval forces did manage a victory against British forces off the coast of Nova Scotia. Nevertheless, the blockade remained in place.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    American victories at Plattsburg and Fort McHenry influenced the British to take the ongoing peace talks at Ghent, Belgium, more seriously. Napoleon had been defeated, but Britain was financially depleted. The American peace commission included Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams. The resulting peace agreement basically restored prewar conditions.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Jackson became a national hero at the Battle of New Orleans.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    It was passed between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30' except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention. The Doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies or in the internal concerns of European countries.
  • Tariff Act of 1824

    Tariff Act of 1824
    Tariff Act of 1824 was passed. It was promoted by Henry CLay to Protect the American Industry.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    In the Election of 1824 none of the candidates (Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and William H. Crawford, and Henry Clay) gains a majority; the election is thrown into the House of Representatives.
  • Eria Canal

    Eria Canal
    The Erie Canal is completed, which encourages commercial growth of New York City and other cities along the canalís route.
  • Temperance Society

    Temperance Society
    American Society for the Promotion of Temperance founded in Boston. Temperance is encouraging people not to drink rather than prohibitting it.
  • Two Founding Fathers Pass Away

    Two Founding Fathers Pass Away
    Two of the Founding fathers, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die, on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson is elected President with John C. Calhoun as his Vice President.
  • "South Carolina Exposition and Protest"

    "South Carolina Exposition and Protest"
    "South Carolina Exposition and Protest" issued by S.C. state legislature is written anonymously by John C. Calhoun. The essay declares the Tariff of 1828 unconstitutional, and advocates state sovereignty and the doctrine of nullification.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    "The Tariff of Abominations," raising the protective Tariff of 1824, passes through Congress and is signed by President Adams.
  • South Carolina Exposition

    South Carolina Exposition
    The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, also known as Calhoun's Exposition, was written in December 1828 by John C. Calhoun, then vice president under John Quincy Adams and later under Andrew Jackson. It was a protest against the Tariff of 1828.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    Indian Removal Act is signed by President Jackson which grants authority to move Eastern Indians to Western lands.
  • Second great Awakening

    Second great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a Christian revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. It enrolled millions of new members, and led to the formation of new denominations.
  • William Lloyd Garrison

    William Lloyd Garrison
    William Lloyd Garrison began publishing his pamphlet the Liberator.
  • Nat Turner

    Nat Turner
    Nathaniel "Nat" Turner was an American slave who led a slave rebellion in Virginia on August 21, 1831 that resulted in 60 white deaths and at least 100 black deaths, the largest number of fatalities to occur in one uprising prior to the American Civil War in the southern United States.
  • Compromise Tariff

    Compromise Tariff
    Compromise Tariff of 1833 was drawn up by Henry Clay. It included a gradual cutback in tariffs, which pleases the South.
  • Funds Withdrawn from Bank of US

    Jackson declares that he wants government funds withdrawn from the Bank of the United States and distributed to selected state banks.
  • "Whig"

    The name, "Whig," is formally adopted for a new U.S. political party that emerges in response to Jackson's policies.
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    In the Panic of 1837, banks restricted credit and called in loans. Depositors rushed to their local institutions and attempted to withdraw their funds.
  • Samuel Morse

    Samuel Morse
    Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph message from Washington to Baltimore.
  • Santa Anna

    Santa Anna
    Santa Anna presidency is overthrown in Mexico.
  • California

    Compromise of 1850 admits California as free state but the Fugitive Slave Law enacted.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe is published. It tells of the harsh treatment of slaves among many other problems.
  • Gadsden Treaty

    Gadsden Treaty
    America and Mexico sign Gadsden Treaty which was concluded and signed at the City of Mexico on the thirtieth day of December. It was amended by the Senate of the United States, and was in the English and Spanish languages.
  • Henry Bessemer

    Henry Bessemer
    Henry Bessemer invented a process that allows the mass production of steel.
  • Dred Scott Case

    Dred Scott Case
    Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom.
  • South Carolina

    South Carolina
    South Carolina secedes from the Union. Followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
  • Jefferson Davis

    Jefferson Davis
    The Confederate States of America is formed with Jefferson Davis, a West Point graduate and former U.S. Army officer, as president.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    At 4:30 a.m. Confederates under Gen. Pierre Beauregard open fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War begins.
  • Proclamation

    President Lincoln issues a Proclamation calling for 75,000 militiamen, and summoning a special session of Congress for July 4.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    The Union Army under Gen. Irvin McDowell suffers a defeat at Bull Run 25 miles southwest of Washington. Confederate Gen. Thomas J. Jackson earns the nickname "Stonewall," as his brigade resists Union attacks. Union troops fall back to Washington.
  • George B. McClellan

    George B. McClellan
    President Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as Commander of the Department of the Potomac, replacing McDowell.
  • Fort Henry

    Fort Henry
    A victory for Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in Tennessee, capturing Fort Henry, and ten days later Fort Donelson. Grant earns the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant.
  • Monitor vs. Marrimac

    Monitor vs. Marrimac
    The Confederate Ironclad 'Merrimac' sinks two wooden Union ships then battles the Union Ironclad 'Monitor' to a draw. Naval warfare is then changed forever, making wooden ships obsolete.
  • Shiloh

    Confederate surprise attack on Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's unprepared troops at Shiloh on the Tennessee River results in a bitter struggle with 13,000 Union killed and wounded and 10,000 Confederates, more men than in all previous American wars combined.
  • David Farragut

    David Farragut
    17 Union ships under the command of Flag Officer David Farragut move up the Mississippi River then take New Orleans, the South's greatest seaport.
  • Second Battle of Bull Run

    Second Battle of Bull Run
    75,000 Federals under Gen. John Pope are defeated by 55,000 Confederates under Gen. Stonewall Jackson and Gen. James Longstreet at the second battle of Bull Run in northern Virginia. Once again the Union Army retreats to Washington. The president then relieves Pope.
  • Antietam

    The bloodiest day in U.S. military history as Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Armies are stopped at Antietam in Maryland by McClellan and numerically superior Union forces. By nightfall 26,000 men are dead, wounded, or missing. Lee then withdraws to Virginia.
  • End of Civil War

    End of Civil War
    Gen. Robert E. Lee surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia. Grant allows Rebel officers to keep their sidearms and permits soldiers to keep horses and mules.