Missouri Compromise 1820-1821Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the
Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´
north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in
Missouri—slavery was banned
Manifest DestinyIn the 1840s, expansion
fever gripped the country. Many Americans began to believe that their movement
westward was predestined by God. The phrase “manifest destiny”
expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific
Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory. Many Americans also
believed that this destiny was manifest, or obvious and inevitable.
Santa Fe TrailThe settlers and traders who made the trek
west used a series of old Native American trails as well as new
routes. One of the busiest routes was the Santa Fe Trail,
which stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to
Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico.
Oregon TrailThe Oregon Trail stretched from Independence,
Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by
two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa
Whitman. By driving their wagon as far as Fort Boise (near
present-day Boise, Idaho), they proved that wagons could
travel on the Oregon Trail.
San Felipe de AustinIn 1821 Stephen F. Austin established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane
swearer, and no idler” would be allowed.
The main settlement of the colony was named San Felipe de Austin, in
Mexico abolishes slavery
Stephen F. Austin goes to jailMexican politics had become increasingly unstable. Austin had
traveled to Mexico City late in 1833 to present petitions to Mexican president
Antonio López de Santa Anna for greater self-government for Texas. While
Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting
Texas RevolutionThe Spanish became suspicious when a large amount of Americans started moving in Texas, which was Spanish land at the time. By 1830, there were more than 20,000 Americans living in Texas. But what made them bitter was the colonists refused to learn Spanish language, traded only with the U.S. and built seperate schools. To reassert its authority over Texas, the Mexican government reaffirmed its Constitutional prohibition against slavery, established a chain of military posts occupied by convict s
Texas Enters the United StatesMost Texans hoped that the United States
would annex their republic, but U.S. opinion divided along sectional lines.
Southerners wanted Texas in order to extend slavery, which already had been
established there. Northerners feared that the annexation of more slave territory
would tip the uneasy balance in the Senate in favor of slave states—and prompt
war with Mexico.
Mexican-American WarMexico refused to realize Texas as independent and didn't want the U.S. taking it from them.
Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoMexico was defeated by America. On February 2,
1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and
ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included presentday
California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of
Colorado and Wyoming.
AbolitionAbolition, the movement to abolish
slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
The LiberatorActive in religious reform movements
in Massachusetts, William Lloyd Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828.
Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising
demand: immediate emancipation.
The North StarFrederick
Douglass, who escaped from bondage
to become an eloquent and outspoken
critic of slavery. Garrison heard
him speak and was so impressed that
he sponsored Douglass to speak for
various anti-slavery organizations.
Hoping that abolition could be
achieved without violence.
In 1847, Douglass began his own
antislavery newspaper. He named it
The North Star, after the star that
guided runaway slaves to freedom.
Nat Turner’s RebellionSome slaves rebelled against their condition of
bondage. One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave
Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed
many members of the group, including Turner.
Compromise of 1850The compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as
Southerners. To please the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed
a new and more effective fugitive slave law. To placate both sides, a provision
allowed popular sovereignty, the right to vote for or against slavery, for
residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories.
Despite the efforts of Clay and Webster, the Senate rejected the
Fugitive Slave ActUnder the law,
alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted
of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
up to six months.
Underground RailroadIt was started by Harriet Tubman. African Americans and white abolitionists developed a
secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, hide fugitive
slaves. The system of escape routes they used became known as the
Harriet TubmanHarriet Tubman, born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849
Uncle Tom’s CabinHarriet
Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed
that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
Kansas-Nebraska ActThe initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to open up many thousands of new farms and make feasible a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad.
Dread Scott v. SandfordA slave whose owner took him from
the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin
and back to Missouri. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his
freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and
a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man. The court ruled against him so he appealed to Supreme Court.
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates1858 race for the U.S. Senate between
Democratic incumbent Stephen Douglas and Republican
challenger Congressman Abraham Lincoln. Neither wanted slavery in the territories. Douglas believed deeply in
popular sovereignty. Lincoln, on the other hand, believed that slavery was immoral. Neither of them won.
John Brown’s raid/Harpers FerryOn the night of October 16, 1859, John Brown led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there and start a general slave uprising. He was later execute which put the nation in an uproar.
Abraham Lincoln becomes presidentThe Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln appeared to be moderate in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere
with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.”
Formation of the ConfederacyIn February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in
Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate
States of America, or Confederacy. The Confederates then unanimously elected former senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president.
Attack on Fort SumterAt 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate batteries
began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens. Confederate soldiers in each secessionist state began seizing federal forts. The deadly
struggle between North and South was under way
Battle of Bull RunThe first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months
after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from
Washington, D.C. The battle was a seesaw affair. In the morning the Union army
gained the upper hand, but the Confederates held firm, inspired by General
Thomas J. Jackson. In the afternoon Confederate
reinforcements helped win the first Southern victory. Fortunately for the Union,
the Confederates were too exhausted to follow up their victory with an a
Battle at AntietamMcClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
Antietam. The next day, instead of pursuing
the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly
ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
Lincoln removed him from command.
Emancipation ProclamationOn January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Nevertheless, for many, the proclamation gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible.
ConscriptionA draft that forced men to serve in the army.
In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place
in New York City.
Income TaxA tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
Battle at Gettysburgt. The Battle
of Gettysburg began on July 1 when Confederate soldiers led by A. P. Hill encountered
several brigades of Union cavalry under the command of John Buford. The three-day battle produced staggering losses: 23,000 Union men and 28,000
Confederates were killed or wounded. Total casualties were more than 30 percent.
Despite the devastation, Northerners were enthusiastic about breaking “the
charm of Robert Lee’s invincibility.”
Gettysburg addressIn Gettysburg, President Lincoln spoke for a little more
than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s
Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said,
“The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In
other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
of individual states; it was one unified nation.
Battle at Vicksburg
Sherman’s MarchH In the
spring of 1864, Sherman began
his march southeast through
Georgia to the sea, creating a
wide path of destruction. His
army burned almost every house
in its path and destroyed livestock
Surrender at Appomattox Court HouseOn April 9, 1865,
in a Virginia town called Appomattox (BpQE-mBtPEks) Court House, Lee and
Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s
request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them
home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were
permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month all remaining Confederate
resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over
Thirteenth AmendmentThe Emancipation Proclamation freed only
those slaves who lived in states that were behind Confederate lines, and not yet
under Union control. The government had to decide what to do about the border
states, where slavery still existed. The president believed that the only solution
was a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery
Assassination of Abraham LincolnLincoln was assasinaed at Ford's Theater. , John Wilkes Booth—a 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer—
then leaped down from the presidential box to the stage and escaped. Twelve days
later, Union cavalry trapped him in a Virginia tobacco shed and shot him dead.