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Civil War

By 17ohian
  • Missouri Compromise 1820-1821

    Missouri Compromise 1820-1821
    Maine was admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the
    Louisiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36°30´
    north latitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line—except in
    Missouri—slavery was banned
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    In the 1840s, expansion
    fever gripped the country. Many Americans began to believe that their movement
    westward was predestined by God. The phrase “manifest destiny”
    expressed the belief that the United States was ordained to expand to the Pacific
    Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory. Many Americans also
    believed that this destiny was manifest, or obvious and inevitable.
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    The settlers and traders who made the trek
    west used a series of old Native American trails as well as new
    routes. One of the busiest routes was the Santa Fe Trail,
    which stretched 780 miles from Independence, Missouri, to
    Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence,
    Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by
    two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa
    Whitman. By driving their wagon as far as Fort Boise (near
    present-day Boise, Idaho), they proved that wagons could
    travel on the Oregon Trail.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    In 1821 Stephen F. Austin established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane
    swearer, and no idler” would be allowed.
    The main settlement of the colony was named San Felipe de Austin, in
    Stephen’s honor.
  • Mexico abolishes slavery

    Mexico abolishes slavery
  • Stephen F. Austin goes to jail

    Stephen F. Austin goes to jail
    Mexican politics had become increasingly unstable. Austin had
    traveled to Mexico City late in 1833 to present petitions to Mexican president
    Antonio López de Santa Anna for greater self-government for Texas. While
    Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting
    revolution.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    The Spanish became suspicious when a large amount of Americans started moving in Texas, which was Spanish land at the time. By 1830, there were more than 20,000 Americans living in Texas. But what made them bitter was the colonists refused to learn Spanish language, traded only with the U.S. and built seperate schools. To reassert its authority over Texas, the Mexican government reaffirmed its Constitutional prohibition against slavery, established a chain of military posts occupied by convict s
  • Texas Enters the United States

    Texas Enters the United States
    Most Texans hoped that the United States
    would annex their republic, but U.S. opinion divided along sectional lines.
    Southerners wanted Texas in order to extend slavery, which already had been
    established there. Northerners feared that the annexation of more slave territory
    would tip the uneasy balance in the Senate in favor of slave states—and prompt
    war with Mexico.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    Mexico refused to realize Texas as independent and didn't want the U.S. taking it from them.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Mexico was defeated by America. On February 2,
    1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
    Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and
    ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included presentday
    California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of
    Colorado and Wyoming.
  • Abolition

    Abolition
    Abolition, the movement to abolish
    slavery, became the most important of a series of reform movements in America.
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    Active in religious reform movements
    in Massachusetts, William Lloyd Garrison became the editor of an antislavery paper in 1828.
    Three years later he established his own paper, The Liberator, to deliver an uncompromising
    demand: immediate emancipation.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    Frederick
    Douglass, who escaped from bondage
    to become an eloquent and outspoken
    critic of slavery. Garrison heard
    him speak and was so impressed that
    he sponsored Douglass to speak for
    various anti-slavery organizations.
    Hoping that abolition could be
    achieved without violence.
    In 1847, Douglass began his own
    antislavery newspaper. He named it
    The North Star, after the star that
    guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Nat Turner’s Rebellion

    Nat Turner’s Rebellion
    Some slaves rebelled against their condition of
    bondage. One of the most prominent rebellions was led by Virginia slave
    Nat Turner. In August 1831, Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four
    plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed
    many members of the group, including Turner.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as
    Southerners. To please the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To please the South, the compromise proposed
    a new and more effective fugitive slave law. To placate both sides, a provision
    allowed popular sovereignty, the right to vote for or against slavery, for
    residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories.
    Despite the efforts of Clay and Webster, the Senate rejected the
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Under the law,
    alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted
    of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment for
    up to six months.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    It was started by Harriet Tubman. African Americans and white abolitionists developed a
    secret network of people who would, at great risk to themselves, hide fugitive
    slaves. The system of escape routes they used became known as the
    Underground Railroad.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    Harriet Tubman, born a slave in Maryland in 1820 or 1821. In 1849
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Uncle Tom’s Cabin
    Harriet
    Beecher Stowe published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which stressed
    that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to open up many thousands of new farms and make feasible a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad.
  • Dread Scott v. Sandford

    Dread Scott v. Sandford
    A slave whose owner took him from
    the slave state of Missouri to free territory in Illinois and Wisconsin
    and back to Missouri. Scott appealed to the Supreme Court for his
    freedom on the grounds that living in a free state—Illinois—and
    a free territory—Wisconsin—had made him a free man. The court ruled against him so he appealed to Supreme Court.
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    1858 race for the U.S. Senate between
    Democratic incumbent Stephen Douglas and Republican
    challenger Congressman Abraham Lincoln. Neither wanted slavery in the territories. Douglas believed deeply in
    popular sovereignty. Lincoln, on the other hand, believed that slavery was immoral. Neither of them won.
  • John Brown’s raid/Harpers Ferry

    John Brown’s raid/Harpers Ferry
    On the night of October 16, 1859, John Brown led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there and start a general slave uprising. He was later execute which put the nation in an uproar.
  • Abraham Lincoln becomes president

    Abraham Lincoln becomes president
    The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln appeared to be moderate in his views. Although he pledged to halt the further spread of slavery, he also tried to reassure Southerners that a Republican administration would not “interfere
    with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves.”
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    In February 1861, delegates from the secessionist states met in
    Montgomery, Alabama, where they formed the Confederate
    States of America, or Confederacy. The Confederates then unanimously elected former senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, Confederate batteries
    began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston’s citizens. Confederate soldiers in each secessionist state began seizing federal forts. The deadly
    struggle between North and South was under way
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    The first bloodshed on the battlefield occurred about three months
    after Fort Sumter fell, near the little creek of Bull Run, just 25 miles from
    Washington, D.C. The battle was a seesaw affair. In the morning the Union army
    gained the upper hand, but the Confederates held firm, inspired by General
    Thomas J. Jackson. In the afternoon Confederate
    reinforcements helped win the first Southern victory. Fortunately for the Union,
    the Confederates were too exhausted to follow up their victory with an a
  • Battle at Antietam

    Battle at Antietam
    McClellan ordered his men to pursue Lee, and the two
    sides fought on September 17 near a creek called the
    Antietam. The next day, instead of pursuing
    the battered Confederate army into Virginia and possibly
    ending the war, McClellan did nothing. As a result,
    Lincoln removed him from command.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation did not free any slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Nevertheless, for many, the proclamation gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible.
  • Conscription

    Conscription
    A draft that forced men to serve in the army.
    In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place
    in New York City.
  • Income Tax

    Income Tax
    A tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual’s income.
  • Battle at Gettysburg

    Battle at Gettysburg
    t. The Battle
    of Gettysburg began on July 1 when Confederate soldiers led by A. P. Hill encountered
    several brigades of Union cavalry under the command of John Buford. The three-day battle produced staggering losses: 23,000 Union men and 28,000
    Confederates were killed or wounded. Total casualties were more than 30 percent.
    Despite the devastation, Northerners were enthusiastic about breaking “the
    charm of Robert Lee’s invincibility.”
  • Gettysburg address

    Gettysburg address
    In Gettysburg, President Lincoln spoke for a little more
    than two minutes. According to some contemporary historians, Lincoln’s
    Gettysburg Address “remade America.” Before Lincoln’s speech, people said,
    “The United States are . . .” Afterward, they said, “The United States is . . .” In
    other words, the speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection
    of individual states; it was one unified nation.
  • Battle at Vicksburg

    Battle at Vicksburg
  • Sherman’s March

    Sherman’s March
    H In the
    spring of 1864, Sherman began
    his march southeast through
    Georgia to the sea, creating a
    wide path of destruction. His
    army burned almost every house
    in its path and destroyed livestock
    and railroads.
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    Surrender at Appomattox Court House
    On April 9, 1865,
    in a Virginia town called Appomattox (BpQE-mBtPEks) Court House, Lee and
    Grant met at a private home to arrange a Confederate surrender. At Lincoln’s
    request, the terms were generous. Grant paroled Lee’s soldiers and sent them
    home with their possessions and three days’ worth of rations. Officers were
    permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month all remaining Confederate
    resistance collapsed. After four long years, the Civil War was over
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
    The Emancipation Proclamation freed only
    those slaves who lived in states that were behind Confederate lines, and not yet
    under Union control. The government had to decide what to do about the border
    states, where slavery still existed. The president believed that the only solution
    was a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln was assasinaed at Ford's Theater. , John Wilkes Booth—a 26-year-old actor and Southern sympathizer—
    then leaped down from the presidential box to the stage and escaped. Twelve days
    later, Union cavalry trapped him in a Virginia tobacco shed and shot him dead.