Civil War

  • Abolition

    The movement to abolish slavery in the 19the century.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    A secret network of people who would at great risk hide fugitive slaves. This was a system of escape routes. Conductors on the routes hid fugitives in secret tunnels and false cupboards, provided them with food and clothing, and escorted them to the next station.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    By the leadership of Henry Clay, the Missouri Compromise admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. The rest of the Lousiana Territory was split into two parts. The dividing line was set at 36degree30' north lattitude. South of the line, slavery was legal. North of the line, except in Missouri, slavery was banned. Under President James Monroe.
  • Santa Fe Trail

    Santa Fe Trail
    Stretched 78 miles from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe in the Mexican province of New Mexico. Each Spring from 1821 to 1860s American traders loaded their covered wagons with goods and set off toward Santa Fe.
  • San Felipe de Austin

    San Felipe de Austin
    Stephen F. Austin established a colony where no drunk, gambler, profane swearer would be allowed. His father recieved a land grant from Spain to establish colony between the Brazos & CO Rivers but died before he was able to carry out his plans. Therefore, Stephen obtained permission from Spain & Mexico to carry out his father's project. The main settlement of this colony was San Felipe de Austin. Each family received either 177 acres of farmland or 4428 acres for grazing 10 yr exmpt paying tax
  • Mexico Abolishes Slavery

    Mexico Abolishes Slavery
    Differences over cultural issues intensified between Anglos and Mexican gov. The Protestant Anglo settlers spoke English instead of Spanish. Furthermore, many of the settlers were Southerners, who had brought slaves with them to Texas. Mexico, insisted in vain that the Texans free their slaves.
  • The Liberator

    The Liberator
    William Loyd Garrison, a radiacal white abolitionist. The Liberator delivered the idea of immediate emancipation.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Some slaves rebelled against their condition of bondage. Turner and more than 50 followers attacked four plantations and killed about 60 whites. Whites eventually captured and executed many members of the group, including Turner.
  • Stephen F Austin Goes to Jail

    Stephen F Austin Goes to Jail
    Mexican politics had become increasingly unstable. Austin had traveled to Mexico City late in 1833 to present petitions to Mexican pres Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna for greater self gov for Texas. While Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting rev.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    Stretched from Independence, Missouri to Oregon City, Oregon. It was blazed in 1836 by two Methodist missionaries named Marcus and Narcissa Whitman. They proved that wagons could travel on the Oregon Trail. Many pioneers then migrated west on the trail.
  • Texas Revolution

    Texas Revolution
    Rebellion in which Texas gained its independence from Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    This phrase expressed the belief that the US was ordained to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory. Many Americans also believed that this destiny was manifest, or obvious and inevitable.
  • Texas Enters the United States

    Texas Enters the United States
    The 1844 US pres campaign focused on westward expansion, James K Polk a slaveholder, firmly favored the annexation of Texas. In March 1845, angered by US-Texas negotiation on annexation, the Mexican gov recalled its ambassador from Washington and in Dec, Texas entered the Union. Events quickly moved toward war.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    Mainly driven by the idea of Manifest Destiny; the belief that the U.S had a God-given right to occupy and civilize the whole continent. President Polk shared and led the vision of Manifest Destiny, and offer to buy much of the southwest land from Mexico. However the Mexican gov refused the offer, and an unyeilding desire to populate those southwestern lands caused tensions to continue to rise. Also, the Texas War of Independence and the subsequent inclusion of that area into the United States.
  • The North Star

    The North Star
    Frederick Douglass, who escaped from bondage to become an eloquent and outspoken critic of slavery. He named his newspaper the North Star after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the US . The US agreed to pay 15 mil for the Mexican cession, which included CA, Nevada, NM, UT, AZ, and parts of CO and WY.
  • Harriet Tubman

    Harriet Tubman
    One of the most famous conductors of the Underground Railroad, born a slave in MD in 1820 or 1821. In 1849, after her owner died, she heard rumors about being sold. In fear, she decided to make a break for freedom and succeeded in reaching Philly. In all she made 19 trips back to the south and is said to have helped 300 slaves,including her parents to freedom
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Provided that CA be admitted to the Union as a free state. The compromise provided a new and more effective fugitive slave law. A provision allowed popular sovereignty, the right to vote for or against slavery, for residents of the NM and UT territories. This also provided popular sovereignty in NM and UT.The Senate rejected the compromise in July. After 8 months, it finally became a law
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    Alleged fugitive slaves were not entitled to a trial by jury. In addition, anyone convicted of helping a fugitive was liable for a fine of 1000 dollars and imprisonment for up to six months. Some Northerners resisted it by organizing vigilance committees to send endangered African Americas to safety in Canada.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Stressed that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. She expressed her lifelong hatred of slavery. The book stirred Northern abolitionists to increase their protests against the Fugitive Slave Act, while Southerners criticized the book as an attack on the South.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas. This would divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the North and Kansas in the south. The bill would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories. Some Northern Congressmen saw the bill as part of a plot to turn the territories into slave states. Southerners strongly defended it.
  • Dread Scott v. Sandford

    Dread Scott v. Sandford
    Dread Scott was a slave whose owner took him from MO to free territory in IL and WI and back to MO. Scott appealed to the court that living in free state(IL) and a free territory in WI had made him a free man. The Surpreme Court ruled against him. He lacked any legal standing to sue in fed court because he wasnt a citizen. Being in a free territory didnt make a slave free. The 5th amendment protects property. For territories to exclude slavery would deprive slaveholders of property
  • Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas Debates
    Race for the US Senate between Democcratic Stephen Douglas and Reublican Congressman Abraham. Lincoln challenged him to a series of debates on the issues of slavery known as "Little Giants". Neither wanted slavery in the territories, but they disagreed on how to keep it out. Douglas believed in popular sovereignty, while Lincoln thought it was an empty phrase. Lincoln thought slavery was immoral. Douglas thought people could get around Dred Scott. Douglas won Senate seat.
  • John Browns Raid/Harpers Ferry

    John Browns Raid/Harpers Ferry
    John Brown believed that the time was ripe for an uprising. He secretely obtained financial backing from several prominent Northern abolitionists. He led a band of 21 men into Harpers Ferry. He wanted to seize the federal arsenal and start a general slave uprising. However, troops put down the rebellion. Authories tried him and put him to death.
  • Abraham Lincoln Becomes President

    Abraham Lincoln Becomes President
    He pledged to halt further spread of slavery, also tried to reassure Southerners that a republican administration wouldnt interfere with their slaves or w/ them about their slaves. He was successful because his attacks on the vast moral evil of slavery drew national attention and some Republicans thought hed make an excellent candidate. He won with less than half the popular vote and no electoral votes in the south. He didnt even appear on the ballot in most slave states because of hostilities
  • Formation of the Confederacy

    Formation of the Confederacy
    Delegates from Missippippi, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas met in Montgomery, Alabama to form the Confederate States of America. They drew up a constitution that resembled that of the United States, but with a few differences like that it protected and recogized slavery in new territories. They elected former senator Jefferson Davis as president.
  • Attack on Fort Sumter

    Attack on Fort Sumter
    The most important Southern fort in the Union hands. Fort Sumter is in an island in Charleston harbour. Lincoln sent in food for hungry men. At 4:30AM, Confederate batteries began thundering away to the cheers of Charleston's citizens. Fort Sumter had fallen. Lincoln called for troops was supported by Norhtern states, but not the south. VA, AR, NC, and TN joined Confederacy. WV joined Union. remaining slave states- MD, DE, KY, MO remained in Union
  • Battle of Bull Run

    Battle of Bull Run
    Little creek 25 miles from DC. In the morning, the Union army gained the upper hand, but confederates held firm, inspired by Gen. Thomas J Jackson (Stonewall Jackson). In the afternoon confederate reinforcements helped win the first Southern Victory. Fortunately, the Confederates were too exhausted to follow up their victory with an attack on DC. Confederate morale soared regardless. Many Confederate soldiers, confident the war was over, left the army and went home.
  • Income Tax

    Income Tax
    As Northern economy grew, Congress decided to help pay for the war by collecting the nations first income tax. A tax that takes a specified percentage of an individual's income.
  • Battle at Antietam

    Battle at Antietam
    Union General George McClellan ordered his men to pursue Robert E Lee and the two sides fought near this creek. The clash proved to be the bloodiest single day battle in American histroy with casualties over 26,000. The next day, instead of pursuing the battered Confederate army into VA and possibly ending the war, McClellan did nothing and therefore, Lincoln removed him from command.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The proclamation didn't free slaves immediately because it applied only to areas behind Confederate lines, outside Union control. Even though, it gave the war a moral purpose by turning the struggle into a fight to free the slaves. It also ensured that compromise was no longer possible.
  • Conscription

    As fighting intensified, heavy casualties and widespread desertions led each side to impose conscription, a draft that forced men to seve in the army. In the North, conscription led to draft riots, the most violent of which took place in NYC.
  • Battle at Vicksburg

    Battle at Vicksburg
    Union Gen Ulysses Grant fought to take Vicksburg. It was important because it rested on bluffs above river from which guns could control water traffic. Grant began by weakening Con defenses. Sent Ben Grierson to destroy rail lines&distract Con forces from Union infantry working its way to Vicksburg. In 18days, Union sacked Jackson (capital) Grant then set up steady barrage of artillery, shelling the city from river&land After food low, Con.command asked to Surrend City fellJuly4 &Con was cut in2
  • Battle at Gettysburg

    Battle at Gettysburg
    Con soldiers led by AP Hill encountered several brigades of Union cav under John Buford. By end of day1 90000 Union (George Meade)&75000 Con(Lee) Day2-Con drove out Union troops from Gettysburg&took control. Lee ordered Longstreet to attack Cemetery Ridge Day 3-Lee ordered an artillery barrage at the center of Union lines. gave up and led army home. Staggering losses:23000union&28000Con Casualties were over 30% Regardless North was enthusiastic about breakingcharm of Lee's invincibility
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    A ceremony was held to dedicate a cemetery in Gettysburg. Lincoln spoke and "remade America". The speech helped the country to realize that it was not just a collection of individual states; it was one unified nation.
  • Sherman's March

    Sherman's March
    William Tecumseh Sherman marched southeast through Georgia to the sea, creating a wide path of destruction. His army burned almost every house and destroyed livestock and railroads. He was determined to make Southerners so sick of war that generations would pass away before they would again appeal to it. He burned most of Atlanta. After reaching the ocean, Sherman's forces (followed by 25000 former slaves) turned north to hep Grant wipe out Lee.
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House

    Surrender at Appomattox Court House
    On April 3, Union troops conquered Richmond, the Confederate capital. Southerners had abandoned the city the day before, seting it afire to keep the Northerners from taking it. Lee and Grant met at Appomattox to arange a Confederate surrender. Grant paroled Lee's soldiers and sent them home with their possessions and 3 days worth of rations. Officers were permitted to keep their side arms. Within a month, all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed. After 4 years, the Civil War was over
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    5 days after Lee surrendered to Grant at Apomattox, Lincoln & his wife went to Ford's Theatre in Washington to see "Our American Cousin" During its 3rd act, a man crept up behind Lincoln & shot him in the back of the head. He died on April 15. First time a president was assassinated. John Wilkes Booth(southern sympathizer) leaped down from the presidential box to the stage and escaped. 12 days later, Union cav trapped him&shot him dead. The funeral train took 14days to IL. 1/3 Union mourn public
  • Thirteenth Amendment

    Thirteenth Amendment
    This amendment abolished slavery. It stated that "neither slavery nor involunatary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the US".