Civil Rights Era

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    Civil rights era

  • 15th admenedment

    Gave the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall and they can't be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • Jim crow laws

    Maintained racial segregation in the South. Under these laws, whites and blacks drank from different water fountains, used different bathrooms and sat separately on public transportation and in restaurants.
  • Birth of Eleanor Roosevelt

    Born in New York City, Eleanor was a leader in her own right and involved in numerous humanitarian causes throughout her life. She was strongly known for her women's right movement. She was also the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt.
  • 14th Admendment

    passed during Lincoln's presidency and Reconstruction, this ensure the rights of freed slaves.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the doctrine of "separate but equal."
  • Birth of Thurgood Marshall

    Born in Maryland, was a counsel to the NAACP, he utilized the judiciary to champion equality for African Americans. In 1954, he won the Brown v. Board of Education case, in which the Supreme Court ended racial segregation in public schools. Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1967.
  • Birth of Lyndon Johnson

    Born in Texas, Johnson was the 36th President of the United States. Before becoming president, he was a U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. Upon taking office, Johnson launched an ambitious slate of progressive reforms aimed at alleviating poverty and creating what he called a "Great Society" for all Americans.

    A Civil Rights organization in the United States, made originally for Blacks. During the beginning, the NAACP focused on legal strategies designed to confront the critical civil rights issues of the day.
  • BIrth of Orval Faubus

    Born in Arkansas, Orval was a six-term Democratic governor of Arkansas famous for his stand against integration of Little Rock, Arkansas schools in 1957 in defiance of U.S. Supreme Court rulings.
  • Birth of Rosa Parks

    Born in Alabama, she was a civil rights activisit. She was most popular for her refusal to surrender her seat to a white passenger on a Montgomery, Alabama bus spurred a city-wide boycott. The city of Montgomery had no choice but to lift the law requiring segregation on public buses. She received many accolades, including the NAACP's highest award.
  • Hector Perez Garcai was born

    Hector Perez Garcia was born in Llera, Tamaulipas state, Mexico. He was a passionate advocate for Hispanic-American rights in the United States.
  • Geogre Wallacen is born

    Born in Alabama, he bcame the governor of Alabama. He was a national spotlight during the civil rights battles of the 1960s by vehemently opposing the federally mandated integration of Alabama schools.
  • 19th Admendment

    The19th Amendment forbids voting rights discrimination anywhere in the United States based on sex, aka gave women to vote.
  • Birth of Betty Friedan

    A writer, a feminist, and a women's rights activist. Betty was born in Illinois. She wrote "The Feminine Mystique", which explored the idea of women finding personal fulfillment outside of their traditional roles. Betty also helped advance the women’s rights movement as one of the founders of the National Organization for Women.
  • Birth of Cesar Chavez

    Born in Arizona, Cesar Chavez was a nonviolent p rotester. He brought attention to the plight of farmworkers, and formed both the National Farm Workers Association. As a labor leader, he led marches, boycotts, and went on several hunger strikes.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. is born

    Born in Atlanta, Georgia. He was both a Baptist minister and civil-rights activist, had a seismic impact on race relations in the United States. Through his activism, he played a pivotal role in ending the legal segregation of African-American citizens in the South and other areas of the nation. One of the most lauded African-American leaders in history, famours for the speech, "I Have a Dream."

    One of the oldest and biggest organization of Hispanic Americans in the United States. With a approximately of 115,000 members, the organization uses education and advocacy to improve living conditions and seek advances for all Hispanic nationality groups
  • Birth of dolores Huerta

    Dolores was born in Dawson, New Mexilco, but raised Stockton, California. Dolores helped improve social and economic conditions for farm workers and to fight discrimination. She created the Agricultural Workers Association and co-founded the United Farm Workers.
  • Federal Housing Authority

    "A United States government agency that provides mortgage insurance to qualified, FHA-approved lenders. FHA mortgage insurance helps protect lenders from losses associated with mortgage default; if a borrower defaults on a loan, the FHA will pay a specified claim amount to the lender."
  • Social Security

    A federal program that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income.
  • Birth of Barbra Jordan.

    Born in Houston, Texas. Barbara was the first Texas Senate and US House Representative. She was also a Civil Rights leader for the movement.
  • CORE

    A Civil-rights organization founded by James Farmer. CORE sought to promote better race relations and end racial discrimination in the United States by using non-violence.
  • Mendez v. Westminster

    Gonzalo and Felícitas Méndez sent their children off to the local school, only to be told that the youngsters would have to attend a reserved for Mexican Americans. In response the Méndezes and other aggrieved parents from nearby school districts went to federal court to challenge the segregation. Uniquely, they did not claim racial discrimination, since Mexicans were legally considered white, but rather discrimination based on ancestry and supposed “language deficiency."
  • Delgado v. Bastrop ISD

    When the Delgado, et. al. v. Bastrop Independent School District case began, it was about their complaint for the Mexican American parents, the attorneys argued that the school districts had “prohibited, barred, and excluded” Mexican American children from attending public school with “other white school children” in violation of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Miliant Protest

    A type of protest that involves aggressiveness or vigorous actions.
  • Civil rights Movement

    A worldwide movement for equality before the law. This period took place starting in the 50's and ending in the 80's.
  • Nonvolent Protest

    A type of protest that involves no actions that cause harm to an individual, but may recieve damage by other people. These types of protest are the most effective during the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Sweatt v. Painter

    Concluded that a newly created state law school for African‐Americans in Texas was in no objective way equal to the University of Texas Law School.
  • Hernadez v. Texas

    In 1951, Pete Hernandez, a 21-year-old, single, Mexican-American cotton picker, was drinking with a friend at a bar in Edna, a small town in Jackson County, Texas, when he became disruptive and was removed from the bar. Pete went home, obtained a gun, returned, and shot Joe Espinosa. In September 1951, he was indicted for murder. He thought it wasn't fair since the court upheld the exclusion of Mexican-American jurors from a trial in which the defendant was Mexican-American.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Linda Brown was been denied permission to attend an elementary school only five blocks from her home in Topeka, Kansas. School officials refused to register her at the nearby school, assigning her instead to a school for nonwhite students some 21 blocks from her home. Separate elementary schools for whites and nonwhites were maintained by the Board of Education in Topeka. Linda Brown's parents filed a lawsuit upon the manner. This case provided a source to de-segergationize the schools.
  • Birth of Sonia Sotomayor

    Born in New York, she was a U.S. District Court Judge in 1992 and was elevated to the U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals in 1998. In 2009, she became the first Latina Supreme Court Justice in U.S. history.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    A boycott in which African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating on buses.
  • SCLC

    The civil-rights organization was founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr., and headed by him until his assassination in 1968.The main reason it was made was to advance the cause of civil rights in America but in a non-violent manner.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957

    Was the U.S. first civil rights legislation that established the Civil Rights Commission (CRC) to protect individual’s rights to equal protection and permitted courts to grant injunctions in support of the CRC.
  • SNCC

    A civil-rights organization formed by students during the 1960s, whose aim was to achieve political and economic equality for blacks through local and regional action groups.
  • Afimative Action

    Equal opportunity employment measures that Federal goverrnment are legally required to adopt. Factors like: race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin.
  • MArch on Washington

    The March on Washington attracted an estimated 250,000 people for a peaceful demonstration to promote Civil Rights and economic equality for African Americans. People walked down Constitution and Independence avenues during this march. This led to the most known speech in the world: "I Have a Dream."

    Began in 1962 as a coalition of poorly paid migrant farm workers and grew into a powerful Labor Union that has consistently fought to increase wages and improve working conditions for its members.
  • 24th admendment

    "The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax."
  • Great Society

    A plan by President Lyndon B. Johnson, chiefly to enact domestic programs to improve education, provide medical care for the aged, and eliminate poverty.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Made it illegal to discriminate on the because of a person sex or race when it came to hiring, firing, and promoting on the job - See more at.
  • Upward Bound

    A federal program that provides fundamental support to participants in their preparation for college entrance.
  • Medicare

    A federal program that pays for certain health care cost for people aged 65 or older.
  • Head Start

    A Federal program targeting children ages 3-5 and providing a variety of services, including education in the form of preschool, and nutrition and medical services.
  • Voting rights Acts of 1965

    Outlawed discriminatory voting practices which existed to one degree or another in most of the states and was specifically targeting practices in the Southern states.
  • NOW

    The group was founded in 1966 to support "full equality for women in America in a truly equal partnership with men." The founder was Betty Friedan.
  • BLack Panthers

    A U.S. African-American militant party known for their violent revolution as the only means of achieving black liberation. The Black Panthers called on African Americans to arm themselves for the liberation struggle.
  • 25th Admendment

    Is in regards to the removal of the President from office by death or resignation and replacing with the VP.
  • AIM

    A Native American civil-rights movement, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Its was formed to encourage self-determination against Native Americans and to establish international recognition of their treaty rights.
  • Tinker v. Des Moines

    This case affirmed the First Amendment rights of students in school. The Court held that a school district violated students’ free speech rights when it singled out a form of symbolic speech – black armbands worn in protest of the Vietnam War – for prohibition, without proving the armbands would cause substantial disruption in class.
  • La Raza Unida

    Was an American political party centered on Chicano nationalism. The campaign campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
  • 26th Admendment

    Allows us citizens over the age of 18 vote in elections.
  • Title IX

    Protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance.
  • Edgewood ISD v. Kirby

    Started by Fundqv whom which filed suit against commissioner of education William Kirby on May 23, 1984, in Travis County on behalf of the Edgewood Independent School District, San Antonio, citing discrimination against students in poor school districts. The plaintiffs charged that the state's methods of funding public schools violated at least four principles of the state constitution, which obligated the state legislature to provide an efficient and free public school syste