Martin luther king jr civil rights supporters august 1963.jpg

Civil Rights

  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    Whites used the Plessy v. Ferguson case (“Separate but Equal”) to justify segregated schools. Oliver Brown tried enrolling his daughter into a local school, but was told she had to attend an all black school. This led to Brown vs. Board of Education. They argued that segregated public schools were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court agreed with a 9-0 unanimous decision and schools were equal. After the decision was made, riots broke out and some schools closed.
  • Murder of Emmet Till

    Murder of Emmet Till
    14 year old Emmet Till from Chicago was visiting Mississippi. He went to a store and was accused of whistling at a white woman, Carolyn Bryant. Roy Bryant and JW Milam kidnapped, beat, shot, and killed Till. They tied a 75 pound fan to him and threw him into a river. 3 days later, Till’s disfigured body was found. Mamie Till, Emmet’s mother, had an open casket funeral. The murderers were found not guilty, even though they admitted to it. It was the spark of the civil rights movement.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Parks was on her way home from work by bus. Buses were segregated. The front of the bus was for whites and the back was for black citizens. That day the bus got so full that the white section had no empty seats. There were only 4 black citizens including Parks. The bus driver told them to give up their seats to white citizens. 3 listened, but Parks didn’t. Rosa Parks was then arrested for not giving up her seat and eventually led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • Bus Boycott

    Bus Boycott
    After Rosa Parks was arrested, all African Americans refused to board buses. They would take their own cars, bikes, and even walk to wherever they needed to go. It was supposed to be in effect for one day, but it was so effective that they extended the boycott.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    It started after the bus boycott. Martin Luther King was elected as president. He helped organize nonviolent protests in the south such as Greensboro sit ins, March on Washington and Selma. After MLK’s assassination, it was declined. It still exists today.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    It tested the Brown v. Board of Education desicion. 9 African American students were vetted to participate in this test. 101 Airborn escorted these students to class. The next year all public schools closed. On August 29, 1959, schools reopened.
  • Greensboro Sit-Ins

    Greensboro Sit-Ins
    4 college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woodsworth’s to be served. They were refused service, so they continued to “sit-in”. Others joined and the protest spread to other towns. Woodworth’s started losing money, so this forced change.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded in 1960. It became the main source of student participation in the civil rights movement. These students remained independent of MLK and the SCLC. The two organizations worked together through the civil rights movement. They were part of the March to Selma and freedom rides.
  • Freedom Rides/Riders

    Freedom Rides/Riders
    A 2 week bus trip to the South was made to purposely violate Jim Crow Laws. It was organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). The buses were burned down and the riders were beaten by the KKK. November 1, 1961, white and colored signs are removed from bus stations, train stations, and lunch counters.
  • March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom

    March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom
    It advocated for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. 250,000 people were in attendance at the Lincoln Memorial. MLK was he last person to speak. He gave his “I have a dream” speech. 70 to 80% of the marchers were black. It helped pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    They can not be refused service. Forbids employers and labor unions to discriminate against any person on grounds of race, color, religion, sex, physical disability or age in job related matters. It prohibits overall discrimination against these in any way.
  • March on Selma/Bloody Sunday

    March on Selma/Bloody Sunday
    600 students March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama to get the right to vote. They walked 54 miles and were stopped at the bridge. This was seen on national television. Lyndon B. Johnson ordered the passage of 1965 voting rights law. The 2nd march took place March 21-24 days with thousands of people marching.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    It was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed discrimination in voting down in the South after the Civil War. This also got rid of literacy tests being a prerequisite to vote. It enforced the 15th amendment. It made an impact on the civil rights movement by later increasing the number of African American voters.