Chapter 8 Concepts

  • John Marshall (A)

    Fletcher v. Peck : marshall held that a land grant was a valid contract and could not be repealed even if corruption was involved
    Dartmouth College v Woodward: legislature had unconst violated the college's contract, placed important restrictions on the ability of state gvts to control corporations
    Cohens v. Virginia : affirmed constitutionality of fed review of state court decisions
    McCulloch v. Maryland: confirmed the implied pwrs of congress by upholding the const of the bank of US
  • Steamship/Fulton's Clemont 1806 revolutionizes transport

    stimulated the agricultural economy of the west and the south, by providing much readier access to markets at greatly reduced cost
    they enabled eastern manufacturers to send their finished goods west much more readily
  • National Road (1807-1818)

    construction of the National Road began in 1811 at MD on the Otomac, and by 1818, this highway with a crushed stone surface and massive stone bridges ran as far as to VA on the ohio river
    state of PA gave $100,000 to a private company to extend the Lancaster pike westward to pittsburgh
    over both of these roads, traffic moved: with all kinds of vehicles
    despite high tolls, the roads made transportation costs across the mts lower than ever before
  • Four Reasons for westward expansion after War of 1812

    1) population pressures - the agricultural lands of the east were by now largely occupied and some of them were exhausted
    2) eco pressures: in the south, the spared of the plantation system and of a slave labor force limited opp for new settlers
    3) west was becoming more attractive to white settlers: war helped diminish native american opposition
    4) fed gvt continued its policy of pushing the remaining tribes farther and farther west
  • Admission of new states: Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama

    part of westward expansion
    in the south: growth of agricultural economy and expansion of slaves, cotton, and white settlers
    mississippi and alabama: black belt, increase plantations and and developoment of uncultivated land
  • Spread of cotton, plantations, slavery into “Black Belt” of Alabama & Miss.

    vast prairie with a dark, productive soil of rotted limestone
    first arrivals were ordinary farmers, then wealthier planters that bought up the cleared land, while the original settlers moved farther west and started over again
    new agricultural economy was emerging in the south
  • Effects of end of War of 1812 on manufacturing, esp. textile industry

    textile industry experienced a dramatic growth - the embargo act and the war of 1812 spurred a tremendous expansion
    Boston merchant FRANCIS CABOT LOWELL - developed a power loom that was better than its english counterpart
    1813: est Boston Manufavturing Company and at Waltham, MA, founded the first mill in america to carry on the processes of spinning and weaving under a single roof
  • Tariff Bill of 1816

    limited competition from abroad on a wide range of items, most importantly cotton cloth
    there were objections from agricultural interests, who would have to pay higher prices for manufactured goods as a result (south)
    nationalist dream of creating an important american industrial economy prevailed (north)
  • Second Bank of the US

    could not forbid state banks from issuing currency, buts size and power enabled it to dominate the state banks
    could compel them to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business
    same institution hamilton founded in 1791 except it had more capital than its predecessor
  • Era of Good Feelings: 1816 election of Monroe; 1820 re-elected

    expansion of the economy, the growth of white settlement and trade int he west, the creation of new states, all reflected the rising spirit of antionalism that was permeating the us
    wahtever divisions and siagreements existed within american society found little expression the nationl's politica l life
    party competition virtually disappeared, and james monroe was elected twice almost by acclamtion
  • Madison’s 1817 veto of Calhoun’s Internal Improvements Bill & why Erie Canal

    madison called the attention of congress to the great importance of est throughout our country the roads and canals which can be best executed under the national authority
    calhoun introduced a bill that would have used the funds owed the gvt by the bank of the us to finance internal improvements
    madison supported the purpose of the bill, but believed that congress lacked authority to fund the improvements without a constitutional amendment
    so resp: state gvts and private enterprise
  • National Road (1807-1818)

    PA: gave $100,000 to a private company to extend the Lancaster pike westward to pittsburgh
    the tolls were still too high to permit the long distance hauling of such bulky loads such as wheat or flour, but low enough to justify transporting commodities with a high value in proportion to their weight, such as textiles
    manufacturers moved from the atlantic seaboard to the ohio valley in unprecented quantities
  • 1818 First Seminole War / Andrew Jackson & John Quincy Adam’s roles

    andrew jackson took american troops along the florida frontier, and adopted the necessary measures to put a stop to the continuing raids on american territory by the seminole indians
    adams urged gvt to assume complete responsibilty for it, and it showed that it had the right under int law to defend itself against the threats from acorss its borders
    jackson's raid demonstrated america could easily take FL by force, and once ONIS realized that, he had little choice but to come to terms with them
  • 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty (Spain cedes FL), especially terms & effect.

    US gave up claims to TX but Spain gave must all of FL and all its possessions in the pacific NW
    adams and onis concluded this was a transcontinental treaty
    jackson's raid showed america's power and ability to take FL by force if Spain didn't give it up to the Americans
  • Recommendation of expeditions by Pike & Stephen Long on potential settlement of lands between Missouri R. & Rocky Mts./ its effect

    stephen h. long led soliders up the platte and south platte rivers of nebraska and eastern colorado to find sources of the red river
    he failed to find the headwaters of the red river, but wrote an influential report, including an assessment of the region's potential for future settlement and development that echoed the dimissive conclusions of zebulon pike fifteen years before
  • Panic of 1819 (causes, effects, role of Second National Bank of U.S.)

    in 1819: new management at the nat bank began tightening credit, calling in loans and foreclosing mortgages
    the new governors of the bank also collected state bank notes and demanded payment in cash from the banks, many of which could not meet the demand and thus failed
    these bank failures launched a financial panic, which americans blamed on the bank of the US
    prices for both manufactured goods and agric produce fell rapidly
  • Missouri Compromise of 1820

    jesse b. thomas senator of illinois proposed an amendment prohibiting slavery in the rest of the LA purchase territory north of the southern boundary of missouri
    and maine would admitted as a free state, missouri as a slave state
    the debate over misouri had revealed a strong undercurrent of sectionalism that was competing with the powerful tides of nationalism
  • Role of fur trading companies in West, incl. John Jacob Astor/American Fur Co., Andrew & William Ashley/Rocky Mt. Fur Co; rendezvous

    1822: andrew and william ashley founded the rocky mts fur company and recruited white trappers to move permanently into the rockies in search of furs, which were becoming scarce farther east
    mts men were closely bound up with the expanding market economy of the us
    the trappers were the first wedge of a white movement into those lands that would ultimatey dominate the region and transform it
    developed important relationships with the indian and mexican ppl and altering the character of society
  • Marshall Court Indian cases; effects of rulings

    marshall decisions did what the const itself had not done, they defined a place for indian tribes within the american political system
    tribes had basic propoerty rights, they were sovereign entites not subject to the authority of state gvts
    but fed gvt had ultimate authority over tribal affairs, even if that authority was limited by the gvt's oblig to protect indian welfare
    formed the basis of what legal protections indians had
  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)

    asserted nationalism in foreign policy
    1822: Monroe est dip relations with chile, peru, colombia, and mexico - making US the first country to recognize them
    doctrine was an expression of the growing spirit of nationalism in the US & an expression of concern about the forces that were already gathering to threaten that spirit
    est idea of american hegemony in the western hemisphere that later us gvts would invoke at will to justify policies in latin america
  • John Quincy Adam’s presidency (B)

    Georgia’s Indian removal: adams believed new treaty from william mcintosh had no legal force, since mcintosh did not represent the wishes of the tribe and he refused to enforce the treaty
    governor of GA defied the president and proceeded with plans for indian removal; in 1827: Creeks succumed to pressure from GA and sgreed to still another treaty, that again yielded their land
  • John Marshall (B)

    Gibbons v. Ogden: court strengthened congress's power to regulate interstate commerce
    marshall replied that commerce was a broad term embracing navigation as well as the buying and selling of goods, and he claimed that the power of congress to regulate such commerce was complete in itself and might be exercised to its utmost extent
    therefore, ogden's state granted monopoly was void
    it freed transportation sys from restraints by the states and helped pave the way for unfettered capitalist growth
  • 1824 Election of John Quincy Adams

    Clay was out of the running, but with 37 supporters in the house, adams, crawford, and jackson all wooed for his vote
    crawford was out since he was suffering from a disease, and jackson was clay's most dangerous political rival. he wasn't friends with adams, but adams was an ardent nationalist and a likely supporter of Clay's american system, so the House elected him as the new president
    adams announced that clay was to be his sec of state
    jacksonians: corrupt bargain between the two
  • John Quincy Adam’s presidency (A)

    National Road expansion: won several million dollars to improve rivers and harbors and to extend the national road westward from wheeling
    fate of Adam’s other internal improvements:appointed delegates to an int conference that simon bolivar had called in panama, but southerners opposed the idea of white americans mingling with black delegates from haiti. supporters of jackson charged that adams intended to sacrifice american interests and involve the nation in an entangling alliance
  • 1828 Presidential election campaign of personal invective; sectional results.

    jackson: 56% of popular vote and an electoral majority of 178 to 83
    adams swept virtually all of new england, and he showed significant strength in the mid-atlantic region
    nevertheless, the jacksonians considered their victory as complete and as important as jefferson's in 1800
    america had entered a new era of democracy, the era of the common man
  • Re-emergence of two-party system in 1828 presidential election

    Adams: Nat rep who supported the economic nationalism of the preceding years
    Jackson: Dem Rep who called for an assault on privilege and a widening of oportunity
    Adams attracted the support from Feds while Jackson appealed to a broad coalition that opposed the economic aristocracy
    Jackson's victory was decisive, if sectional; once again, a champion of democracy would occupy the white house and restore liberty to the people and ot the economy
    a new era of democracy, the era of the common man
  • Tariff of Abominations

    demands of MA and RI woolen manufacturers, who complained that the british were dumping textiles on the american market at prices with which the domestic mill owners could not compete
    won support from middle and western states, but at the cost of provisions that antagonized the original new england supporters of the bill; the western provisions placed high duties on woolens and items the west produced
    would lose support whether he signed or vetoed it; he signed it; earned animosity of southernrs