Biotechnology Timeline

  • First Vaccine

    First Vaccine
    Smallpox was the first vaccine. Edward Jenner dervied this vaccine from a weakened version of the cow pox disease.
  • Discovery of Proteins

    Discovery of Proteins
    Proteins were actually recognized as a class of biological molecules in the 18th century by Antoine fourcroy, but was not labled as a protein until 1838. Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function.
  • Public Vaccination Campaign

    Public Vaccination Campaign
    The first vaccination campaign publicly annouced the development of vaccines and named them to be mandatory. If someone refused a vaccine they were sentenced to prison.
  • Discovery of genetic patterns

    Discovery of genetic patterns
    From 1856-1863, Mendel cultivated thousands of plants observing and discovering the genetic patterns over time. His work was not seriously discovere and considered until the 1900s and is now named the Father of genetics.
  • Food Sterilization

    Food Sterilization
    First pasteurization was done by Louis Pasteur and Claud Bernard. Their process included the heating of food and liquids to kill any microrganisms that could be harmful to our health.
  • 1st Biotech Drug (Insulin)

    1st Biotech Drug (Insulin)
    Insulin is a hormone central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle. It was discovered by a medical student named Paul Langerhans.
  • Discovery of Enzymes

    Discovery of Enzymes
    Enzymes were first discovered in the process of fermentation. Enzymes are proteins catalyze. Most aid in digestion.
  • First Antibiotic

    First Antibiotic
    Penicillan was the first antibiotic dicovered by Alexander Fleming. It was primarily used in the military for prevention of gonorrhea in soldiers.
  • Avery'- McLeod Experiment

    Avery'- McLeod Experiment
    The Avery experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty. DNA causes bacterial transformation.
  • Discorvery of DNA structure

    Discorvery of DNA structure
    In 1952 the first x ray image of DNA was taken. This led to the discovery its molecular structure by Watson and Crick.
  • Hershey-Chase Experiment

    Hershey-Chase Experiment
    The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, which helped to confirm that DNA was the genetic material.
  • First recombinant DNA organism

    First recombinant DNA organism
    In 1973, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer created the first recombinant DNA organism. The first application of this new technology was used in bacteria to creat certain proteins.
  • First genome sequenced

    First genome sequenced
    In 1976, Walter Fiers was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a viral RNA-genome. The genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information.
  • First Trangenic Animal

    First Trangenic Animal
    In 1982, the creation of the first "transgenic animal" (mouse) was accomplished by transferring a gene from one mouse to the embryo of another in such a way that the gene would be expressed in the mouse and in its future offspring.
  • PCR Technique Conceived

    PCR Technique Conceived
    Kary Mullis conceived the idea for the polymerase chain reaction. In 1993 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of PCR
  • First GM crop

    First GM crop
    First GM whole food crop developed was a tomato. It sold the summer of 1996 as a tomato paste in Europe.
  • First cloned organism

    First cloned organism
    Scientists created Dolly, the first cloned animal from an adult cell. She lived until 2003.
  • Human embryonic stem cell line

    Human embryonic stem cell line
    Human embryonic stem cell lines are created. They could potentially replace diseased cells in the human body.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project with a primary goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and of identifying and mapping the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.