American flag

Beginnings to Reconstruction 1301

  • 476 BCE


    Europe was taken over by the Roman Empire, with their roman army. The empire conquered several countries in Europe. The Roman law, created by the people of Rome, was a form of different laws that were for the foreigners, and their relationship towards Romanians. Afterward the Roman empire falls in 476 C.E due to Barbarian attacks, and the Hun's invasion.
  • Period: 200 BCE to

    Beginnings to Exploration

  • 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades were relatively unsuccessful, it consisted on religious massacres, and awarded in indulgences. The important award were Templar's also known as knights. As the Crusades were fading away, they left their legacy behind them for history to know who they were. Their legacy consisted of the knowledge, military, and trade information.
  • 1347

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    In the season of fall, Europe was a death playground. A horrific pandemic called the Bubonic Plague that caused black boils that oozed pus, and blood. This plague affected one-third Europe's population. Many think the plague had spread from fleas that were carried on rats, then rats escaped to land when ships docked into ports.
  • 1492


    Exploration happens because this will give us knowledge that is towards the exploration. First exploration is Portugal lead by Henry the navigator with the caravels. Next is Spain, and compete for trade. A man named Christopher Columbus sets sail August 3 of 1492. He made 4 voyages, and died thinking he reached Asia. A pope divides the lands of Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Vespucci is like Columbus, but realizes he found a new continent in South America.
  • 1519

    Herman Cortes

    Herman Cortes
    Herman Cortes was a Spanish Conquistador for Spain. He use to tell tales of gold eventually receives it from the Aztecs. Cortes's army will attack the Aztecs, and capture the leader Montezuma. Cortes keeps Montezuma hostage, later he kills Montezuma. Herman receives advantages of weapons, horses, and diseases.
  • Period: 1519 to 1521

    Conquest of the Aztecs

  • 1531

    Francisco Pizarro

    Francisco Pizarro
    Pizarro was a Spanish conquistador that led a conquest to the Inca empire. His conquest was similar to Cortes's conquest. Pizarro captured the Incan emperor named, Atahualpa for hostage like Cortes did then killed Atahualpa.
  • Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The Bering land bridge exposed dry land from Asia and America creating a bridge for Asians to cross into the Americas, and spread around the country. There were 3 waves to this process, the first wave consisted of glaciers and Clovis points. The second wave was filled of ancestors of modern natives. The third wave was the last and it a was major wave. The last wave consisted of ancestors of Arctic Natives.
  • English Colonization

    English Colonization
    England was a late comer because of dynastic issues, conquest for Ireland, Spanish dominance over seas, and high prices for wool. The first English colonies replied on strategy, they would push native away from settlements, have no interaction, and use joint stock companies. Humphrey Gilbert is received charter, and returns home, but his ship was never seen again. Walter Raleigh founded the Roanoke colony. He leaves for a while to find Croatian carved in a tree.
  • Period: to

    English Colonial Societies

  • New England Colonies

    New England Colonies
    The Plymouth Colony was created by a group of individuals called the Puritans. Puritans believed that England was too corrupt so they sailed on the Mayflower. The puritans signed the Mayflower compact that made it legal for settlement. The colony was faced with harsh weather, and lack of vegetation. They received help from the natives, Squanto in return of a favor.
  • Development of Colonial Differences by Region

    Development of Colonial Differences by Region
    The New England, Chesapeake, and Southern Colonies are different colonies in the United States, and they benefit each other. The colonial difference of the New England colonies is that they rely on fishing, and shipment in their colony to uphold their economy. The Chesapeake region grow wheat, and grains in the fields because the climate is perfect for them to grow wheat. The Southern Colonies are well known for their plantations, slavery, and importantly cotton. These colonies trade for profit.
  • Charter Colonies

    Charter Colonies
    Charter colonies were 3 different classes of colonial government in the English colonies. The different charter colonies in the United States were New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. The Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts were well known charter colonies. The other classes in the charter colony were the proprietary colony, and the royal colony.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    James II was the 1st catholic monarch over 100 years. His significance was that he wanted a Spanish style of colonial government.
    William and Mary of Orange will sign away the English Bill of Rights.
    The English Bill of Rights protects basic rights of the people, no cruel or unusual punishment. The bill excluded Catholics from the monarchy.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    Due to the Native raids in Massachusetts, a minister's daughter in the Salem village started acting strangely. This caused a group of girls to follow her act claiming they are possessed by the devil, then they accusing other women of witchcraft as well. This resulted in the death of 20 people total when trial ends.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The state of Georgia was based on enlightened ideas. The state was originally a penal colony, Due to administrative problems the colony started to import slaves, and they staged a point to attack on Florida. Benjamin Franklin was considered a symbol of American Enlightenment.
    Deism were a group of atheists looking for proof god existed.
    John Locke was an English philosopher, he had an influence on enlightenment thinkers.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Scotland had poorly parliament so they voted to agree on the Union. After Union was signed Scots parliament disappeared, resulting in Britain and Scotland becoming one country. New Britain was now an empire. Colonial governance transitioned to having a federal systems that contained central authority and local governments. The colonies still had local control when colonial governance was changed.
  • Period: to

    Colonial America

  • Constitution: Enlightenment Ideals on America in the late 18th century

    Constitution: Enlightenment Ideals on America in the late 18th century
    The Enlightenment reflected on America because it educated populace, and religion was considered less important during this time. It caused separation of the church and state, and the Enlightenment let ordinary citizens have more say in what they want, more freedom of speech for them.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    A religious resurgence of the 18th century that makes this is the 1st Great Awakening. John Edwards was an American philosopher, minister who is included in the Great Awakening. This awakening took an influence on Native Americans causing them to revival themselves. The Native Americans signed a pre-contract stating no trading with Whites. George Whitfield, preacher, started the 1st inter-colonial event, along side Samuel Davies as he established america's official church, Church of England.
  • Colonial America: Slavery

    Colonial America: Slavery
    In the upper south, Carolina, slaves had proper knowledge, and the population consisted of 2/3's being slaves. They lived in a task system and heritage would be preserved. However in the lower south, Virginia, slaves were treated better than the upper south slaves were. The tobacco required less oversight, and minority were on smaller plantations. During this time in the slave life, there were slave rebellions where slaves would sabotaged masters, or faked illness to get out of working.
  • The Caribbean Colonies

    The Caribbean Colonies
    In these colonies, Sugar was considered as a lifeblood for this region. The Europeans loved sugar, and was used for everything.
    Barbados, Jamaica was considered English possession. Barbados consisted with a population of 26,000. It was a island labor filled with slaves, and eventually slaves will outnumber the whites on the island.
  • The French & Indian War/ 7 Years War

    The French & Indian War/ 7 Years War
    This is the first real world war. George Washington was the leader for the war in Fort Duquesne. Britain sends army to control Ohio territory, British allied with the Quebec and Montreal creating a large army and large navy. A Fort William Henry Quebec falls, and Montreal is captured, leading to the Treaty of Paris 1763. Britain will control New France and the Quebec's resulting in raids happening. Eventually Britain signs peace treaty with frontier tribes, and hostiles will end.
  • Britain's financial situation after 7 years war

    Britain's financial situation after 7 years war
    After the French and Indian war Britain was faced with a large amount of taxes. Britain faced so much taxes that they were near bankruptcy. This causes new revenues to happen
  • Period: to

    The Revolutionary War

  • American Virtue

    American Virtue
    American virtue contained state constitutions, educated citizens, education for children, and for citizens. It involved everyday citizens because they wanted people to know what is going on in an event. Republican ideas spread like unique styles. Democratic symbolism on furniture and Architecture. British style was considered anymore, and new language become greek
  • Colonial Economies

    Colonial Economies
    Colonial economy is based on system of production and consumption from other colonies near by to meet their economic demands.
    New England's economy was based on fishing, and ship building.
    Mid Atlantic's economy had a small manufacturing industry, and it was religiously, ethically diverse.
    Upper South's economy relied on the tobacco crop.
    Lower South's economy market consisted of Rice, and a large amount of slaves.
    The Western lands was based on farming.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    Bostonian's harassed British soldiers by throwing snowballs filled with rocks. This resulted in the Soldiers to fire at the crowd. Paul Revere was Boston's first example of propaganda to remove British troops from Boston. Reveres actions caused american colonists to protest which Parliament acted upon, and decided to repeal to the Townsend act. No representation of Parliament in Boston lead to lack of demand for equal rights for citizens.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    A trading system between the continents on the Atlantic Ocean like England, Africa, and America colonies or Caribbeans. A shipment of raw materials from the American colonies would be shipped to England and Europe. Manufactured products like guns, or cloth from Europe, England would be shipped to Africa. Africa would ship slaves to America. Afterwards the trading route repeats again back to Europe.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The East India Company was a trading company and they would trade particularly tea. British empire decided to do business with this company. Drunk american Patriots known as the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians, made their way into the Boston harbor and threw 400 chest filled of tea over board the ship.
  • Militias

    The militias acted as police force during the Revolutionary war. They protected against frontier raids, and are to be used against the redcoats in the war. Militias were self-trained in weaponry, tactics, and military strategies, hence why they are primarily defensive.
  • Olive Branch Petition

    Olive Branch Petition
    The Olive Branch Petition was created to raise hope for peace. The Continental congress had sent the petition to the king, which he rejected. The Olive Branch Petition supported the Revolution. It was an attempt to assert the rights of colonists, and maintaining loyalty to the British crown.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    Thomas Jefferson was voted to be the one in charge of writing the draft. The Declaration of Independence was completed on July 2nd 1776, but it was signed on July 4th of 1776. The main founding father of the Declaration was James Madison. Others like John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington were the other key founding fathers for the Declaration of Independence.
  • Problems with British

    Problems with British
    British did not live up to the terms from the Treaty of Paris 1783, they remained in Ohio Valley, so Brits keep forts in the valley. Spaniards denied the British access to the Mississippi River, and did not trade with United States. The Natives were not represented in the Treaty of Paris so they continued to fight with Americans.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    Conflict erupted in the Articles of Confederation when they have no central government authority. Congress couldn't get anything finished because of how weak the AOC was. The AOC relied on claiming property or materials, requisition. It was constantly shortage on funds, and later devalued currency because America printed to much money. The AOC leaded to debt followed by recession, and demand for British goods surged. Americans lacked luxury goods, and had to buy goods on credit
  • Treaty of Paris- '83

    Treaty of Paris- '83
    The Treaty of Paris will end the Revolutionary War, and recognize U.S as a Independent and Sovereign nation. This will establish the northern border with British( North America/ Canada). The Treaty will restore loyalist properties. The nations will gain access to Mississippi River, but United States will receive front land to Mississippi River.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    This rebellion was a post-war recession that caused farmers to lose their farms, farms seized, and it was a horrible recession for everyone. The cause for this rebellion was the lack of money resulting in negative affects for individuals and families in this time. The rebellion was led by Daniel Shay, at first the rebellion is out down, but then leader will change when they notice it will create a sense of urgency.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    In the movement of the constitution there were issues involving slavery, the executive branch, and judiciary branch. In the constitution there were two plans, the Virginia plan, New Jersey Plan, and Connecticut plan. The Virginia plan contained a two house legislature, single executive, ad judiciary. The New Jersey plan had a single legislature, and had less powerful judiciary. The Connecticut plan was a bi-cameral legislature, and is modern day congress.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    This event was considered the most significant legislative act from the Confederation Congress.Congress charted for the Northwest territory to admit new states to the Union. The gave admission to the United States. The Ordinance created its own bill of rights including to protect civil liberties, encouraged education, benefit trial by jury, and rejected slavery in the new northwest territories.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    First election in the first year of new construction. George Washington was elected as president unanimously because he was a god-like figure, and everyone's choice than John Adams. When Washington wins the election he establishes the first cabinet, which advise's Washington on subjects he needs to require relating to his duties.
  • Period: to

    The Constitution

  • Period: to

    New Republic

  • 2 competing forms of government

    2 competing forms of government
    Federalists, and Democrat-Republican were the only two different competing form of government at this time. Alexander Hamilton was the leader of the Federalist government. Federalists had a loose interpretation, and strong central government. On the other hand the Democrat-Republican government was a complete opposite of the Feds. Democrat-Republican had strict interpretation, loose government, and gave more power to the states.
  • Capitol Site

    Capitol Site
    District of Columbia was created in to get away from corruption. It was established by the constitution of the United States to be known as the nation's capitol.
  • Free-Black Communities

    Free-Black Communities
    Free Black communities were known commonly in the North and Midwest. This caused segregation to become active in the Northern states. The African Americans dealt with discrimination and prejudice from the whites in the North. A conflict of competing fir jobs with immigrants created hostile between everyone, and prejudice to each other.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a revolt against the U.S. government. They placed a tax on whiskey, and it was considered the first challenge to federal authority. The rebellion was the first test to take place in the United States Constitution. It was considered the first major domestic test to take place within the United States Constitution.
  • Bank of the United States

    Bank of the United States
    This bank was the ever first bank in the United States that had a depository funded from the government. The bank allows citizens to make loans, withdraw, and deposit money. It stabilized currency and the economy in the United States. Private investors were included in the bank. Even though the bank did stabilize the economy, it did set off a constitutionality issue of thinking whether government had to much authority.
  • Adam's Presidency

    Adam's Presidency
    Due to Adam's presidency, and affair erupts called the, XYZ affair. The affair declares naval war, causing the army to triple, and want concessions. It was all caused by Jay's treaty which brought his presidency downhill.
    Alien and Sedition Acts caused an increase in military, and Naval war threats were given from France. Alien Act and Sedition act were created to limit power of the opposition Republican party.
  • Kentucky Resolutions

    Kentucky Resolutions
    The Kentucky Resolutions was authored by Thomas Jefferson. It stated that states could nullify unconstitutional laws, and was the foundation of states rights. Slavery and Civil war will be fought because of Kentucky resolution. It formed a constitutional compact among states. The resolution led to freedom of press, and the media covers political issues.
  • Period: to

    The Age of Jefferson

  • Hamilton vs. Burr

    Hamilton vs. Burr
    A duel between Alexander Hamilton and his vice president, Aaron Burr. Duels were considered illegal during this time, Burr fatally wounds Hamilton. The Federalists leader, Hamilton, dies from this duel and Burr becomes an outlaw.
  • Madison Presidency

    Madison Presidency
    Jefferson presidency ends, and James Madison becomes next president. Madison will inherit the embargo act of 1807, and it will cause problems. The embargo act ends up hurting the economy having northwest and south be most affected. Natives are given guns & supplies from British making Tecumseh natives rise and raid American settlements. Americans suffered impressment. They were captured and forced into naval service.
  • Technological benefits for War of 1812

    Technological benefits for War of 1812
    Some benefits towards the War of 1812 would be the Cotton Gin created by Eli Whitney. The invention easily removed seed from the cotton, and this revolutionized agriculture. Benefits like firearms, steam engines, and mass production. Mass production of cotton explodes.
  • Labor Changes

    Labor Changes
    Labor was changed into working in the factory systems, it was considered affordable. Women start to work in industry, and Lowell Mills creates the Waltham system that enforces large labor force which house women in dormitory. Women will receive long hours, and work in bad conditions, but they will earn more. The urban industry existed in cities, they were powered by steam engines. Strikes were towards the factories for working 10 hours a day.
  • Changes in Agriculture

    Changes in Agriculture
    American society underwent an economic revolution. An invention created by John Deere called, the Iron plow helped plow fields on plantations. Other inventions had an influential on the changes in agriculture like, the crank chum made butter. The cotton gin was most significant to the south because it increased the labor of slaves.
  • Period: to

    The American Industrial Revolution

  • Changes in Transportation

    Changes in Transportation
    In the American Industrial Revolution transportation was significant. During this time modern roads were made for fast transportation to other destinations. Steam boats were used to transport goods up the river. Canals were rivers used for steam engines to deliver goods. Railroads were used to also transport goods, and it was considered to be a faster transportation service.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The economic expansion ends after war of 1812. This was the first major financial crisis in the United States. Conflicts piled over each other, Agriculture price collapsed causing banks to fail. Manufacturing failure triggered widespread unemployment.The economy went into tailspin, and forcing people out of their homes or farms. This event was considered one of the worst recessions in the United States history.
  • Post War: Florida

    Post War: Florida
    The United States wanted Florida from Spain. Andrew Jackson attacked Florida Seminoles, and took Spanish forts in Florida. Spanish cedes Florida over to the U.S. The United States and Spain came to a treaty, the Adams-Onis treaty. The treaty recognizes U.S. as a claim to Louisiana
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    In the Second Great Awakening education was provided. Students received grades, textbooks, and attendance. The cons of education would be that higher tax was feared, and labor issues. Prisons were harsh in the awakening. Prisoners were isolated, and sent to Sing Sing in New York where they were housed at night then have to work during day. In the Eastern penitentiary prisoners were watched, and reflected on past actions. The mentally ill get their own asylum as their prison to help them.
  • Period: to

    Cultural Changes

  • Missouri Crisis

    Missouri Crisis
    Missouri applied to admit as a slave state. During the time Northern states were against the admission, while southern states were for it. The Missouri Compromise was created to be a balance between slave and free states. An imaginary line was drew at 36 to 30 degrees latitude to represent the Missouri compromise. States above the imaginary lines, North, would be free states, and states below, South, would become slave states.
  • Revivalism

    Revivalism of religion caused the market revolution to be bad. The revival in religion created belief in free will, and believed in direct preaching from god himself supposedly. A man named Charles Grandison Finney was known as the "Father of modern Revivalism". He is known for being a minister, and religious writer, he improved preaching, and participated in service procedures.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The United States declared a policy towards the western hemisphere, Europe specifically, no intervention in Latin America. The Monroe Doctrine warns foreign nations like Europe that U.S. will not tolerate further colonization. If European nation interfered the United States would view as a hostile act, responding back to the act.
  • Age of the Common Man

    Age of the Common Man
    In this uprising age of common man new democratic culture comes into view. The common man are the republic in this new culture. Andrew Jackson, and Davy Crocket were known as the common man in the Jacksonian era. Since there was a change in culture, that means a change in voting as well. In this time it was a universal suffrage, equality, and mixed society had came into these changes.
  • Period: to

    Age of Jackson

  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    In the Election of 1824 there were a total of 4 candidates: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford. Andrew Jackson wins popular vote, but not electoral vote. Adams is chosen as president, and Jackson becomes angry and bitter towards Adam. Eventually Jackson announced this as a corrupted bargain.
  • Presidency of John Q. Adams

    Presidency of John Q. Adams
    During Adam's presidency he creates the American system. The system consisted of industries around. Of course tariffs were involved no matter what, along with the New National Bank which was considered private. In his system internal domestic roads, and canals were improved during his presidency. Adam's wanted, and eventually built a national university, and observatory.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    As the new election time comes around, Jackson develops a strategy to win against Adams. He started at humble origins, moving to military career. The republicans started to fade hence ending the 1st party system. Jackson creates the second party system. A personal attack was issued to both for being womanizers. The attacks to each other was a very nasty election due to the feud. Jackson wins election in the end, and his wife passes before his inauguration. His inauguration becomes very rowdy.
  • Temperance movement

    Temperance movement
    Temperance movement was the time of abstinence from alcohol. Alcohol consumption was very high, many towards men. People drank all day til they couldn't handle anymore. The movement dramatically reduced alcohol consumption that some states too began to ban alcohol. A problem the wives would have to suffer to due to their spouse intoxication, wives would get beaten.
  • Changes in Communication

    Changes in Communication
    In the market industry the changes in communication advanced it, and benefited the nation. Communication had made news travel around rapidly with advancements in communication. The telegraph is an invention that made communication spread to other peers. Printing was and is presently significant because it is used for advertising.
  • Jackson Administration

    Jackson Administration
    Andrew Jackson creates the spoils system that replaces bureaucracy with its own supporters. This brings scandals along in his first term, forcing him to resign most of the cabinet. The Nullification Crisis contained the Tariff act 1832 that hurts the southern agriculture. Later on Cherokees suffer on the Trail of Tears leading to a lost of family members. Election of 1832 creates the second national bank, and bank's veto speech. Jackson wins over clay in election.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    A man named, Martin van Buren ran for this election. Buren is known by his nickname Old Kinderhook or also abbreviated as "OK". OK barely won against the Whigs during this election. He inherited a bad economy once he won, " Martin van Ruin". In the election of 1840 OK runs for re-election, and Whigs spread rumors about OK. General Harrison runs against OK and wins by landslide. Sadly he only makes it a month as president. His vice president, John Tyler takes his place as president.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism is about American literary, political, and philosophical movement. Ralph Waldo Emerson was the in the center of this movement along with others like Nathaniel Hawthorn, Fredrick Douglas, Edgar Allen Poe, and others. Emerson was seen as a American lecturer, poet, and essayist who led the movement. The other members were philosophical writers that dared to go against the conventional belief.
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    Westward Expansion

  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    In the Manifest Destiny, the Great Migration was an overland trail to Oregon that lasted 5 to 6 months. This was believed to bring new opportunities. The Americans had feared for Native attacks so they forced mid-western tribes to migrate. Mormons were also victims , and were forced to migrate into different communities in Midwest. Bringham Young wanted to get away to Salt Lake Valley, Utah. He decided that because it was away from federal government, and could start practicing polygamy.
  • Slavery

    Cotton only runs in the South so with the invention of the cotton gin half of U.S exports were of cotton. Free Black communities were under more scrutiny, but given better economic opportunity. In the two southern regions, the south had a climate ideal for cotton, and big money was made, but the cotton exhausted soil nutrients. North was not fertile for this, and had shorter growing seasons. South converted slaves. Slaves began to revolt, and this limited their travel or testify in court.
  • Suffage

    During this time women were working on cities, and were champions of temperance, anti-slavery, etc. In New York city, women called for a meeting known as the Seneca Falls Convention. This convention was led by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott, and they declared that women should have the right to vote just like men do.
  • Westward Expansion: Slavery

    Westward Expansion: Slavery
    Wilmot Proviso was a proposal to ban slavery on the territory acquired from Mexico. Popular Sovereignty proposed in allowing states to choose their own path of whether being a slave or free state. In the Election of 1848 Zachary Taylor will run for the Whigs, his views were unknown, and campaigned in the south as pro-slavery. Taylor wins the election easily.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    In the west gold was found and it spread to through the whole United States. The news caused thousands of families to migrate from the east coast to the west coast in search of gold. Mining begins in 1852 making the search for gold more easier. Chinese families migrate to the west, but they willingly worked in the worst mines and faced racism from everyone. The increasing California statehood is causing the politicians to hope for slow population increase, but slavery is at the forefront.
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  • Millennialism

    Millennialism is a belief that Christ and the millennium were coming for Judgment day. A group of individuals called the Shakers, didn't believing in having any relations instead they believed in communistic, and didn't believe in marriage or procreation. Another group known as the Mormons, they believed in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. William Miller spoke aloud to them saying Jesus is coming. A man named Joseph Smith found golden tablets and only person that can see them.
  • Nature

    Parks were considered as a new idea. It was created to become a get away from fast-paced life from work or life. Cemeteries will soon follow the design.
  • Election of 1852

    Election of 1852
    Franklin Pierce wins the election, and is known as a member of Young America. The organization promoted territorial expansion, and increased international trade. Winfield Scott lost the election, then allies with the anti-slavery Whigs. The Whig party ends due to the Northerners ceasing both sides from expanding. From this sudden polarization, the Democrats were weakened and the Whig party fades.
  • Republican Party

    Republican Party
    The Republican Party taken place in the North of the United States. The Republican will cause the Ant-Slavery Democrats to miraculously unite. The Republican party will free soiler's, and the Whigs.
  • Sectionalism: Nativism

    Sectionalism: Nativism
    This was the time when immigrants in large numbers come to the United States from diverse cultures. The Americans would blame immigrants for their problems. Americans were against immigration of the poor from Germany and Ireland. An American party, the Know Nothings, was a secret organization against immigration, and restricted immigrants.
  • Industrial vs. Agriculture

    Industrial vs. Agriculture
    The North consisted of factories for industrialization and it will increase. Railroads in the north were a major factor for industrialization because the railroads connected to Northeast and Midwest. The population will grow at a rapid rate, and immigrants come to the north for cheap labor.
    The South had small industrialized areas, most of the south was based on agriculture. Cotton is the main crop in south, and the slaves believed that slavery was a institution.
  • Confederate States of America

    Confederate States of America
    The Confederate States of America decided on having independence and planned on not going back to the union. The CSA wanted to be left alone. In South Carolina at Fort Sumter, the south needed to make a show of force, and needed to attack before ship arrived. P.G.T Beauregard assaulted Fort Sumter when ignored by Union forces with artillery. Lincoln declared South in a state of insurrection.
  • Period: to

    The Civil War

  • Civil War: North

    Civil War: North
    The North had a population of 22 million northerners. Northern states were consisted of 110,000 factories and made over $1.5 billion from industry. A large percentage from weapons, clothing, and shoes were from industrialization. North had railroads that lead to different areas, it was of 22,000 miles of track in the North. North military didn't have good military leadership.
  • Civil War: South

    Civil War: South
    The South had a population of 5.5 million, half were slaves. The South had only 18,000 factories, $155 million for industry,railroads that went 9,000 miles. The south had great military leader than the North did. The south armies were so disorganized that they hoped to gain Britain as an ally. They wanted Brit's as allies because the south had lacked supplies, having to go look in battlefields for some supplies. Southerners were limited to about 27 million for financing during the war.
  • International

    Northern Cotton Embargo is when the south implements embargo voluntarily on cotton. This will pressure the French and British industry to petition their governments. Afterwards Confederates had sent diplomats to Europe during the Trent Affair. San Jacinto intercepts RMS Trent, resulting in the Brit's demanding an apology. This leaves Lincoln having to release confederate diplomats, sending them to secure British and French neutrality.
  • Civil War: Armies

    Civil War: Armies
    Army of the Potomac was the Union Army in the Civil War. It was created after the first battle of the Bull Run.
    Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military for the Confederate states in the Civil War. It was the main command structure of Northern Virginia.
  • Civil War: Slaves

    Civil War: Slaves
    During the war, Slaves start to flee North for liberation, only to be captured as contraband's by the Northerners. The Emancipation Proclamation ,written by Lincoln, declares that slaves are free unless the rebellion ends by the new year. It also states that it stops Britain a war with the south side of the United States. However, Border States were allow to keep their slaves when the proclamation became known.
  • Civil War: Women at Work

    Civil War: Women at Work
    Women were given roles now during the war. They took over the roles that are male dominated positions like: Teaching, Nursing, and civil service jobs like being servants. Other positions become available for women like working on plantations in the south.
    A woman named Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross in war to help wounded soldiers on both sides of the battle.
  • Reconstruction plans

    Reconstruction plans
    Lincoln had developed a plan called the 10% plan that pardoned all southerners, and it applies federal recognition to form a new state government. The Wade-Davis Bill punishes the confederate leaders, and destroys slave society.The election of 1866 was about Andrew Johnson facing off against radical Republicans about reconstruction. Reconstruction made it over legislation, and overrode Johnson's plan. New reconstruction plan divides south into 5 military districts.
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  • Assassination

    5 days after the courthouse, Lincoln attends to a play performing at Ford's Theater. Gun shot was heard and Lincoln was assassinated in the theater. His assassin was a man named John Wilkes Booth, who worked at the theater Lincoln was in. Lincoln dies the next day after, and the funeral process attracts millions of people on the railroad to Illinois. Lincoln is currently buried at his hometown Springfield, Illinois.
  • Former Slaves 1

    Former Slaves 1
    Freedman's Bureau was a relief agency in the war-torn south. In Freedman's movement, many former slaves will wander, and others will go to find lost loved ones. Many former slaves go to the city for work, and they had low paying for intensive labor. In the 40 acres and a Mule, union takes land by planters, but they allow former slaves to rent or own the land. Education for former slaves to read and write takes place in the rural south, facing resistance by southern whites.
  • Former Slave 2

    Former Slave 2
    In the south, African Americans were given the Black Codes that limited civil rights. African Americans were arrested for wondering, and forced to work to pay fines.Amendments 14, 15, and 16 benefit towards African Americans about slavery. The whites will resent the new rights given to African Americans, and start the Ku Klux Klan. Whites will do anything to make the new rights for blacks go away. Jim Crow will create a legal system of segregation across the south. He will tax, and test them.
  • Life for Whites in the Reconstruction South

    Life for Whites in the Reconstruction South
    Southern Republicans in the south consisted of Former Slaves, White Southerners, and Carpetbaggers. They were opportunistic, and they believed the party was the quickest way towards an improvement. Carpetbaggers were Northerners who migrated to the south for economic opportunities. Scalawags were considered traitors from other southerners. These individuals would gain wealth simply by manipulating black voters. Corruption was built up in the south by bribery being so common, and deficits.
  • Andrew Johnson Administration

    Andrew Johnson Administration
    Andrew Johnson becomes president after Lincoln's assassination, and he is considered a blatant racist. Johnson promoted the lenient policy for readmission for the southern states. He declares an oath, the return of all property, and to ratify the 13th amendment.
    Afterwards he pardons the high-ranking confederate officers to be restored. Andrew Johnson was suddenly impeached by the Congress, and he is known as the first president to be impeached.
  • Grant Administration

    Grant Administration
    In the Election of 1868 Ulysses S. Grant becomes president. His running opponent was a democrat named, Horatio Seymour. The election showed that whites and blacks were racists, and the blacks were intimidated by violence to be kept from voting. During Grants administration he had different scandals appear like: the Credit Mobiler scandal, Whiskey Ring scandal, etc. Eventually these scandals led to the Panic of 1873, setting the economy back. Grant reduces efforts in policing south.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    Rutherford B. Hayes was a Republican and his running opponent, Samuel Tilden, was a democrat. In this election there were corruptions involving reconstruction and economy. During this time, Jim Crow was involved with the creation of the compromise of 1877, and its purpose was to settle the intense election. The compromise resulted in the U.S. federal government pulling troops out of south. which ends the reconstruction process.
  • Urban growth- Immigration

    Urban growth- Immigration
    Immigrants migrated to live in rural areas, like the Europeans. Other foreign countries migrated as well like, the Irish, German, Scandinavians, and British. the Irish had potato famine which caused for them to migrate to the inner city slums. Germans had poor harvests, and political turmoil migrating to the Midwest or South. The Scandinavians and Britain's wanted economic opportunities. They migrated to the Midwest or South. Due to the migration, ethnic changes happened.
  • The New South

    The New South
    An economic boom happens in the south that will cut taxes, and require to spend less on social programs and education. Afterwards the south is faced with a lost cause by engaging with songs and poems about confederate soldiers. Statues will be erected of politicians and generals. The New South had African Americans represent in government plummets, then they were used as sharecroppers.