Ayers Civil Rights

Timeline created by DanielAyers
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    Dred Scott was a free man living in a free state/territory where slavery was prohibited, but because the court ruled no african american could ever be a citizen. Dred Scott was not entitled to the same freedoms as other people. The case allowed slave owners to take their slaves west undermining popular sovereignty. This continued the issue of slavery and was a precursor to Civil War. The decision was finally overruled by the 14th Amendment but, no until many more lives were impacted by slavery.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    Slavery and involuntary servitude are illegal, unless convicted and sentenced to the labor in the U.S. anywhere under any jurisdiction. Congress is able to enforce the article by appropriate legislation. The civil war and much debate before led to the law being changed. While this amendment abolished slavery the 14th Amendment truly cemented the idea of African Americans being protected citizens of the country. The lasting impact is the fact that people other than whites were people too now.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The major part of the amendment that most know is the granting of citizenship to former slaves in the country, but the amendment also provided equal protection for them too. It also gave African Americans the basic rights of any american. It also pledges due process for all and the states most all abide by the law too. The amendment barred rebels from holding office. The impact is one of great magnitude as it has led to incorporation of many amendments. But immediately equality was not apparent
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The right to vote can't be determined by race, color, or previous servitude. This was a major amendment as it gave the right to vote and that right has forever been the holy grail of our country. Although in the not so distant future Jim Crow laws in the south came into the mix, which would ultimately with hold the right from many African-Americans until the 1960s. Even though in Section Two much like the 13th amendment it applies to everyone not just federal jurisdiction.
  • White Primaries

    White Primaries
    The primaries were one method used to disenfranchise most black and minority voters. It was where whites were the only people allowed to vote in primary and some state and local level elections which primaries can be crucial in getting people elected and many felt their vote no longer mattered as candidates didn't reflect many people's beliefs and identities as they had no involvement in the primary process. 1890-1908
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. The case stemmed from an 1892 incident in which African-American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks. The doctrine being upheld led to a continued struggle against segregation as many tried to integrate. This led to civil rights movements which led to much more after the case was overturned by Brown v. BofE
  • Poll Taxes

    Poll Taxes
    Poll Taxes were used to keep low-income African Americans from voting after the 15th Amendment. So that they couldn't participate in elections. This kept the government less diverse and a reflection of southern whites. This led to many years of government not working for everyone and continued discrimination sponsored by the government. 1865-1966
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Women's suffrage movement grew for over a hundred years and after World War and the contribution made by women to the war effort. Women proved to men of the time that they have the ability to continue to run the family, work and, keep the country running. Since women in office has steadily grown, with the past election having the most women in office ever.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas was a landmark 1954 Supreme Court case that overturned the 'separate but equal' approach to public schooling. Segregated schools, as well as public restrooms and transportation, drinking fountains, and restaurants, came about as the result of Jim Crow laws. The ruling was followed by the Little Rock Five which was huge as Eisenhower used the National Guard to impose the decision and led to more diversity in schools and the end of separate but equal
  • Affirmative Action

    Affirmative Action
    is a policy used by colleges and universities to improve the educational opportunities for minority groups including minority races, genders, and sexual orientations that are commonly and historically discriminated against. Affirmative Action increased diversity in universities and helped to further the education of all in the country. It is has created a more tolerant society that has started to evolve and work together while helping to create some sort of equal opportunity.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    As white primaries and state elections became problems, along with poll taxes in the south it lead to a need for stricter regulation on voting at all levels. The 24th protects people's right to vote by outlawing poll taxes or any other taxes as a means for denying voting. This applied to all levels of government not just the federal level. Section 2 incorporated to everyone. The effect is that help to end some forms of Jim Crow. This also helped to open voting up to many more people which it did
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Came about during the civil rights movement as many were tired of being turned away from jobs just because of who they are. The Act ended employment discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin and religion. The long term effect is much more integration among employers and a much more diverse population holding jobs other than manual labor. This has allowed our country to innovate and now even the president can be African American which would have never been thought of then.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Outlawed discriminatory voting practices in the south, these included Jim Crow Laws like, literacy test, heredity and, other such practices. This also enforced the 15th amendment which was ratified 95 years previous. The African American voting has come up, but now it's led to even more gerrymandering and other ways to disenfranchise voters.
  • Reed v. Reed

    Reed v. Reed
    The decision in the favor of the female over her ex-husband was the first that ruled that gender discrimination was in violation of the 14th amendment. The case set a precedent for more cases to come on the issue of discrimination based on sex. This has led to the large wave of influence trying to the Equal Rights Amendment and finally a coming out party for Ruth Bader Ginsburg as it was the first case she argued at the high court.
  • Equal Right Amendment

    Equal Right Amendment
    The proposed amendment is designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex. It seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters. Although the amendment has been close and their is speculation that it will be ratified soon but, the amendment will finally put men and women on an equal playing field. Thus could lead to so much more diversity in employment and other such things.
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

    Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
    The supreme court ruled that racial quotas were unconstitutional as Bakke had applied to Medical School and wasn't accepted because more spots had been put aside for minority students. The court did rule that Affirmative Action (AA) was still constitutional though. The AA used to accept the students at an equal rate but, not basedon quotas.This is forever linked with AA and many to this day believe it as "reverse discrimination" while others saw it as an attackon AA. Diversityhas grown as AAgrew
  • Bowers v. Hardwick

    Bowers v. Hardwick
    In the state of Georgia it was at the time illegal for gay adults to engage in private consensual sodomy. Then the case was appealed to the supreme court where the high court ruled that the constitution didn't protect the right of the gay individuals. This led to almost 20 more years of state laws that prohibited gay couples from legally acted on their feelings. The case was ended up being overturned in 2003 with the court's ruling in Lawrence v. Texas.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    Prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in several areas, including employment, transportation, public accommodations, communications and access to state and local government' programs and services. The issue before this was for far to long people all types of disabilities didn't have a chance as many things were not made for them making it very hard for prosperity and a somewhat normal life. After though people can live normal lives, make a living, and function at high level.
  • Lawrence v. Texas

    Lawrence v. Texas
    The Texas anti-sodomy law violated the right to privacy and the 14th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause. Which invalidated 13 other states' laws banning homosexual sodomy. This made same-sex sexual activity legal every where in the country. This was a major first step for the LGBTQ community in being protected by the constitution and this case overturned the ruling Bowers v. Hardwick that originally allowed anti-sodomy laws continue. Since the LGBTQ community has made strives towards equality.
  • Obergefell v. Hodges

    Obergefell v. Hodges
    The United States Supreme Court held in a 5-4 decision that same-sex marriage is protected under the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. Consequently, same-sex marriages bans were struck down as unconstitutional. This was the most recent step for the LGBTQ community in a long process. This once again a step in the equal protection of all people no matter their sexual orientation and the overall protection of everyone.