APUSH Unit 7 (1890-1945) Part 3 By Mar'Quon 1828 Politics: Election of 1828 (R) Herbert Hoover defeated (D) Alfred Smith. 1910 Religion: Fundamentalist Opposing modernism and modernist thought, they taught that every word of the Bible was fundamentally true. 1912 Religion: Modernism Influencing the role of women, scientific knowledge, and the Social Gospel movement, they supported Darwin's theory of evolution and modern-day science. 1913 1920's Economy: Impact of the Automobile Replaced the railroad industry as the key promoter of economic growth. 1914 1920's African American Identity: United Negro Improvement Association Founded by Marcus Garvey, it advocate Black pride. 1918 1920's African American Identity: Harlem Renaissance Blacks faced discrimination in the North and South. Blacks migrated to Harlem, where it became famous for its concentration of Black actors, artists, musicians, and writers. 1919 Prohibition: 18th Amendment and Volstead Act Was passed to save grain and to maintain a sober workplace; although, it didn't stop anyone from drinking it (bootleg alcohol). 1920 1920's African American Identity: The Jazz Age Brought north by Black musicians, the jazz age became a symbol of the "new" and "modern" culture of the cities. 1920 Politics: Domestic Policy Harding reduced the income tax, increased tariff rates under Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act of 1922, and established the Bureau of the Budget. 1920 1920's Culture: Women at home Separation of labor between men and women continued, but washing devices eased women's jobs. 1920 1920's Culture: Divorce Women's suffrage forced lawmakers to listen to feminists. Liberalized divorce laws resulted in 1 and 6 divorced marriages by 1930. 1920 1920's Culture: Education The value of education in regards to economic opportunity increased. 25% of school-aged adults graduated from high school around this time. 1920 1920's Economy: Increased Productivity Manufacturing processes and assembly lines were made faster thus increasing wealth and productivity. 1920 1920's Economy: Government Policy Governments offered corporate tax cuts and didn't enforce antitrust laws. Led to unequal income and speculation in markets. 1920 1920's Economy: Farm Problems Farmers were left in debt after the war. Chemical fertilizers and gasoline tractors did increase production, however. 1920 1920's Economy: Labor Economy Unions and strike efforts failed. Capitalists practiced open shop and welfare capitalism. 1920 1920's Literature: The Literature of Alienation Scorning religion as hypocritical and bitterly condemning the sacrifices of wartime as a fraud perpetuated by money interests were the two dominant themes at this time. 1920 1920's Literature: Sinclair Lewis Wrote about the mindless conformity of middle-class American society in the age of affluence. 1920 1920's Literature: Ezra Pound Defined the modern aesthetic that we see today in poetry. 1920 Politics: Business Doctrine Transformed laissez-faire Republicans into Republicans who advocated the federal government to an extent. 1920 Politics: Election of 1920 (R) Warren G. Harding was elected president over (D) James Cox, although through compromise. 1920 1920's Culture: Revolution in morals Men and women revolted against sexual taboos in the 1920s. Promiscuity increased. 1920 1920's Culture: Women in the Labor Force Employed women lived in the cities, where they worked as clerks, nurses, teachers, and domestics, and they received lower wages than men. 1920 1920's African American Identity: W.E.B. Du Bois Expressed Black nationalism and intellectualism but not back-to-Africa sentiment. 1921 Immigration: Quota Laws Nativists convinced Congress to pass quota laws (1921 and 1924) to limit Asians and southern/eastern Europeans. Japanese were barred. 1921 Immigration: Case of Sacco and Vanzetti Nativists committed two Italian immigrants of murder, which liberal Americans believed was due to their poor Italian heritage. They were eventually executed. 1924 Politics: Election of 1924 (R) Calvin Coolidge defeated (D) John Davis. Coolidge supported limited government and private businesses. 1924 1920's Literature: Ernest Hemingway Wrote about the harshness of war and the time he spent overseas. 1925 1920's Literature: F. Scott Fitzgerald Wrote The Great Gatsby, a book that captured a moral vacuity of postwar America, a society obsessed with wealth and status. 1926 1920's African American Identity: Poets and Musicians Black poets like Langston Hughes and Claude McKay wrote about African-American heritage, while Black jazz musicians like Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong did the same thing. 1929 Stock Market Crash: Black Thursday and Black Tuesday An unprecedented volume of selling took place on Wall Street that led to the plunge of stock prices. 1929 Stock Market Crash: Speculation Buying on margin allowed people to borrow most of the cost of stock; this is one of the contributing factors of the crash. 1930 Herbert Hoover's Policies: Hawley-Smoot Tariff Set tax increase ranging from 31% to 49% on foreign imports. 1930 Dust Bowl Okie farmers traveled to California after poor farming practices and high winds blew away millions of tons of dried topsoil. 1931 Herbert Hoover's Policies: Debt Moratorium Dawes Plan for collecting war debts could no longer continue, so Hoover proposed a suspension (moratorium) on the payment of international debts. Britain and Germany accepted (France didn't). 1933 Prohibition: 21st Amendment Repealed the 18th Amendment. Passed to resolve criminal activity, growing public resentment, and economic problems caused by the Depression. 1933 New Deal Programs: Beer-Wine Revenue Act Legalized the sale of beer and wine to raise needed tax money. 1933 Bank Holiday Established a bank holiday on March 6, 1933, to restore confidence in solvent banks. 1933 New Deal Programs: Glass-Steagall Act Increased regulation of banks and limited how banks could invest consumers' money. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Homeowners Loan Corporation Provided refinancing of small homes to prevent foreclosures. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Farm Credit Administration Provided low-interest farm loans and mortgages to prevent foreclosures on the property of indebted farmers. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Federal Emergency Relief Administration Offered grants of federal money to states and local governments. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Public Works Administration Allotted money to state and local governments for building roads, bridges, dams, and other public works. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Civilian Conservation Corps Employed young men on projects on federal lands. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Tennessee Valley Authority Hired thousands of people to build dams, operate electric power plants, manufacture fertilizer, and control flooding and explosion in the Tennessee Valley. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Security and Exchange Commission Regulated the stock market and placed limits on speculative practices. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Federal Housing Administration Insured bank loans for building new houses and repairing old ones. 1933 New Deal Programs: The Emergency Banking Relief Act Authorized the government to examine the finances of banks closed during the bank holiday. 1933 New Deal Programs: Civil Works Administration Hired laborers for temporary construction projects. 1935 New Deal Programs: Resettlement Administration Provided loans to sharecroppers, tenants, and small farmers. 1935 Dust Bowl: Soil Conservation Service Taught farmers to rotate crops, terrace fields, and plant trees to stop soil erosion and conserve water.