Roaring 20's, Great Depression, and WWII Timeline

  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    The 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol. It implemented what is otherwise known as prohibition, which satisfied the portion of the country advocating for such. However, crime associated with the smuggle of liquor was rampant and the amendment was too vague to really enforce. It was repealed December 5, 1933 in the 21st Amendment.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    The 19th Amendment granted all American women the right to vote in all levels of election. It occurred after a long suffragist struggle. Many activists did not even live to see their right to vote implemented. They will never know that they helped to secure this critical right for all women.
  • Harlem Renaissance Begins

    Harlem Renaissance Begins
    The Harlem Renaissance was a time of profound advancements in lifestyle. It began in Harlem in New York, but it quickly spread to the entire country. This explosion brought forth many new ideals towards African Americans, females, and the military. Some famous people during this time include Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Claude McKay. The Harlem Renaissance held the seeds of the Civil Rights movement and more recent women's rights movements.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Trial

    Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
    The Sacco-Vanzetti case was a trial extending over seven years in which Sacco and Vanzetti were accused of a murder on questionable grounds. It resulted in their execution, but their guilt has been disputed. They may have been judged too harshly due to their Italian heritage and political views. They maintained their innocence throughout the trial, and the governor of MA later asserted their innocence in 1977.
  • Emergency Quota Act

    Emergency Quota Act
    The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 limited the number of immigrants that could come from undesirable countries that had an undesirable background. For example, it stopped many Chinese from coming who didn't have a real job or a good education. This act stopped much Asian and Eastern European immigration while promoting Western European immigration
  • Publication of The Great Gatsby

    Publication of The Great Gatsby
    The Great Gatsby predicts the essential American dream - a man who rises from obscurity into riches. Its publication in 1925 gave working class Americans hope about what their lives could be. It is important to note that the novel is not extremely realistic - it gave people hope because it was the ideal.
  • John Scopes Trial

    John Scopes Trial
    Also called the Monkey Trial, the John Scopes Trial is one based on the teaching of evolution in the classroom. John Scopes taught his biology class about evolution even though a Tennessee Law called the Butler Act prohibited its teaching. This case pushed for a repeal of the law, and it is finally out of the books. However, it did set standards where teachers had to equally represent each creation story in order to teach it whatsoever.
  • Flight of Charles Lindbergh

    Flight of Charles Lindbergh
    Charles Lindbergh was not the first person to fly across the Atlantic Ocean, but he was certainly the most popular. He became a celebrity during the 20s due to his flight and thus changed a previously apprehensive American perspective on flight. Hardly any Americans were flying before Lindbergh, but by 1929 over one hundred thousand were. His flight and subsequent popularity and activism changed the way Americans get from one play to another.
  • The Jazz Singer

    The Jazz Singer
    The Jazz Singer was the first ever movie to have both music and dialogue audio. It marked a critical cinematic turning point, as it marked the end of the silent film era. The film also established Warner Brothers as a major film studio. During contemporary times, the film has become a source of controversy due to its use of blackface.
  • Election of President Hoover

    Election of President Hoover
    Herbert Hoover won the 1928 election on a Republican platform that was relatively ambiguous on Prohibition and supported increased civil rights for women and African Americans. Hoover beat the Democratic candidate by an electoral landslide. He would later be president during the Great Depression, tarnishing his reputation due to a public complaint regarding his inaction towards the crisis.
  • St. Valentine's Day Massacre

    St. Valentine's Day Massacre
    The St. Valentine's Day Massacre began when four men, dressed as policemen, opened fire on one of the leaders of Al Capone's rival gang. However, the evidence could not be directly linked to Al Capone himself despite many people believing that he had a huge involvement with the massacre. At the time, it was shocking. Nobody really expected it, and it made people rethink the gang activity in the neighborhood.
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    Black Tuesday is a term used to describe the day the stock market crashed. It had become built on money investors did not really have, and thus could not sustain itself anymore. The Great Depression followed as a result of Black Tuesday, and brought with it soaring poverty and unemployment.
  • Neutrality Acts

    Neutrality Acts
    The Neutrality Acts were acts passed during the 1930s by presidents Woodrow Wilson and FDR. They complied with citizen demands for isolationism, but still allowed the US to interact with the world in some regards. For example. the Neutrality Act of 1939 included the cash-and-carry clause. The Neutrality Acts did limit US foreign involvement, but they were no longer in place with the entrance of the US into WWII in 1941.
  • Empire State Building Built

    Empire State Building Built
    Construction of the Empire State Building began on March 17, 1930. The building was finished on May 1, 1931. The building was built in order to see whether Walter Chrysler or John Jakob Raskob could build a better skyscraper. Now, it is seen as one of the most iconic buildings in American history. Also, the massive spending in the competition between the two both showed the peoples' investment in the country, and it increased money in the government so they could spend more on the war effort.
  • Bonus Army March

    Bonus Army March
    The Bonus Army March was the March of World War I veterans into Washington D.C. in order to demand better welfare and cash payment for their services regarding the Great War. This march looked very bad for the US government because they didn't do anything about it. They just told the veterans to leave the premises or they would be forcibly removed. However, this did not bode well with the government as veterans are the ones who protect our government and keep us safe.
  • 1st Election of FDR

    1st Election of FDR
    In 1932, FDR beat the incumbent, Hoover, for the presidency. This marked the end of a long Republican rule and the beginning of a long Democratic one. It also represented a critical policy shift in response to the Great Depression, as FDR was much more involved than Hoover.
  • FDR's First 100 Days

    FDR's First 100 Days
    The first 100 days is one of the most crucial times to a presidency. It helps determine how popular or "good" a president is. FDR managed to get A TON done during his first 100 days. For example, he created his fireside chats to talk directly with the citizens over the radio. Also, he instituted the Emergency Banking Act to pull the country out of the final stages of the Depression.
  • Hitler is Named Chancellor of Germany

    Hitler is Named Chancellor of Germany
    Paul von Hindenburg, the leader of Germany named Hitler chancellor on January 30, 1933. Initially, Hindenburg did not want to give Hitler that power. However, his colleagues eventually convinced him to because of Hitler's rising popularity with the common people. This put Hitler in a position to become a dictator, and this is one of the major causes of World War II.
  • FDIC Passed

    FDIC Passed
    The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was created to insure bank deposits against loss in the event of a bank failure and regulate certain banking practices. It was implemented after the crash of the stock market in order to prevent another from occurring. Now, the FDIC is a permanent government agency and all U.S. commercial banks participate.
  • 21st Amendment

    21st Amendment
    The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment, and is the only amendment to repeal a previous amendment. It was also ratified by state convention delegates, not legislators. This approach was most likely favored due to the strong lobbying power of those who favored Prohibition. The 21st Amendment ended America's dry spell.
  • US Securities and Exchange Commission

    US Securities and Exchange Commission
    The US Securities and Exchange Commission was created in 1934 to control the market in order to protect it from another crash. In other words, it looks at the market and validates whether people can make purchases or not. They are still in place today, and they were put there to try and end the Great Depression by eliminating one of the major causes of it.
  • National Labor Relations Act

    National Labor Relations Act
    This Act was created to protect both employees and employers alike. It guarantees them their rights, and it tries to steer them away from anything that could potentially cause them pain, harm, or any type of difficulty. This also promotes collective bargaining. This Act pushed for better relationships between the worker and the big business executive. It set precedents of fair treatment, and we can still see its effects today though the recent women's rights movements.
  • Construction of the Hoover Dam

    Construction of the Hoover Dam
    The Hoover Dam was created through a job-creation program in order to give as many Americans as possible jobs. It was created during the Great Depression, and it helped thousands of Americans get some sort of income, and this was one small step towards ending the Great Depression even though it didn't solve the problem completely.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act provided a pension system in order to increase economic security for the elderly. It was later expanded to include the disabled, dependent, and other groups. When FDR signed the Social Security Act, America entered a new era of economic security.
  • The Hindenburg Disaster

    The Hindenburg Disaster
    On May 6, 1937, the Hindenburg was scheduled to arrive and land at Lakehurst's Naval Air Base. However, just before landing, the Hindenburg exploded. Many people died, and nobody who was in the ships managed to survive. The death rates for this day were very high. However, it did push for more strict gun control policies.
  • Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge Ends

    Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge Ends
    The Golden Gate Straight, a gap between the two sides of San Francisco. However, people eventually wanted to find out a way to surpass the straight.They ended up deciding to build a bridge. This bridge was so large that it had to be curved to allow for the curvature of the earth when tides were funky.
  • German Invasion of Poland

    German Invasion of Poland
    On September 1, 1939, Germany launched their army toward Poland in an attempt to gain Lebenstraum (extra living space). The invasion was one of the first in which the Germans used the blitzkrieg tactic. Germany attacked Poland until October 6, 1939. This assault is considered to be the beginning of World War II. After this, many more countries joined into the war.
  • Selective Training and Service Act

    Selective Training and Service Act
    The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 was the third time conscription was used in the United States, but the first time it was used in a time of peace. FDR saw WWII occurring in Europe and signed the bill as a protection, as he knew it was likely the United States would become involved. The Selective Training and Service Act extended the age range of available men to 18-65 and drafted over 10,000,000 American men during WWII.
  • Lend-Lease Act

    Lend-Lease Act
    The Lend-Lease Act was signed into law by FDR as a means to provide aid to the Allies in WWII without actually becoming involved in the war. He justified this to skeptical Americans by selling it as a policy to aid the defense of nations whose security was vital to the United States. Aid to Britain, the USSR, and nearly 40 other countries was plentiful.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor occurred during World War II when Axis power Japan initiated a surprise air attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. Japan attacked the United States Navy in order to weaken it and thus ease Japanese access to Pacific territories. As a result, the United States declared war on Japan, entering World War II. The mainland U.S. also experienced a great deal of anti-Japanese sentiment and thus set up Japanese Internment Camps.
  • D-Day Invasion

    D-Day Invasion
    On June 6 of 1944, the Allied Forces launched an attack on the beaches of Normandy in France. Thousands of people were sent into battle here in a mix of sea, air, and land assaults. There were thousands of casualties during this battle. However, this battle was instrumental in pushing the Nazis out of France and helping the Allies push toward taking the country back and toward cornering Germany.
  • Concentration Camps Liberated

    Concentration Camps Liberated
    Soviet soldiers were among the first groups to liberate Jews inside of concentration camps. Some of the first ones included Majdanek (Poland) and Auschwitz. When the soldiers got here, they were not prepared for what they saw, and the images were burned into their minds. The Germans were mass-murdering hundreds of thousands of people, and they thought they were justified. However, when concentration camps were being shut down, it signaled that the end of the war was drawing closer.
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    On August 6th and 9th, 1945 the United States dropped atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. The United States wanted to force a surrender from Japan in WWII. The affects were devastating, and hundreds of thousands of people died either instantly or due to related complications. It worked, as six days after Nagasaki. VJ day occurred. These atomic bombs are the only ever to be used.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    The Yalta Conference was a meeting between FDR, Stalin, and Chamberlain in order to discuss the final push and the end of World War II. The Conference established that Germany had to have an "Unconditional Surrender." This meant that they could not place any conditions upon their surrender (they could not weasel their way out of war debts or gain any new lands). Also, territories that were taken over by the Nazi regime were to be given sovereignty once more.
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    On a tiny Pacific Island, Iwo Jima, Japanese fighters established a base which allowed them to attack U.S. planes and airfields. The United States decided to attack the island in order to eliminate the conflict. The battle lasted about a month, ending March 16, 1945. The United States won, but experienced thousands of casualties. It is one of the bloodiest battles in Marine Corp history, and 27 Medals of Honor were awarded (the most ever awarded in a single battle).
  • FDR's Death

    FDR's Death
    After serving four terms as president, Franklin Roosevelt passed away due to hemorrhage in the brain. Doctors attempted to revive him, but there was no use. When he passed away, Harry Truman picked up the role as President. He tried to push forward the same policies that Roosevelt did, but he was not as successful, and he was not as popular with the people like Roosevelt was. He did, however, manage to push forth the same types of policies that Roosevelt did during his four terms.
  • VE Day

    VE Day
    VE Day, Victory in Europe Day, marked the end of WWII in Europe. It occurred due to Germany's surrender. It was a day of celebration marking the unconditional surrender; however, the war was not yet over. There were still issues to be resolved on the Pacific front.
  • Atomic Bomb Dropped on Nagasaki

    Atomic Bomb Dropped on Nagasaki
    After the bombing of Hiroshima by the United States leading to no surrender, the United States decided to bomb Japan yet again. This time, they chose Nagasaki. After this city was bombed, the Japanese government finally decided to accept the Potsdam Conference's idea of unconditional surrender, and this bombing ended the war. However, countries now refrain from nuclear warfare as an international agreement because of their power in these bombings.
  • VJ Day

    VJ Day
    VJ Day describes the day that Japan surrendered. It was a day of celebration in the United States that represented a return to peacetime. It was also the last of all official major conflicts in WWII. The surrender occurred six days after the atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
  • The United Nations is Established

    The United Nations is Established
    The League of Nations was shown as a failure after the end of World War II. One of the main reasons that it failed was because the United States, the founder of it, was not a part of it. However, after World War II. The countries got together to create the United Nations, a successor to the League of Nations. This organization has actually managed to keep peace to a surprising level because of the cornerstone that is the United States.