The time between wars

Between the Wars

  • Social Darwinism

    Social Darwinism
    Social Darwinism is the theory that humans are subject to the same laws of natural selection created by Charles Darwin. When it pertained to humans it was defined as the weak were diminished and their cultures delimited while the stronger grew in power and in cultural influence over the weak. You weren't allowed to teach about this in school and a teacher was actually arrested in 1925 for doing so. The human idea was presented in 1871 I believe.
  • Frances Willard

    Frances Willard
    Was an educator, reformer, and women's rights activist. Chosen as secretary of the WCTU in 1874 and in 1876 became head of the national WCTU's publications committee. She travelled constantly and made hundreds of speeches. Gained lots of ground for the move for prohibition for women.
  • Henry Ford

    Henry Ford
    He established the Ford Motor Company in 1903 and 5 years later made the Model T. in order to meet overwhelming demand for a revolutionary vehicle. Was a revolutionary for mass-production methods in the workplace by making and implementing the assembly line. He first used it in December of 1913 for cars. The idea instead of making one person do everything you have multiple people who are assigned to one specific part. Made it way more efficient.
  • Federal Reserve System

    Federal Reserve System
    Opened and established in 1913 with the signing of the Federal Reserve Act by Woodrow Wilson. A decentralized central bank that balanced the competing interests of private banks and populist sentiment. When the stock market crashed many people blamed the Federal Reserve System for not saying anything about speculation of a crash.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    Was a time period where the blacks moved to Northern cities for better opportunities. Started around 1916 but was very prominent in the 1920s. They tended to live in ghettos when they got there. Many saw just as much discrimination in the North. Described changes in attitudes and beliefs of African Americans.
  • Jazz Music

    Jazz Music
    Some say it was invented in 1895 but most tend to believe it was invented or really took notice in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1917 when Dixieland made their first jazz records in the early moths of 1917. This was followed by lots of new Jazz bands white and black. But Jazz was a huge influence for blacks and the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    Started in 1918 but was huge in the mid 1920s. Flourishing of African American musical, literary, and artistic talent. Centered in black district of New York City. Changed many Americans' perception of blacks. Major figures included Hughes, Johnson, Hurston, Cullen, and McKay.
  • Prohibition & the 18th Amendment

    Prohibition & the 18th Amendment
    On January 29th, 1919 the 18th Amendment was ratified which prohibited the act of making, consuming, or the sale alcohol. Prohibition was a big movement against alcohol because people saw it as doing damage to society. It didn't last long and was impossible to manage with speak-easies and organized crime so prohibition eventually was ended in 1933 with the 21st Amendment.
  • Marcus Garvey

    Marcus Garvey
    Born in Jamaica and came to America and migrated north to New York. He founded the Negro World newspaper, an international shipping company called Black Star Line and the Negro Factories Corporation all in 1916. He founded the UNIA in 1914 in Jamaica and was "put into effect" in the 1920s in America. Called the "Back to Africa" movement. It failed because people didn't want to go back to Africa and it was a risk for many if they did decide to go back.
  • Tin Pan Alley

    Tin Pan Alley
    Was a music genre brought to life in the 1920s. Became very popular through the new technology such as radio, tv, audio recording, etc. Phrase tin pan referred to the sound of the pianos furiously pounded by the song pluggers.
  • Warren G. Harding's "Return to Normalcy"

    Warren G. Harding's "Return to Normalcy"
    Was defined as the return to the way of life like it was before World War 1. Was Warren G. Harding's campaign slogan when running for the 1920 election. His idea through this was to return the U.S. prewar mentality, without the thought of the war tainting the minds of the American people. He eventually won 60% of the popular vote and was elected president.
  • 1st Red Scare

    1st Red Scare
    Began by Russia's Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. Americans became of notice and feared of communist revolution in the U.S. Was heightened in 1919 by anarchist bombings which led to the passage of various sedition laws in the 1920s.
  • Tea Pot Dome Scandal

    Tea Pot Dome Scandal
    Secret leasing of federal oil reserves by the secretary of the interior, Albert Bacon Fall. After president Harding transferred supervision of the naval oil reserves lands from the navy to the interior in 1921, Fall secretly granted Harry Sinclair of the Mammoth Oil Company exclusive rights to the Teapot Dome reserves. When U.S. Senate began investigation they found Fall and members of his family received $200,000 from an unknown source. Fall died before his case punishment was decided.
  • Clarence Darrow

    Clarence Darrow
    Was a defense lawyer who was apart of many dramatic criminal trials. He was a defense lawyer in the famous Scopes Trial for John Scopes. Was also known to be a staunch agnostic. Also known for questioning William Jennings Bryan as being an "Expert witness" of the Bible.
  • William Jennings Bryan

    William Jennings Bryan
    Was a former Secretary of State and three-time presidential candidate. Claimed to be an "expert witness" of the Bible. Was the prosecutor in the Scopes Trial against John Scopes and Clarence Darrow. Ended up winning the Trial but was famously questioned about being an "expert witness" of the Bible.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    Trial against a man who taught Social Darwinism which was permitted by law. Extensively covered by newspapers and radio. Trial held on courthouse lawn. Circus-like atmosphere. Resulted after 8 days as Scoped being guilty. Verdict was overturned in 1927 on technicality in 1927.
  • Charles A. Lindbergh

    Charles A. Lindbergh
    Wanted to win Orteig Prize for first nonstop transatlantic flight which was a $25,000 reward for the first person who completed a flight from New York to Paris. In May of 1927 he flew from New York to Paris in 33 1/2 hours. He quickly became a international celebrity. Spirit of St. Louis.
  • Stock Market Crash "Black Tuesday"

    Stock Market Crash "Black Tuesday"
    Happened when panic started on October 24, 1929. The stock market crashed in result made banks go bankrupt which led people to rush to banks for their money which made more go bankrupt. Businesses began to lay off workers, many banks failed and during that week in October more than $30 billion lost.
  • The Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl
    Were storms with very high winds that blew crazy amounts of loose topsoil. Caused by over-cultivation of land in the Great Plains, also by sustained drought throughout the region. Resulted in over 500,000 homeless and lots of damaged people and properties. Resulted in many people wanting to move, most went to California. About 15 percent of Oklahoma farmers became migrants.
  • Langston Hughes

    Langston Hughes
    Wrote is first novel called "Not Without Laughter" in 1930. His novel won the Harmon gold medal for literature. Contributed huge to the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s and jazz was a huge influence in his writings. Wrote lots of poems, books, small writings, etc. His writing was also insightful on Black life from 20s to the 60s.
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Won the first of four presidential elections in 1932 beating Herbert Hoover. Given lots of freedom in the beginning because of how badly America was doing. Created the "New Deal" which was the name of an economic program that created multiple agencies to kickstart the economy. Was helped by advisers who were called the "Brain Trust". Very successful and active in his first 100 days in office. Served 4 terms and was a very popular and famous president.
  • The Great Depression

    The Great Depression
    Lasted from 1929-1939 and was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world. Began after the stock market crash in 1929. Over the next several years, people spending and investing dropped which caused decline in industrial output and employment. The lowest point was in 1933 where 15 million Americans were unemployed and nearly half the banks had failed.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Eleanor Roosevelt
    The wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt and also his niece. Helped tremendously through FDR's presidency's through not only taking care of him when he suffered polio but also gave press conferences, spoke about human rights, spoke about children's causes and women's issues, and she had her own newspaper column called "My Day". She changed the role of first lady drastically which gave her heavy criticism but she still is praised and respected by lots of people.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    Named after a phrase in FDR's 1932 nomination speech. Became the nick name of FDR's economic program which created lots and lots of agencies to provide jobs, opportunities, aid, and an economic jumpstart. Consisted of three different aspects: Relief, Recovery, and Reform.
  • "Relief, Recovery, Reform"

    "Relief, Recovery, Reform"
    Was the three aspects or goals of the New Deal economic program he created. Relief stood for programs to help immediately, mainly to employ people, provide jobs. Recovery stood for programs to help rebuild, stuff like housing, agriculture, roads, etc. Reform stood for programs to prevent something like this ever happening again which focussed on banks, labor unions, and labor.
  • 20th Amendment

    20th Amendment
    The 20th Amendment was ratified on January 23rd, 1933. Was a simple Amendment that sets the dates at which federal government elected offices end. It also defines who succeeds the president if the president dies.
  • Civilian Conservation Corp. (CCC)

    Civilian Conservation Corp. (CCC)
    Provided jobs for young men aged 18-25. Jobs included work on environmental projects. One of the most popular New Deal programs. "Enlistees" were paid $30 per month, with $25 of that sent home to their families.
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FCIC)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FCIC)
    Preserves U.S. financial system by insuring deposits in banks. Made to protect people from losing all their money of their bank fails. Also made to limit the effect on the economy and the financial system if banks start to fail. The Glass-Steagall Act created FDIC.
  • 21st Amendment

    21st Amendment
    The 21st Amendment ended prohibition laws. Was needed badly. If people want to drink they're going to drink. The prohibition law led to lots of organized crime, people accidentally killing themselves trying to make their own, a third of the governments money was coming from the taxing of it so no alcohol meant no money, etc. It was just time to bring it back, if people want it they're going to get it.
  • Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)

    Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)
    Created through Securities Act of 1933 and Securities Exchange Act of 1934.Laws required truth in sales of securities and fair treatment of investors. SEC's purpose was to provide market stability and protect investors.
  • Social Security Administration (SSA)

    Social Security Administration (SSA)
    Started as the Townsend Plan which promoted a pension of $200 per moth for people above 60 years old. They were paid a through national sales tax. Recipients must pay the money, weren't allowed to keep it. Became Social Security in 1935 with Social Security Act of 1935. Which also provided unemployment insurance, aid in dependents, obviously pensions, and was funded through a payroll tax.
  • 1936 Summer Olympics

    1936 Summer Olympics
    Hosted by Germany and their new leader Adolf Hitler. This was before Hitler committed his crazy crimes and new his crazy plans. He saw the 1936 Olympics as an opportunity to promote the government and ideals of racial supremacy and antisemitism. They didn't allow Jews to participate in the games. Jesse Owens became famous in this Olympics with four gold medals.