APUSH Timeline

  • Jamestown Settlement

    Jamestown Settlement
    In 1607, 104 English men arrived in North America. Their mission was to start a settlement and export natural resources. They picked Jamestown, Virginia for their settlement, named after King, James I, the settlement became the first permanent English settlement in North America. Unfortunately, many of them died of disease and starvation.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was a set of rules created by the Pilgrims for self-governance. Established on the long voyage to North America in 1620. This was the first attempt at self-governance within the colonies and set precedence to maintain civil order within Virginia. The document established that the colonies were a self-governing body not completely separate from the King of England.
  • Peach Tree War

    Peach Tree War
    The Peach Tree War was a war between Susquehannock Indians and several New Netherlands settlements along the Hudson River. Indians won the War and forced many outlying Duch Settlements to temporarily garrison. The Staten Island Colony, and others were abandoned. Those who weren't abandoned were repopulated and their defenses were made better. Stuyvesant purchesed the ability to settle the western banks of the Hudson from the Indians.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion held by Virginia settlers. Lasting from 1676 to 1677, led by Nathaniel Bacon against Colonial Governor William Berkeley. Berkeley had refused Bacon's request to drive Native Americans out of Virginia, causing Bacon to go to war. Thousands of Virginians fought against Berkeley, chasing him from Jamestown and ultimately torching the settlement. Even after being suppressed by Berkley's allies, forces of resistance lived on for years after.
  • Absorption of Plymouth by Massachusetts Bay Colony

    Absorption of Plymouth by Massachusetts Bay Colony
    Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled in the 1630s, located near modern-day Boston and Salem Massachusetts. As it grew, the Colony became the most populous and prosperous colony. Plymouth's influence in New England fell as Massachusetts rose. The colony became a Royal Province under a Governor who was appointed by the Crown. As Plymouth declined they were absorbed into Massachusetts' new charter in 1691.
  • Province of New Jersey

    Province of New Jersey
    One of the middle colonies of North America, the province of New Jersey was united in 1702. Previously, the province had been split and passed around throughout the late 1600s. The province was divided between East and West Jersey. They were united as a royal Colony in 1702.
  • Province of Georgia

    Province of Georgia
    The Province of Georgia was the last of the thirteen original colonies established by Great Britain. Originally the land was a strip of land, extending toward the pacific ocean. The colony's charter was granted to James Oglethorpe on April 21, 1732, by George II and finalized on June 9, 1732. Oglethorpe envisioned a colony that would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt and "the worthy poor" and had many strict laws the colonists didn't agree with.
  • Albany Plan

    Albany Plan
    Benjamin Franklin invites some of the most influential people in the colonies together under false pretenses to discuss the Albany plan. Franklin wanted the colonies to join together and stand a united front against France and her armies. He believed that they stood a better chance together, united against France than separate. His plan failed but it marks the first time in colonial history the idea that the colonies could be more than the sum of their parts and created a communication network.
  • Proclamation of 1763

    Proclamation of 1763
    Also known as the Proclamation line of 1763, this prohibited expansion of the colonists past the Appalachian Mountains. This was one of many causes of the revolution. Colonists were threatened that if they settled past that point they'd lose the support of Great Britain. Support they'd been without for 150 years and surely didn't need now. This upset colonists and only further showed where Britain's interests were held.
  • Townshend Act

    Townshend Act
    The Townshend Acts Consisted of the Sugaring Act, the Stamp Act, the Tea Act, and the Quartering Act to name a few. Also called the Intolerable Acts the acts were passed through parliament with the intention to tax imported goods to the colonies. American colonists saw the acts as an abuse of power from Britain and were upset over their lack of representation. These acts are directly related to the phrase "no taxation without representation."
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    More soldiers were stationed in front of customs houses due to the amount of damage inflicted upon them by colonists in the months preceding the Intolerable Acts and the lack of representation within Parliament. The event started out with colonists throwing snowballs at the soldiers and when a colonist threw a snowball with rocks in it at a soldier they opened fire. 5 colonists die as a result. Their deaths were considered the first five deaths of the American Revolution.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Colonists were upset over Britain's taxation upon their colonies without giving them representation in Parlement. So, when the Tea Act was implemented, taxing Colonists on tea, the very thing they drank at an alarming rate so that they would buy tea from the British East India Company Colonists revolted. The Sons of Liberty got drunk and dressed up like Native Americans and proceeded to dump tons of tea into Boston Harbor.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    The battle, actually fought at Breeds Hill, was won by the British but showed that the patriots could hold their own against the British Army. The British army sustained twice as many injuries as the Colonial Army. General Thomas Gage was under orders to stamp out the colonial rebellion. He’d planned to attack the Americans in Boston, however, his plans had been leaked and American soldiers gathered to defend Breeds Hill. This proved the colonial revolt could not be extinguished.
  • Publication of Common Sense

    Publication of Common Sense
    Published by Thomas Paine the book was a collection of essays about freedom and independence. Arguments Paine made were extremely convincing and emotional and boosted morale of troops. Thomas donated 100% of the proceeds from the book to the Continental Army and fought under George Washington in the Army. George Washington had Paine's works read to soldiers regularly because he felt it was influential.
  • George Washington Crosses the Delaware

    George Washington Crosses the Delaware
    George Washington led his soldiers into battle on Christmas Night 1776. He crossed the Delaware with 2,500 troops, overwhelming the Hessian force that was celebrating Christmas in New Jersey. The Hessian forces had been drinking and celebrating and were unsuspecting of the colonial force about to overwhelm them. As they were attacked they were at a severe disadvantage and Washington's troops were sucessfull.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The British Army had planned on ambushing the Colonial Army by converging upon one of their armies. This backfired when the British Army didn't know the terrain and one of their armies didn't show up, stuck in marshy swamps. Two Colonial Armies had converged upon the one British army that'd made it to the battleground. Forcing them to surrender was a major turning point in the war as it led to the gaining of a French Alliance by the Colonists.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    General Cornwallis retreated to the coast of Yorktown, Virginia hoping to sit out the war in winter under the protection of the British Royal Navy. Cornwallis wasn't aware the French Navy had defeated the British Fleet at the battle of Capes in September. By the time he'd arrived at Yorktown, he found the French Navy at his back and the American Army cornering him. Cornwallis surrendered later in October after the Americans and French laid siege to his position.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    After the Colonial Armies won at Yorktown the British were forced to surrender. They signed the Treaty of Paris, marking the end of the Revolutionary war. The Treaty declared the United States as their own nation and granted them all British lands between the Atlantic Ocean & the Mississippi River and north to British Canada. This also gave them the freedom to do whatever they wanted, including making their own form of government.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    Many influential men met together to decide upon the direction of the United States Government. They were deciding what to do with the current Articles of Confederation and whether they should revise it or completely rebuild it. 55 delegates of the 70 selected showed up and debated topics like the "Virginia Plan", "3/5ths Compromise", and the "Conneticut Compromise". Ultimatly the convention ended in the creation of the United States Constitiution.
  • Federal Judiciary Act

    Federal Judiciary Act
    The Federal Judiciary Act was passed through Congress in 1789. This act implemented a system of lower courts that met the needs of the Supreme Court being overwhelmed. The act was passed through the necessary and proper clause. Lower-level disputes would be settled within lower-level courts and would, if necessary, filter through to the Supreme Court.
  • George Washington Elected President of the United States

    George Washington Elected President of the United States
    George Washington, army general, statesman, founding father, and now President of the United States was the first President to be unanimously voted into office. His presidency sets precedent for many of the current policies presidents to follow today such as the two-term limit on presidencies. He and his Vice President John Adams were inaugurated on April 30th and Washington was selected by the people, coming out of retirement to be the president, he didn't run for the presidency.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Rebellion was a response to Alexander Hamilton's excise tax. It taxed Whiskey to the point where farmers who were brewing in smaller batches to make extra (needed) money weren't able to turn much of a profit. Farmers refused to pay the tax until it was enforced by the American Army and George Washington went onto the battlefield to break up the rebellion.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    In order to repair French relations, Adams sends diplomats to negotiate a new treaty. They are met with lower-level diplomats upon their arrival who don't have the authority to do anything. This along with the $250,000 bribe requested to negotiate with the king offended Adams and he refused to pay. Americans want war, which Adams avoids, negotiating peace with Napoleon shortly after he takes over his dictatorship of France. This was not popular among Americans and sapped him of his popularity.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    As Adams' choices were becoming less and less popular so was he. Later in his presidency, he passed the Alien and Sedition Acts to prevent people from voicing negative opinions of him. These acts directly violated the first amendment and only caused those who wrote about him to use aliases. Adams also passed the Naturalization Act, increasing the number of years immigrants had to live in the U.S. before becoming citizens. This was because his leadership style wasn't popular among immigrants.
  • Revolution of 1800

    Revolution of 1800
    The Revolution marked the peaceful change in power from Adams to Jefferson as well as the change in political ideology. John Adams peacefully stepped down from his position as president once Thomas Jefferson won the ballot. This proved that the governmental system could work in practice. While Adams surrendered power peacefully, he did try and implement some last-minute changes before he stepped down including the Midnight Judges.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    Great Britain and France are at war, and Jefferson decides to cut off foreign trade in an attempt to remain neutral. The Embargo was a ban on all imported foreign goods. This was met with unrest within the states but ultimately led to a stronger American Economy. Americans experienced growth in domestic manufacturing while merchants and businessmen suffered.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Battle of Tippecanoe
    Fought between American and Native American Soldiers the Battle of Tippecanoe resulted from an unhonored treaty. Natives had just been forced to sell 3 million acres and Tecumseh organized a Native Confederation to fight the influx of pioneers seeking to colonize their land. Governor William Henry had agreed on a ceasefire which Tenskwatawa was dead set on breaking. When Henry's troops woke up the next morning, surrounded by the Native troops a war broke out.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle took place 14 days after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent which ended the war of 1812. The news of the treaty, which was signed in Europe, had yet to reach the United States and American Forces lay in wait for British Soldiers who were coming into New Orleans. The Artificial Levying system implemented by the Colonists was crucial to their winning the Battle as they had 71 casualties while inflicting over 2,000 upon British Soldiers.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    While Jackson got the most votes he didn't get the majority of votes in the election. The election had to go to the HOR, as head of the house Henry Clay stepped down, seeing his influence in the vote as unfair as he holds a lot of power within the house. William Crawford died before the election could make it to the house and the vote was between John Adams and Andrew Jackson. While Jackson had received the most votes in the first election Adams made a deal with Clay to win the Elections.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    The tariff was very unpopular and had a large chance of ending in a trade war. The tariff sought to lessen the competition between foreign imports and American Made goods by taxing imports. This was good for Northern States who produced the goods that southern states were now forced to buy. This was bad however, for Southern States as it led to a decrease in their exported raw materials. Europe was buying less goods because America was refusing to buy from them.
  • Nullification Ordinance

    Nullification Ordinance
    Upset by the Tariff of Abominations and how it unfairly impacted different states within the United States, South Carolina decided to nullify the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. The state said that if they were forced to comply with the tariffs they'd secede from the union. Jackson considered this treasonous and he responded by passing the Force Bill. This began the Nullification Crisis.
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Worcester v. Georgia
    The Supreme Court ruling declared the statute saying natives and those who didn't hold a licence from the state weren't allowed on native lands was unconstitutional. This was met with resistance from the president himself, who decided that he could cherry pick what parts of the constitution did and didn't apply to him however it suited him. He stated that Marshal had made his own decision and that he should support it.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    Black Codes restricted black people's right to own property, conduct business, buy and lease land, and move freely. They were an act of Southern Defiance against slavery being ended and helped keep freedmen in a situation similar to slavery and regain control of freed blacks. The black codes declared Freedmen couldn't rent or borrow money to purchase land and forced blacks to sign labor contracts they could not break. They stripped blacks of rights like testifying against white people in court.
  • Formation of the Texas Republic

    Formation of the Texas Republic
    The Republic of Texas was formed in 1836, breaking away from Mexico and Declaring its independence. The United States recognized its independence, but Mexico did not. Texans were faced with war from Mexico, as Mexico viewed Texas as their territory. Some Americans go to help them with the war, but Polk won't get involved. He doesn't want to get involved with foreign affairs. So, they annexed Texas and it became part of the United States, gaining their aid in doing so.
  • Schism

    The Schism marks the separation of Abolition and Women's Suffrage. This happened when Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott went to an Abolition conference but were immediately told they couldn’t speak and had to stand on the balcony. Women realized they couldn’t help, they wouldn’t be listened to, and couldn’t vote. So they protested their own rights, wanting political power.
    Schism marks the divide of the movements and the branching out of the WS Movement from the Abolitionist movement.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Seneca Falls was where the women of the Women's Suffrage movement wrote their own declaration. Held in a church in Seneca Falls, the event advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of women". It lasted two days and was put on by Elizabeth Stanton, who realized the only way she'd be able to help free African Americans was by gaining the ability to vote themselves.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The treaty was a treaty of peace between Mexico and America following the Mexican American War. The Treaty officially sets limitations and settlements between America and the Mexican Republic. This sets the border of Texas forward to the Rio Grande and the United States gains other states like California, New Mexico, and Arizona. The expansion of the United States leads to America being a bi-costal Nation.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 was a package deal. It included benefits for the North and South and some headway for Abolishment. The Compromise ensured that California entered the union as a free state, abolished the slave trade in Washington DC, and made the Fugitive Slave Law more strict. The Compromise also ensured that territories applying for statehood would be governed under the concept of popular soverignty.
  • Dred Scott v. Standford

    Dred Scott v. Standford
    Dred Scott was a slave who lived a pretty comfortable (compared to slaves at the time) life. He was still a slave though, and no one wants that. When his master moved to a Northern state Scott saw the opportunity for his freedom and went to the Supreme court, trying to sue for independence. The Supreme Court not only ruled against that but also made the ruling that Southerners could move with their slaves to any state and therefore no state was truly a free state.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Bull Run, aka the Battle of First Manassas, was the first major battle of the American Civil War. Fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, Bull Run set the tone of the war. Costing 3,000 Union casualties, compared to 1,750 Confederate casualties. The war sent northerners who'd expected a quick victory reeling and gave celebrating southerners the false hope that they could pull off a swift victory.
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    The Homestead Act, passed in 1862, offered free land to Americans moving West. They'd had one condition, and that was that they improve the land. They had to live on and farm the 160 acres granted to each head of household. This was a challenge due to dry, eroded soil, weather, and pests. Many took the offer, expanding into native lands that weren't theirs to move onto. This Act only helped worsen relations with native peoples.
  • Pacific Railway Act 1862

    Pacific Railway Act 1862
    The goal was to create one transcontinental railroad (coast to coast) The government was only able to fund 15% of the system, the rest is funded by giving valuable land near the railroads to the railroad companies. Two companies built it, starting on either side and moving toward Promontory Point Utah. Lincoln's contract with the railroad companies had been dependent on their ability to complete the job by 1875, or they'd lose the land offered to them. They completed the job four years early.
  • Grant's peace policy.

    Grant's peace policy.
    Grant's Peace Policy was ineffective at best. The policy only created further tensions with Natives and involved aggressive military pursuits. This was his solution to solving the 'Indian Problem' and natives fought back, viewing the white men as the problem instead. His peace policy was based on the common ideology 'kill the Indian save the man' and through it, he forced Native children through boarding schools and separated Native lands in hopes natives would convert to white Christian ways.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    Known as the single bloodiest day in the history of the United States, Antietam led to a grey victory. The union claimed victory over the battle, but due to casualties no side truly won. 23,000 soldiers were killed in just 12 hours. The majority of casualties were Union casualties, but they drove the confederacy from the field. The battle showed the Union could hold their own against the confederacy and gave President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce the Emancipation Proclaimation.
  • Emancipation Proclaimation

    Emancipation Proclaimation
    Lincoln used the 'union victory' at Antietam to declare his Emancipation Proclamation. The document declared that slavery was illegal in any land succeeded from the union that didn't surrender the war. This meant the border states, whom Lincoln already had a fragile relationship with, would be able to keep their slaves and was an incentive for other Confederate states to return back to the Union. If they didn't their slaves would be liberated as Union Forces moved forward with the Anaconda Plan.
  • The Wilderness

    The Wilderness
    The first battle of the Final Virginia Campaign, The Wilderness set the tone for the series of Union victories and set off a satisfying win. The Battle was named after where the armies met, in the forest. The Wilderness can't truly be classified as a Union win, it wasn't a win for either side. The Wilderness did however prove that Ulysses Grant wouldn't stop until the Confederacy surrendered. He pushed forward, continuing to advance and chasing the Confederate Army throughout the campaign.
  • Wade Davis Bill

    Wade Davis Bill
    The bill was passed in replacement to Lincoln's proposed 10% plan. The plan entailed that 50% of voters had to swear loyalty to the union compared to 10% under lincoln's plan. The plan also entailed that only non- confederates were able to vote and hold office. Lincoln refused to sign this bill, saying that it was too harsh on the South but he was later assassinated.
  • Freedmen’s Bureau

    Freedmen’s Bureau
    The Bureau was designed to help freedmen by starting schools, securing loans, negotiating labor contracts, providing legal aid, and helping freedmen to find and purchase land. The Bureau was established by Congress and helped freedmen secure a voice they wouldn't have overall held as individuals. Together, they were one voice and they spoke loudly. The Bureau helped transition 4,000,000 freed blacks from slavery to freedom.
  • Five Forks

    Five Forks
    The Union Army was Winning in the Final Virginia Campaign. The Confederacy was at a loss and their only hope was if they could somehow reach Appomattox and resupply. Seeing their plan, General Grant split his men into two. He sent half of his troops to Appomattox to outrun the confederacy and capture the town. The other men took another route and continued to fight. Trapped, Lee's army had to surrender. This battle was one of a sequence of battles wrapping up the Union Win of the Civil War.
  • Johnson's Impeachment

    Johnson's Impeachment
    Andrew Johnson was put to trial for his 'high crimes and misdemeanors'. He had directly gone against Congress on multiple occasions, the recent one having been Removing Edwin Stanton from office. Johnson wasn't removed from office, as the House of Representatives had fallen one vote short, afraid of what impeachment would mean for the system of checks and balances put in place for the government. Johnson still held power but was left powerless after impeachment.
  • Start of the Knights of Labor (Sem 2)

    Start of the Knights of Labor (Sem 2)
    The Knights of Labor was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia. The secret society of tailors grew in size and popularity from the mid to late 1800s with 700,000 members in 1880. The group grew to include men and women of all races and classes who pushed for the 8-hour workday. They worked towards a cooperative economy and abolishment of the wage system.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    Civil Rights Act of 1875
    Congress passed and President Grant signed, the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Said act banned discrimination in public places but wasn't enforced after Grant when military occupation ended. The act, didn't ban segregation, and many in the South found loopholes to still enforce it. The South just had to provide colored people with their own, separate, 'equal' spaces and they'd be abiding by the act. The bill was struck down in 1883 because the constitution didn't extend to private businesses.
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877

    Great Railroad Strike of 1877
    The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 aka The Great Upheaval began in Martinsburg, West Virginia on July 14th. Ohio and Baltimore Railroad had cut wages for the 3rd time that year and which triggered the strike. The strike, led by the Knights of Labor, wouldn't allow the trains to run until the wage cuts were taken back. The strike wasn't successful as it ended when Former President Hays sent troops to suppress the strikes. Troops traveled from city to city and by September 4th had ended the strike.
  • Adoption of Standard Time

    Adoption of Standard Time
    From the 1880s to the 1890s many people moved westward to find jobs and land. The railroad only followed them along the way. More than 70,000 miles of track had been added to the transcontinental railroad in the 1880s. The railroad grew from 93,200 miles to 163,600 miles as the west witnessed a 129% increase. Because of this railroads adopted four different time zones, Eastern, Central, Mountain and Pacific. This split the country up and synchronized time.
  • Cross of Gold Speech

    Cross of Gold Speech
    William Bryan, former United States Representative, supported the free silver movement believing it would bring the nation to prosperity. He delivered the Cross of Gold Speech during the movement, stating that "you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold". His goal was to erase consumer debt. Silver was only worth $0.53 for every $1.00 gold was worth, it was more abundant and cheaper. This hyper inflated the economy in the years to come and was bad for banks lending loans.
  • The Beginning of Caroline Amelia Nation's Hacking Spree

    The Beginning of Caroline Amelia Nation's Hacking Spree
    Beginning in 1900 Caroline Amelia Nation began to go from bar to bar, in Kiowa Kansas, throwing bricks threw windows and trying to close bars. In 1901, she first used a hatchet in bars in Topeka Kansas. Caroline believed that Alcohol was the root of all social evils and believed it had been the cause of her divorce. Nation was a radicle member of the Temperance Movement and opposed alcohol prior to prohibition.
  • Square Deal

    Square Deal
    The Square Deal was Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program, reflecting his three major goals: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. This established the precident that the president could create legislative goals. The deal led to more acts being created, like the Sherman Anti-trust act and was liked from people of all backgrounds because who doesn't like fair and honest trade.
  • Publishing of The Jungle

    Publishing of The Jungle
    The Jungle is a work of narrative fiction written by Upton Sinclair. Sinclair was a famous muckraker who, in his novel, wrote about the horrors of the meatpacking industry. He did so to advance socialism in the United States but mainly just made people sick from hearing about the unsanitary and harsh conditions. People literally got sick from reading the novel.
  • Roosevelt Visits Meatpacking Plant

    Roosevelt Visits Meatpacking Plant
    Disgusted by the processes in meatpacking facilities written about in The Jungle, Teddy Roosevelt made a surprise visit to a meat plant. Prior to his visit, there were few health codes in meatpacking plants, and they weren't adhered to too well. The meat processed in these facilities could have trace amounts of the man who'd packed it or a rodent who'd fallen in. Prior to his visit, the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed, a precursor to the FDA, as well as the Meat Inspection Act.
  • Breaking up of John P. Rockefeller's Big Business

    Breaking up of John P. Rockefeller's Big Business
    John P. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil, which grew to be the largest oil company, he was the First American Billionaire. He and his company had been vilified because of his carelessness toward the poor and his practices that included monopolies and trusts. His practices fueled the anti-trust movement and in 1911 the government forced John P. Rockefeller to break up his company into 34 stronger companies. This was a result of his gaining a monopoly on standard oil.
  • Creation of the Progressive Party

    Creation of the Progressive Party
    The Progressive party was formed by former President Theodore Roosevelt. After 7 years in office and retiring, giving the presidency to William Taft, Roosevelt wanted to run again for the presidency. He'd been upset with how the policies he'd thought Taft would follow weren't being followed. This caused him to come out of retirement and run as Republican candidate, which he didn't get. Republicans weren't going to pull their support on a sitting president. So Roosevelt formed his own party.
  • Election of 1912

    Election of 1912
    The election was between four different parties and the Democratic win by Grover Clevland marked the end of the Republican Party's 16-year empire. Grover Cleveland had only won 43% of the popular vote but the Republican vote was split between Roosevelt and Taft. Combined, they got more votes than Clevland. This opened the door for Clevland's reforms, prior to him winning the election, the Democratic Party had lost favor with progressive- Americans. They'd realized it was time for reform.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare, firing at ships approaching their borders. This included, on several occasions, US merchant ships carrying U.S. citizens. Germany then came out with the Sussex pledge stating that they would give warning before sinking ships. They didn't do this, sinking the Lusitania shortly after on May 7th 1915, killing 1,000+ people and 123 Americans. This angered Americans and is one of the reasons leading to their entry into the war.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    The Zimmerman Telegram is the main cause of U.S. involvment in WW1. America had previously chosen to remain neutral, supplying both the Triple Entante and Alliance with goods, bettering America's economy in war. This angered either side, but no one wanted to upset America, for fear their involvment in WW1 could cause the opposing side to win the war. Germany sent the Zimmerman Telegram to Mexico, promising them the land America had ceeded from them if they engaged in war with the U.S. and won.
  • Passing of the 19th amendment

    Passing of the 19th amendment
    Passed in 1919, and later ratified in 1920, the 19th amendment was a milestone in America's history. The amendment Legally Guaranteed women the right to vote. Passed nearly 100 years after the beginning of the Women's Suffrage movement, the victory was a lengthy and tiresome one but a sweet one nonetheless. Women would later go on to vote in the 1920 elections, ending the fight for political equality.
  • Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

    Signing of the Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 and created by the League of Nations. America never ended up signing off on the treaty. The treaty set harsh terms for Germany's surrender, so much so that it is notably one of the main causes of WW2. The treaty dictated German alliances, their military, and their navy, and forced them to pay all the war debt. This Cripled Germany's economy and led them into a deep depression.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

    Sacco and Vanzetti
    Sacco and Vanzetti were Italian immigrants who were known radicals and anarchists. After the murder of a shop owner in their neighborhood, they were targeted as the main suspects. They had alibis, there was a lack of evidence, and the weapons didn't match up but they were still blamed for the murder anyway. They were later executed and Civil Rights Reformers jumped all on the case, raising questions on our political and social system and pointing out the unfair and racist bias of the systems.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants who could come into the U.S.. Limiting the number of immigrants to 2% of the number of people from their country of origin according to the 1890 Census. The purpose of the act was to preserve U.S. homogeneity and prevent communism from spreading to the U.S.. The Act was racially biased, aimed at Eastern and Southern Europeans and not affecting Mexican and Canadian Immigrants, who came to the U.S. in overwhelming numbers to follow.
  • Wall Street Crash of 1929

    Wall Street Crash of 1929
    16 million stocks were traded on October 10th, 1929 as thousands of investors were wiped out, losing billions of dollars. As a direct result, people lost their life savings, having put all of their life savings into stocks. This jumpstarted America's Great Depression as many companies cut wages after their stocks fell. Many people lost their jobs or suffered severe wage cuts in order to keep their jobs. At the peak of the depression, the unemployment rate skyrocketed to 25%.
  • Scopes Monkey Trial

    Scopes Monkey Trial
    The Scopes Monkey Trial was highly controversial and orchestrated. A substitute teacher in Tennessee had agreed to teach his students about evolution, something that was against the law in Tennessee at the time. It went against the teachings in the bible. The law was extremely controversial and went against religious freedoms so they'd arranged to teach evolution in protest. The trial, upon being taken to court, ruled in favor of Tennessee but Scopes' charges were dropped on a technicality.
  • The Bonus Army March

    The Bonus Army March
    WW1 veterans had been promised a bonus for their services. They weren't due for this bonus until 1945 and in 1932, it became evident that veterans, most of which had lost their jobs, would need it then. They organized the "Bonus Expeditionary Forces" which marched in front of the white house, camping out in tents in the park nearby. After overstaying their welcome, President Hoover had the current army force them out, burning their tents when they refused to leave.
  • Roosevelt's first 100 Days

    Roosevelt's first 100 Days
    After being elected into office President Franklin Delenore Roosevelt (FDR) spent his first 100 days trying to counteract the effects of the Great Depression. Wanting to help the people recover since under Herbert Hoover the great depression only worsened due to his inaction. During his first 100 Days, FDR presented and passed 15 major bills designed to do just this. Many of his bills did however overstep the power of the Government and would lead to the Government taking a new role.
  • German Troops March into the Rhineland

    German Troops March into the Rhineland
    Hitler had risen to power in Germany due to his opposition to the Treaty of Versailles. A peace treaty that directly prevented Germany from having much of a military and prevented them from stationing their military in the Rhineland. The Rhineland was a part of Germany that bordered France. Hitler marched his troops into the Rhineland, showing that he was willing to directly oppose the treaty.
  • Roosevelt's Court Packing Plan

    Roosevelt's Court Packing Plan
    FDR passed many bills under his First and Second New Deal. These bills were heavily criticized by the Left who thought FDR was doing too little and by the Right who thought FDR was overstepping the role of government. The Supreme Court aligned itself with the right, declaring 22 of FDR's bills unconstitutional. FDR proposed the Court Packing Plan which would add a new justice for every justice over 70. This wasn't passed but scared the Supreme Court from voting against FDR in the future.
  • Germany and Russia Sign a Non-Aggression Pact

    Germany and Russia Sign a Non-Aggression Pact
    Hitler and Stalin signed a 'non-aggression pact' prior to Germany invading Poland and starting WW2. The pact promised neither country would attack the other and gave Russia part of Poland which was soon to be invaded by Germany. This pact kept Germany from fighting a two-front war but was eventually nullified when Hitler's Troops started marching into Russia.
  • Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa
    Operation Barbarossa was a turning point in the war, it went against Hitler and Stalin's 'non-aggression pact' and launched an attack on Russia. This turned attention and bombing away from Great Brittain and created a two-front war for Germany. This could've been the reason for Germany's loss in WW2 and prolonged the war, spreading German armies and resources thin. This also caused Russia to join in on the war against Germany, fighting alongside Britain as an allied power.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    Executive order 8802 was signed by FDR in June 1941, in an effort to prohibit ethnic or racial discrimination in government jobs. This didn't just eliminate discrimination in government positions, this also eliminated discrimination in any business accepting government contracts. The U.S. needed to hire more people so this wasn't exactly selfless, but black employment more than doubled in the years following. This opens doors for minorities and creates jobs during a time of need.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    After the United States refused to sell oil to China, China prepared for its 'quest for the Pacific Empire'. We were hurting their economy through our Oil Embargo and Japan saw this in itself as an attack by the U.S. Japan launched a five-stage attack, bombing Pearl Harbor. The U.S. fleet in the pacific was devastated while Japan lost <100 men. This directly led to America Joining Great Britain in WW2. This day was famously referred to as "A day which will live in Infamy."
  • G.I. Bill of Rights

    G.I. Bill of Rights
    Signed into law by Roosevelt in appreciation of Veterans putting their lives on hold to fight in WW2. This helped to significantly boost the economy and provide education and loans to veterans to jumpstart their lives. The U.S. offered to foot the bill on student loans and trade school education and provided veterans with low-interest home and business loans. This helped veterans to buy houses and start businesses and therefore boosted the economy by way of creating jobs and a disposable income.
  • Marshal Plan

    Marshal Plan
    Proposed by U.S. Secretary of State George Marshal and put in place to reconstruct Europe. America spends billions of dollars doing so, extending loans to other countries to help them post-war. The U.S. spent money reconstructing war-torn cities like Berlin and reestablishing communication and transportation networks. Countries abroad weren't the only ones to benefit from the plan, America was impacted significantly as the Marshal plan led to expansion in exports and domestic goods.
  • Kinsey Report

    Kinsey Report
    The publication of the Kinsey Report was extremely controversial. The report, made by high school professor Alfred Kinsey revealed the higher degree of premarital sex, marital infidelity, homosexuality, and ‘deviant’ behavior. The Kinsey Report led to a change in the public perception of sexuality. This could have also led to the sexual experimentation of the baby boomer generation in their rebellious experimentation with drugs, sex, and literature.
  • Operation Vittles

    Operation Vittles
    In an attempt to counteract the Blocade on Berlin imposed by Russia/USSR Truman decided that the U.S. was going to hold on to West Berlin. Choosing instead to airlift supplies to them. The airlift supplied them with necessary goods without setting foot into USSR territory, without breaking the Berlin Blockade. The airlift supplied Berlin with everything from coal to chocolate and didn't break the Blockade. We evaded war with Russia and Stalin eventually ended his blockade due to the airlifts.
  • Eisenhower Interstate Highway (and Defense) Act

    Eisenhower Interstate Highway (and Defense) Act
    Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act is one of the largest public works projects in history, updating and modernizing America’s roadways. Connecting the country similar to the railroad, cities connected to the highway thrived while the growth of those that weren't connected was stunted. The Act was sold as a Defense Act, playing on America's Cold War fears, and creating escape routes and emergency runways. This also heavily influenced car culture and spurred suburbanization.
  • First Televised Election

    First Televised Election
    Prior to the televised debate, it was thought Nixon had been the ideal candidate. He was a proven politician with a track record, but due to Kennedy's contact with the camera and appearance. Kennedy eventually won the presidency, even though his arguments weren't on par with Nixon's. This drastically changes the presidency and elections to follow as now Americans would base their perception of Presidential candidates on their appearance.