• Jamestown Settlement

    Jamestown Settlement
    In 1607, colonists from England sailed to the Chesapeake Bay for financial opportunity, and they would settle in an area known as Jamestown. Although 80% of the population later died due to starvation and disease (The Starving TImes), it was still considered the first successful English colony and inspired the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Colonies. The discovery of tobacco in Jamestown also allowed the colony to flourish. Overall, Jamestown represents an important moment in American history.
  • The Introduction of the Headright System

    The Introduction of the Headright System
    On November 1618, in order to encourage immigration, the Virginia colony introduced the Headright System in a body of laws called "Orders and Constitutions". The Headright System stated that any person who settled in Virginia would receive 50 acres of land, and if they brought people with them to the colony, then they would receive 50 additional acres of land for each immigrant they brought. The system was quite successful, as it significantly increased the population of the British colonies.
  • The First Importation of Slaves

    The First Importation of Slaves
    In 1619, 20 Angolans from Africa were kidnapped and brought to the Jamestown Colony. This event marked the beginning of slavery in the American colonies. In the Jamestown colony, the slaves were mainly used to grow tobacco, a major crash crop at the time. As time went on, slavery became very popular, especially in the south, to grow cotton. Slavery in the country would continue until 1865 when the 13th Amendment passed and abolished slavery throughout the entire United States of America.
  • The Beginning of the Navigation Acts

    The Beginning of the Navigation Acts
    Throughout the early 1600s, many European shippers bought colonial goods from the English colonies and carried them to foreign markets, so in 1651, the Navigation Act was passed and required colonial goods to be carried on ships owned by English or colonial merchants. Future Naiviagation laws also lead to bans on foreign traders. Although many colonists benefited from English trade, they still broke the acts and continued trading with foreign nations, which significantly angered the British.
  • The Takeover of New York

    The Takeover of New York
    In the mid-1650s, new Netherlands' crippling Indian War, authoritarian government, small population, and lack of interest in furs made it an unstable colony, which lead to leisurely conditions for the British to capture it in 1664. With the British's capture, New Netherlands became New York, and the Dutch were pushed away from colonizing the New World. New York later became a major aspect of early United States history and helped America become a world superpower.
  • Metacom War

    Metacom War
    From 1675 - 1676, Metacom, the chief of the Wampanoag tribe, lead a coalition of Native American tribes against the New England settlers. Metacom believed that the English colonists had to be expelled because of their disrespect towards Native Americans, so he formed an alliance with the Narangsetts and Nimpucks and attacked colonial settlements throughout New England. Overall, 1,000 white settlers and 4,500 Indians died in this event, making it the bloodiest war per capita in American history.
  • Two Treatise of Government

    Two Treatise of Government
    In 1689, John Locke published "Two Treatises of Government". The book proposed that governments emerge from the consent of the governed to protect their natural rights. John Locke's ideas helped shape the ideas of the Enlightenment era during the 18th century, along with many others. Enlightenment ideas were also used as motivation for the American Revolution and helped create various aspects of the United States government, such as representative democracy and the constitution.
  • Salem Witch Trials of 1692

    Salem Witch Trials of 1692
    Mass hysteria caused by paranoia and religious fervor in Salem, Massachusetts led to the Salem Witch Trials of 1692. The Trials were a series of prosecutions and hearings of people accused of practicing witchcraft in Salem. By 1693, 25 people were killed due to the trials. The Salem Witch Trials contributed to reform in the American court system, like instituting rights to legal representation, creating cross-examinations for the accusers, and the 'guilty until proven innocent' idea.
  • The Molasses Act of 1733

    The Molasses Act of 1733
    In 1733, Britain passed the Molasses Act, which imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum that is imported from non-British foreign countries into the American colonies. It was designed to create a monopoly of the American sugar market to the British West Indies sugarcane growers. In 1764, the British passed the Sugar Act, which reduced the Molasses Act tax from 6 pence to 3 pence. The Sugar Act lead to colonists' protests of "No taxation without representation", leading to anti-British hatred
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

    Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
    In 1741, Jonathan Edwards wrote the sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and preached it to profound effect in Northampton, Massachusetts, and Enfield, Connecticut. In the sermon, Edwards appeals to sinners about god's wrath and how his judgment will be more painful and fearful than they can believe. This sermon is considered a major part of the Great Awakening, which was a movement dedicated to increasing religious piety and creating a more personal relationship between us and god
  • Stono Rebellion

    Stono Rebellion
    The Stono Rebellion was the largest slave insurrection in Colonial America. In 1739, 20 African Americans raided a store near the Stono River for weapons. They then headed south and killed more than 20 white people while also recruiting even more members. Although the slave rebels were eventually captured, this slave revolt terrified South Carolina. As a result of the revolt, white lawmakers imposed a moratorium on slave imports and enacted a harsher slave code.
  • The Albany Plan of Union

    The Albany Plan of Union
    The Albany Plan of Union was a plan to unite the American colonies together. Although the Albany Congress initially met to discuss negotiations between the New York colony and the Iroquois Confederation, they also discussed intercolonial cooperation on various issues. Many colonists believed unification was a benefit due to mutual defense between colonies. Although ultimately unsuccessful, the Plan brought the colonies closer together and was the first plan to try and unify under 1 government.
  • The Proclamation Line of 1763

    The Proclamation Line of 1763
    After the British and Americans won the French and Indian War, France surrendered its territory east of the Mississippi to the victors. Still, Britain created a Proclamation Line in the Appalachian mountains, making it illegal for Americans to settle west of it because they wanted to manage Americans easier. This line angered Americans because they believed their war victory granted them the western lands. This led to anti-British resentment growing among the colonists, which lead to Revolution.
  • Townshend Acts

    Townshend Acts
    After the British sugar act and stamp act taxed the colonies to gain funds for the British, Britain introduced the Townshend Acts in 1767, which established duties on tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors imported into the colonies. The money raised from these duties would be paid to imperial officials in the colonies. The import duties lead to boycotts in the colonies and heightened tensions between Britain and America. They also revived the constitutional debate over taxation.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    On March 5, 1770, a mob of patriots in Boston began throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks at a group of British soldiers. At the time, many Americans were angry at the various taxes put on them by the Sugar, Stamp, and Townshend acts by the British parliament without American representation, so they showed their anger at these British soldiers. Suddenly, someone in the area yelled, "Fire!", and the British fired their weapons, killing 5 people. This event made the Americans resent Britain more.
  • Formation of the 2nd Continental Congress

    Formation of the 2nd Continental Congress
    After the Battle at Lexington and Concord, the 2nd Continental Congress was formed in order to prepare for the American Revolutionary War. In it, the continental army was established and George Washington was appointed as its chief. The Olive Branch Petition was also drafted in the meetings, but King George 3 refused to hear it and declared the American colonies in revolt. The Declaration of Independence was also approved by the meetings. Overall, the Congress fought strongly for our freedom
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense

    Thomas Paine's Common Sense
    Thomas Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense, passionately laid out the arguments for independence from Britain. Before the pamphlet's release, Americans had largely mixed opinions on independence from Great Britain. This changed when Common Sense was released. Its use of logical and emotional arguments convinced the majority of Americans to support independence from Britain. The pamphlet's influence also lead our country's leaders to write the Declaration of Independence and begin the Revolution.
  • The Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga
    The Saratoga Battle is considered the turning point of the American Revolution. In 1777, British Lord Germain planned a 3-pronged attack converging in Albany, New York to isolate New England. Burgoyne, Leger, and Howe's armies would meet in the city. However, due to a lack of communication, the only British Army to reach Albany was Burgoyne's, and he surrendered. This American victory led to an American military alliance with France, which helped us win the war, including our Yorktown Victory.
  • The Treaty of Paris (1783)

    The Treaty of Paris (1783)
    After the British surrender at the battle of Yorktown in 1781, America and Britain met in Paris in 1783 to sign the Treaty of Paris (1783). The Treaty officially ended the American Revolutionary War and formally recognized the United States of America as an independent nation. Britain also ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States, doubling the size of our country. After fighting for 8 years, America finally gained the independence it desired.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    Shays' Rebellion represented the problems with the Articles of Confederation. After the Revolutionary War, many farms were in massive debt loads and disrepair. Daniel Shay lead a rebellion with other farmers affected by the debt to rise up and close the courts to prevent them from foreclosing upon their debt-encumbered farms. The government could not suppress the Rebellion due to the Articles of Confederation. This event convinced many Americans to believe we needed a new system of government.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    In 1787, the constitutional convention was called to create a constitution for the United States. Some Ideas discussed at the convention and later implemented into the constitution were the 3/5 compromise, the Bill of Rights, the Connecticut Compromise, the improper clause, and the 10th Amendment. Many of the ideas were implemented to create a compromise between Federalists and anti-Federalists. The convention's creation of the constitution established a more balanced government in the USA.
  • Hamilton's Financial Plan

    Hamilton's Financial Plan
    During George Washington's presidency, the secretary of the treasury, Federalist Alexander Hamilton, came up with a financial plan for the country. In it, he planned to assume state debts, raise federal government revenue through tariffs, and create a national bank. Hamilton faced fierce opposition from anti-federalist Thomas Jefferson, who felt that the national bank was unconstitutional. Eventually, Hamilton's plan passed in 1790 and helped solve many fiscal problems in America at the time.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    When France began seizing American ships, John Adams sent 3 diplomats to Paris to sort out the issue with France. France stated that they would only stop if the Americans paid a bribe, which made the U.S. angry. Americans were ready for war against France, but Adams negotiates for peace with Napoleon, which ended hostilities with France. During the XYZ Affair, Adams passed the Alien and Sedition Act due to his anticipation of a war with France. The acts limited speech and immigrant rights.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson sent James Monroe to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans for $3 million dollars. Napoleon isn't interested unless Jefferson buys the whole Louisiana Territory for $15 million dollars. Jefferson agrees, and it doubles the size of the United States. The purchase also secured New Orleans and the Mississippi River for the United States. In 1804, Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the new territory and find a water route to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    Marbury v. Madison established the Supreme Court's ability to apply judicial review to legislative & executive acts. The case began after James Madison refused to give William Marbury his appointment letter. Judge Marshall said that Marbury had a right to the appointment due to the Judicial Act of 1789, but since the act conflicted with the constitution, it was declared unconstitutional and therefore null and void. With this case, the supreme court could use judicial review in all future cases.
  • The Embargo Act of 1807

    The Embargo Act of 1807
    In 1807, the Embargo Act was passed under Thomas Jefferson's presidency. It closed all U.S. ports to exports and restricted imports from Britain. It was Jefferson's response to European interference with American ships during the Napoleonic War. The Act negatively affected agriculture, shipping industries, the existing market, and unemployment, and it overall just devastated America's economy. It also encouraged manufacturing in America, which was the opposite of what Jefferson wanted.
  • The Declaration of the War of 1812

    The Declaration of the War of 1812
    Throughout the Napoleonic Wars, Britain was impressing many American ships in order to increase its fleet. The British had also decided to support Native American resistance against the United States. America decided that they were done with the British's antics and declared war on June 18, 1812. Although the Americans had a weaker military compared to the British, they still didn't lose hope through the war. After the war, America became more patriotic and gained respect from other countries
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was fought between Americans and the British during the War of 1812. In the battle, the multicultural American forces, led by Andrew Jackson, virtually mauled the British by hiding behind earthworks and cannons. The British lost a whopping 2,042 soldiers. Although the Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812 in 1814, the word had not gotten out until after the Battle of New Orleans, so many Americans believed that this battle ended the war, and Jackson became a war hero.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise stated that in the Louisiana Territory, all lands above the 36,30' latitude line would outlaw slavery (With the exception of Missouri). It was created over the debate of whether the state of Missouri should allow slavery or not. Although the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Compromise of 1850, and the Dred-Scott case essentially repealed the Compromise Line, it helped maintain congressional balance in the senate and created a balance between free and slave states.
  • Steam Engines come to America

    Steam Engines come to America
    When the steam engine first came to the United States in 1829, it revolutionized America. It became the power source of many machines and vehicles, such as trains, factories, and steamboats. The invention of such innovations made it easier for people to buy, sell, and ship goods throughout the country. The Steam Engine's impact on America was also a pivotal moment in America's Market Revolution, which was an event that drastically changed America's economy to become more industrialized.
  • The Indian Removal Act of 1830

    The Indian Removal Act of 1830
    Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which would kick out any Native Americans living on United States land and move them to reserved Indian territory. Although the act affected many Native American groups, the Cherokees were affected the most. From 1838-1839, the Cherokees were forced to move west with little time to prepare. Half of them died on the trail, and the ones that survived had to adapt to a new way of life. This event was known as "The Trail of Tears".
  • First Issue of the Liberator

    First Issue of the Liberator
    The Liberator was a successful weekly abolitionist newspaper that was published and printed by William Lloyd Garrison, a leader in the abolition movement. It denounced all people and acts that would prolong slavery, which was quite radical and controversial for its time. The success of the newspaper mainly came from free blacks, who were 75% of its readers. It was the most influential antislavery periodical pre-Civil War and converted many Americans to become abolitionists.
  • Jackson's Bank War

    Jackson's Bank War
    Jackson's Bank policy became one of the most disastrous fiscal policies in American history. Because of his hatred towards the 2nd National Bank, President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill extending its charter and moved most government funds from the national bank to state banks. These state banks began to print more and more paper money, causing rapid inflation. This inflation and rampant land speculation at the time cause the Panic of 1837, which was an economic depression that lasted until 1843.
  • Lectures on Revivals of Religion

    Lectures on Revivals of Religion
    In 1835, Charles Finney published his book "Lectures on Revival of Religion", which was a collection of 23 lectures Finney gave to his church. Various themes discussed in the book were revival, preaching the gospel, and instructions for sinners. Charles Finney was a major leader of the 2nd Great Awakening who preached about free will and how your actions point to the condition of your soul. The 2nd Great Awakening's ideals helped spread piety and social reform throughout 19th-century America.
  • "Remember the Alamo!"

    "Remember the Alamo!"
    In 1836, during the Texas Revolution, when Americans rebelled against Mexico's President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and proclaimed Texas as independent, the Mexican Army wiped out the Texas garrison defending the Alamo. Santa Anna believed he had crushed the rebellion, but newspapers published in the U.S. romanticized the deaths of the attack and told Americans to "Remember the Alamo". This convinced many Americans to go to Texas and fight for independence, which eventually happened in 1836.
  • The First Telegram Message Sent

    The First Telegram Message Sent
    In 1844, communication was revolutionized when the very first telegram message ever sent, "What hath God Wrought", was sent by Samuel B. Morse from Washington D.C. to Baltimore, Maryland. The telegram allowed people to send messages to each other from across the country. It allowed us to send full thoughts and ideas to others using the morse code as an alphabet. The telegraph was a major part of America's Market Revolution, and it drastically changed American communication at the time.
  • The Irish Potato Famine

    The Irish Potato Famine
    From 1845 - 1852, Ireland had a potato famine that resulted in starvation and disease. Due to the famine, 1.5 million Irish people immigrated to America for a better life. 5 million Germans also came to America during the 19th century for better opportunities. The surge in Irish and German immigration improved the American economy and increased nativist sentiments. European immigration also led to the creation of the Homestead Act and provided labor for railroad construction
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention in America. The Declaration of Sentiments, a rousing manifesto extending to women the egalitarian republican ideology of the Declaration of Independence, was read at the convention. Ideas discussed at the convention were women's rights to higher education, property rights, divorce, etc. Although most men and women at the time dismissed the convention as nonsense, it lead the way for women's rights movements all around America.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    After the United States won the Mexican-American War, they signed a treaty with Mexico called "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". The treaty stated that Texas's border is the Rio Grande River and that America will receive the Mexican Cession, which includes parts of modern-day California, Arizona, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. The Treaty helped extend America's borders all the way to the Pacific Ocean and satisfied President Polk's expansionist ambitions for the country.
  • Civil Disobedience

    Civil Disobedience
    Civil Disobedience was an essay written by Henry Thoreau which represented many of the popular transcendentalist ideas from the 19th century. In it, Thoreau argued that governments worked best when they governed the least, and he urged his readers to prioritize their conscience over law. Events like the Mexican-American War and slavery helped contextualize Thoreau's perspective. Civil disobedience inspired many leaders around the world to achieve goals through non-violence, like Gandhi and MLK.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Harriet Beecher Stove's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, displayed the immoral nature of slavery. The novel depicted the whippings, sexual abuse, separation of families, and white guilt innate in slavery, and convinced many Americans and people around the world to become abolitionists and fight against slavery. The book also increased the sectional divide in America as it inspired many abolitionists to speak out against slavery. In 1862, Lincoln joked that the book caused the war, showing its influence
  • The Potawotamie Massacre

    The Potawotamie Massacre
    The Pottawatomie Massacre represented the sectional tension during Bleeding Kansas. In response to the pro-slavery sacking of Lawrence, Kansas, Abolitionist John Brown and his associates hacked 5 proslavery settlers to death with sabers in Potawatomie Creek, Kansas. The massacre set off a major guerilla war in Kansas and made it an unsafe place. In contrast with Charles Sumner's caning, Northerners mostly ignored the event while southerners were angered by it, causing more sectional conflict.
  • The Election of 1860

    The Election of 1860
    In the 1860 election, Republican Abraham Lincoln won with 108 more electoral than Democrat John Breckenridge. This caused outrage in the Deep South, where Lincoln was not even on the ballot in many states. Slowly, one by one, the South began to secede from the Union, and in December 1860, these seceded states formed the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy officially began the Civil War with the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.
  • The Pacific Railway Act (1862)

    The Pacific Railway Act (1862)
    The Pacific Railway Acts were created in order to create a transcontinental railroad in the U.S. Many Americans thought the task was impossible, but it was completed in 1869 due to the intense competition between the Central Pacific and Union Pacific companies. The railroad's creation leads to the easier spread of goods throughout the country. For example, Americans in the west could now easily receive goods created in New England and vice versa. It also reduced travel times in the US.
  • The Battle at Gettysburg

    The Battle at Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg is considered to be the turning point of the Civil War for the Union. The battle started when the union and confederate armies accidentally met in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Both armies fought for 3 days, with the Union winning the battle on the final day. Overall, 93,321 Union and 71,699 Confederates died in the battle, making it the deadliest battle in the war. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address after the war helped motivate American to support the Civil War efforts.
  • The Passing of the 13th Amendment

    The Passing of the 13th Amendment
    Although the Emancipation Proclamation banned slavery in the Confederacy (which was not effective due to their secession), the 13th Amendment banned slavery throughout the entirety of the United States in 1865. The amendment also banned involuntary servitude and peonage. Although the Amendment did not guarantee equal rights for black Americans, it was a step in the right direction for equal rights for all Americans, and lead the way for the civil rights and suffrage movements in America.
  • The 15th Amendment

    The 15th Amendment
    After the 14th amendment granted greater citizenship rights and made it easier for people to become citizens, the 15th amendment expanded citizens' rights even more. It prohibited any state from discriminating against any citizen's right to vote due to race, color, or previous condition of servitude. After the passing of this amendment, many black men began to run for office and vote for politicians. Today, we now remember this amendment as a defining moment of 1800s civil rights progress.
  • American Progress

    American Progress
    John Gast's American Progress represented the American belief in manifest destiny that was popular from 1812 to 1867. The angel represented the popular belief that god wished for westward expansion. The weather shows that many Americans believed the westward migration would improve the west. The angel is also holding a telegraph line, telling us that westward expansion would bring technological advancements to the west. The painting showed westward migration's popularity in the 1800s.
  • The Panic of 1873

    The Panic of 1873
    In 1873, both Germany and the US ceased coining silver as money, which slowed the global economy. Investor John Cooke's firm and the Northern Pacific Railroad also went bankrupt around this time. These events led to the Panic of 1873, and it led to many disastrous situations in America. 89 of the 364 U.S. railroad companies went bankrupt, and by 1876, 14% of Americans were unemployed. The Panic also undercut republic Reconstruction efforts, as it led to government entrenchment in the south.
  • Little Big Horn

    Little Big Horn
    In the post-civil war era, various conditions lead to greater westward migration, which caused many conflicts with Native Americans living in the era. One of these conflicts was the Battle of Little Big Horn. In it, the Sioux nation fought with the American military. Although the Sioux won, their victory was viewed as evidence of the volatility and violence of Native Americans, bringing more US troops to Indian Territories. This event shows the conflicts of the Indian Wars in the 1800s.
  • The Assassination of President Garfield

    The Assassination of President Garfield
    On September 10, 1881, President Garfield was assassinated by Charles Guiteau. Guiteau killed Garfield because Garfield did not give him a government job (Spoils System). This incident showed the corruption of the Spoils System, and it later lead to the creation of the Pendleton Act, which required federal job seekers to pass a civil service exam, effectively ending the Spoils System. Overall, President Garfield's assassination showed Americans the corruption of the spoils system.
  • Tammany Hall

    Tammany Hall
    NYC's Tammany Hall was the most famous political machine during the gilded age. A political machine is an organization that works to win elections to exercise government power. Many political machines would provide aid to new immigrants in exchange for their votes in the election. These urban machines were known to be corrupt and used violence and intimidation to get their way. Some political bosses include Boss Tweed and Croker. Overall, political machines represented gilded-age corruption.
  • Haymarket Riot

    Haymarket Riot
    The Haymarket Riot was a confrontation between labor protestors and police that occurred in Haymarket Square in Chicago. On May 5, 1886, a rally was organized at Haymarket Square to protest the killing of several workers by the police during a strike. During the protest, things got violent when a protestor threw a bomb at policemen at the square. This turned the protest into a riot, and 8 people died in the process. Overall, the Haymarket Riot was viewed as a setback for labor rights in America.
  • Hull House

    Hull House
    The Hull House was a settlement house created by Jane Addams. The House was designed to offer social services to the community, particularly to immigrants and the poor. Some of its services included English classes, material assistance, and legal help. The Hull House was just one of many settlement houses across the nation, mostly run by women, designed to help out disadvantaged groups of people. Overall, settlement houses helped improve conditions for immigrants and other disadvantaged people.
  • How the Other Half Lives

    How the Other Half Lives
    In 1890, Photographer and author Jacob Riis published the book 'How the Other Half Lives' to show the horror of tenement housing apartments. Riis used the book to expose Americans to the horrid living conditions in New York slums during the 1880s. The book was successful, as it lead to New York legislation designed to improve living conditions in tenement housing. Overall, 'How the Other Half Lives improved living conditions for impoverished Americans in cities and contributed to social reforms.
  • The Populist Party/People's Party

    The Populist Party/People's Party
    In 1891, the Populist Party was formed in response to high debt, failing farm prices, and high unemployment in the lower classes. The Party was quite popular among agrarian workers and was considered to be a party of radicals and reform. Some of their policies included secret ballots, graduated income tax, government ownership of infrastructure, and banking reform. The party also helped pass the 17th Amendment. Overall, The Populist Party represented 1890s America's want for reform.
  • The Explosion of the USS Maine

    The Explosion of the USS Maine
    The explosion of the USS Maine was the catalyst for the start of the Spanish-American War. Throughout the 1890s, various factors lead to tensions between the US and Spain. The De Lome letter, where Spain admitted to having no plans to create a Cuba peace deal, and inflammatory yellow journalism led to increased tensions between us and Spain. But the USS Maine's explosion in Cuba, which Spain was not involved with, officially lead to the US declaring war, beginning the Spanish-American war.
  • The US Steel Merger

    The US Steel Merger
    In 1901, JP Morgan merged Andrew Carnegie's Steel corporation with 9 other steel companies to form the largest steel corporation: US Steel. US Steel was valued at $1.4 billion and was one of the world's largest and most powerful corporations at the time. This merger showed the rise of corporations in the late 1800s and showed how wealthy the captains of industries, like Carnegie, were during the gilded age. Overall, the US Steel merger showed the immense power of corporations in the gilded age.
  • The Jungle

    The Jungle
    The Jungle was a 1906 novel by muckraker Upton Sinclair exposing the abuse and poor conditions in the meat packing industry and advocating for socialism. The book's detailed descriptions of rancid, diseased, rotten meat lead the way for new federal food safety laws. The Meat Inspection Act and FDA Act were both created partly by the meatpacking conditions revealed in The Jungle, and they both helped protect consumer protection. The Jungle helped change the way consumption is regulated in the US.
  • Creation of the Model T

    Creation of the Model T
    In 1908, Ford introduced the Ford Model T to the world for $850, but Henry Ford wanted it to be affordable and simple to use, so by using a moving assembly line to create the car, he reduce the price to $280. This made the car affordable to many Americans, and it revolutionized transportation. Americans could now quickly travel around the country and it was now easily possible to live away from your workplace. Overall, the creation of affordable cars changed the way Americans traveled forever.
  • Breakup of Standard Oil

    Breakup of Standard Oil
    In 1911, the Taft Administration used the Sherman Antitrust Act in order to dissolve Rockefeller's Standard Oil into 34 companies. The reasons for dissolving the company were due to its monopolistic actions, such as predatory pricing, bribing officials, stopping competitors from using oil pipelines, etc. With the breakup of Standard Oil, there was no longer a monopoly on the oil industry, leading to more competition and lower prices. This case showed how antitrust laws protects competition.
  • Espionage Act

    Espionage Act
    In 1917, the Espionage Act was passed, and it prohibited speech that included "any disloyal, profane, or abusive language about the government of the US or the flag of the US". This Act severely restricted the 1st Amendment rights of Americans and is considered to be an infringement of the rights of Americans. Both the Espionage Act and Sedition Act (1918) lead to the arrest of over 200,000 people. Overall, the Espionage + Sedition Acts severely restricted the freedom of speech for Americans.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    During WW1, large numbers of white men left to go fight the war, leaving many factories underemployed. This was the perfect opportunity for southern African Americans, who faced racial violence and low economic opportunity in the South. These Southern African Americans migrated in mass to Northern industrial cities like New York and Chicago and found economic opportunity in many factory jobs. Overall, black migrants from the south found new opportunities in Northern Cities during WW1.
  • The Zimmerman Telegram

    The Zimmerman Telegram
    In January 1917, the US intercepted a message Germany was trying to send to Mexico. In it, Germany promised to give Mexico back American territory if they agreed to attack the US. Although Mexico declined the offer, the Zimmerman Telegram, along with the sinking of the Lusitania and Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare, lead to American public opinion turning against Germany, which lead to Congress declaring war against Germany in 1917. Overall, Germany's hostility lead to the US joining WW1
  • The 18th Amendment

    The 18th Amendment
    On December 5, 1933, the 18th amendment passed, and it prohibited "the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors." The decision was made after years of efforts from various organizations to ban alcohol. This ban, however, didn't stop Americans from drinking alcohol. Many Americans drank alcohol illegally at speakeasies and a whole industry of organized crime from bootlegging alcohol popped up. Overall, prohibition was not successful and the amendment was repealed in 1933.
  • The Treaty of Versailles

    The Treaty of Versailles
    After WW1 ended, the European Powers wanted to punish Germany for its role in the war, so they created the Treaty of Versailles. In the Treaty, Germany had to significantly reduce the size of its military, had to pay war reparations, had to return land gained during the war, etc. The Treaty of Versailles destabilizes Germany's economy and lead to conditions that allowed for Hitler's rise to power and eventually WW2. The Treaty of Versailles lead to Germany's destabilization and the start of WW2.
  • The 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment
    On August 18, 1919, Congress ratified the 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote. The fight for women's suffrage largely began in the mid-19th century, and it took several years for women to gain the right to vote. Although many states had allowed women to vote before the amendment, the amendment secured women's voting rights throughout the entire United States. Overall, the 19th Amendment remains a major milestone for women's rights and equality in the United States.
  • Popularity of the Radio

    Popularity of the Radio
    After their introduction in WW1, radios became commonplace in American homes during the 1920s, with 60% of American households owning one during the 1920s. The use of radios helped bring entertainment, news, culture, information, etc. to American households, as well as help bridge the cultural divides throughout America. Advertisers also found new opportunities in radio, as they didn't have to rely on active participation from consumers anymore. Overall, radios change how Americans communicated.
  • The Harlem Renaissance

    The Harlem Renaissance
    After the Great Migration in WW1, many African Americans formed black communities in northern cities. These new communities had flourishing black artistic expression during the 1920s, particularly in Harlem in New York City. Black journalists, poets, musicians, and artists began making art about black pride and the experience of being black. One example of this art is the jazz age, which became popular during the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance ushered in a new wave of black art.
  • Palmer Raids

    Palmer Raids
    During the 20s, the rise of a red scare in America led to the Palmer Raids. The Palmer Raids were raids that involved mass arrests and deportation of those suspected to be communists or radicals. These raids were in response to the rise of unions, immigration, and bombing during the 1920s. The raids represented how America was willing to ignore civil rights in order to combat communism. Overall, the Palmer Raids represented America's fear and hostility to communists and radicals.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    In 1924, the US passed the Immigration Act, severely limiting the number of people who could immigrate to America (2% of the 1890 population). The Act also completely excluded Asian immigrants. This Act severely restricted the flow of immigrants coming into the country, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe, which had tighter immigration quotas compared to Western Europe due to America's fear of the spread of communism. Overall, the Immigration Act showed the US's xenophobia at the time.
  • Scopes Trial

    Scopes Trial
    The Scopes Trial was a legal case in 1925 where a teacher named John Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution, which was in violation of Tennessee's Butler Act. After the trial, Scopes was found guilty and paid a $100 fine. This trial represented the division between science and religion at the time. The prosecutors in the trials argued that evolution went against the bible while the defendants argued religion shouldn't be used in law. The trial was a famous instance of science v religion.
  • Wall Street Crash of 1929

    Wall Street Crash of 1929
    The poor economic decisions during the 1920s would lead to the worst stock market crash in US history. During the roaring 20s, many Americans began to buy things on credit, like appliances and stocks. This led to large amounts of debt in banks. Farming overproduction and low industry wages led to less consumption among Americans, which worsened the economy. All of these factors lead to the 1929 Market Crash, and they would lead to the Great Depression and its various negative effects on America
  • Bonus Army

    Bonus Army
    In mid-1932, thousands of WW1 veterans marched on Washington to demand to receive their 1945 bonus money early. Because of the Great Depression, many of these veterans were struggling, and they wanted their bonuses immediately. The senate refused, and many protestors left. But some stayed and congregated around the White House. After months, Pres. Hoover called the army to evict the protestors. The Bonus Army showed desperation during the depression and the lackluster government response.
  • Civilian Conservation Corps

    Civilian Conservation Corps
    The Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC) was one of the federal programs created by the New Deal in order to reduce unemployment. In the CCC, young men would be employed to perform conservation work throughout the nation's forests, parks, and fields. The program was a great success, as 3 billion trees were planted from it and more than 700 state parks were established. 3 million young men were also employed due to the program. Overall, the CCC shaped environmental conservation in America.
  • The Peak of the Dust Bowl

    The Peak of the Dust Bowl
    In the Great Plains, overproduction and single-crop farming led to soil exhaustion and erosion, which led to the environmental disaster known as the Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was the name given to describe the endless droughts that occurred in the Great Plains from 1929 - 1941. These droughts lead to numerous issues, like crops disappearing, food scarcity, homelessness, etc., with the peak of the Dust Bowl occurring in April 1935. The Dust Bowl was the greatest ecological disaster of the 1900s.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Munich Conference was a meeting in Munich, Germany, where leaders of Britain, France, and Italy allowed Germany to annex the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia as long as they didn't engage in any more aggression action. Although Hitler, the leader of Germany, agreed to the deal, in September 1939, Germany had invaded Poland and had broken their promises, making the Munich Conference a failure. Overall, the Munich Conference did not stop Hitler's aggressive actions, and its failure lead to WW2.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    On December 7, 1941, during the middle of World War 2, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. They used fighter planes, dive bombers, torpedo planes, etc. to destroy the naval base. The attack was so quick that the US didn't have time to respond. 2,355 US servicemen were killed and several US ships were destroyed. It was the deadliest foreign attack on America at the time and traumatized the nation. On December 8, 1941, the US officially declared its involvement with the Allied Powers in WW2
  • World War 2 Rationing

    World War 2 Rationing
    During WW2, the US created a rationing system in order to conserve resources for the war effort. Rationing coupons and stamps were created, and they were used to limit the purchasing power of numerous household goods such as gasoline, rubber, sugar, etc. Responses to the rationing system were mixed, with some cheerily accepting it while others loathing it. Some people bought goods in the black market to avoid the rationing system. Overall, ration coupons helped conserve resources during WW2.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    In February 1942, FDR signed Executive Order 9066, which stated that anyone deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast could be sent to internment camps. This resulted in the incarceration of 127,000 Japanese Americans, with many of them being innocent. Living conditions in the camps were poor and 1600 prisoners died in the camps. When the Japanese were freed in 1946, they lost their assets and had to start life over. Overall, the camps ruined the lives of Japanese Americans.
  • D-Day

    On June 6, 1944, the allied forces invaded the coast of Normandy, France in the event that would be known as D-day. The operation was created in order to create a western front attack on the Germans. In the invasion, 156,000 men and 5,400 ships crossed the English Channel to fight in France. Although the allies faced 8,443 casualties, the operation lead to a major victory for the allies and helped changed the tide of the war. D-day would be remembered as the largest seaborne invasion in history.
  • G.I. Bill

    G.I. Bill
    The creation of the G.I. Bill was our government's way of saying thank you to the soldiers who fought during World War 2. The G.I. Bill passed in 1944, and it paid for the education of WW2 veterans, as well as giving them low-interest home and business loans. The Bill helped many veterans go to college, buy homes, and start businesses, which gave them a higher quality of life. The Bill also set expectations for future generations to go to college. Overall, the bill improved the lives of veterans
  • The Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    From August 6 - August 9, 1945, the US dropped 2 atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, killing 110,000 to 210,000 people in total (estimates vary). The bombs were launched by President Truman to avoid a costly land invasion of Japan and to quickly put an end to the war. The bomb was successful in its goals because, on August 15, 1945, Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's surrender, officially ending WW2. Overall, the atomic bombs ended WW2 and later began the Cold War.
  • The Yalta Conference

    The Yalta Conference
    In February 1945, FDR, Churchill, and Staling came together in Yalta to discuss the postwar world. In the Conference, the 3 world leaders discussed World Organization(UN), the dismemberment of Germany, Russia's war against Japan, and Poland. In this meeting, along with the July 1945 Potsdam meeting, greater distrust and difference between the US and USSR led to greater tensions between the 2 nations, and it led to the cold war. Overall, the Yalta Conference helped end WW2 and began the cold war.
  • The Baby Boom

    The Baby Boom
    During the postwar era, the US experienced an inflated birth rate. This was due to postwar economic prosperity and numerous people wanting to start families after WW2. The babies born during this era were known as baby boomers, and they had a large impact on American society. The large number of boomers meant that institutions like hospitals, schools, etc. had to increase in size. They also led counter-culture movements like the hippie movement. Baby boomers changed America in dramatic ways.
  • The Marshall Plan/Economic Recovery Act of 1948

    The Marshall Plan/Economic Recovery Act of 1948
    The Marshall Plan was an American Plan to give money to European countries to rebuild their economies after WW2. After WW2, several European countries were in a ruinous state, so the US decided to provide economic assistance to these countries by creating the Marshall Plan in 1948. Over the next 4 years, Congress appropriated 13.3 billion dollars to aid Europe's recovery. The Marshall Plan was successful as it helped rebuild Europe's economy and provided markets for US goods.
  • China Falls To Communism

    China Falls To Communism
    In October 1949, Mao Zedong's Chinese Communist Party defeated the Nationalist Party in the Chinese Revolution, leading to China becoming the most populous communist country in the world. The trend of countries becoming communist was common during the cold war in numerous places, such as Cuba, Vietnam, North Korea, etc. China's fall to communism also began the US's policy of containment and Truman Doctrine extending to Asia. China's fall to communism showed how rapidly communism spread.
  • McCarthyism

    On February 9, 1950, Senator Joseph McCarthy stated at a meeting in Wheeling, West Virginia that he had a list of 205 communists working at the state dept. This led to McCarthyism, a campaign designed to find alleged communists in the American government and media. If you were found to be a communist during this era, you were likely fired or blacklisted from your job. The HUAC investigated communist threats during this era publicly. McCarthyism led to an increased fear of communism in the 50s.
  • The End of the Korean War

    The End of the Korean War
    The Korean War officially came to an end when China, North Korea, South Korea, and the US all agreed to sign an armistice to stop fighting in the war. The Korean War began when communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea. The US, with its policy of containment, sided with South Korea in the conflict. Eventually, the conflict turned into a war of attrition, and by 1954, all parties involved decided to end the conflict. The Korean War represents America's fight against communism abroad.
  • Brown vs. The Board of Education

    Brown vs. The Board of Education
    In 1951, Oliver Brown filed a lawsuit against the Topeka Board of Education because his daughter, Linda Brown, was not allowed to come to Topeka's white elementary schools. Thurgood Marshall represented Brown in the trial, and he won, legally ending racially segregated schools in America. Plessy v. Ferguson was also overturned, officially ending 'Separate but Equal' institutions. Overall, Brown v. Board of Education's ending of 'Separate but Equal' institutions lead to greater civil rights.
  • Half of Americans Own Television

    Half of Americans Own Television
    Although Television was created in the 1920s, its popularity rose in the 1950s, and by 1955, half of all American households owned at least 1 TV set. TVs changed how Americans received their news, entertainment, culture, etc., overtaking radios as America's #1 way of digital communication. TV also changed the view we perceived public figures, as we can now visually see them and make new judgments of them (Ex. Richard Nixon in the 1960 Presidential Debate). TVs changed how Americans communicated.
  • Interstate Act

    Interstate Act
    In 1956, the way Americans traveled changed forever with the Interstate Act. The act authorized the creation of a network of interstate highways nationwide. These highways were based on the German autobahn and were much faster-paced than the previous highway system. The act was also made to make it easier to evacuate places in the event of a major war. Overall, the interstate act provided a faster and easier way for Americans to travel nationwide and move goods around the country.
  • Billy Graham's Crusade at Madison Square Garden

    Billy Graham's Crusade at Madison Square Garden
    In 1957, Billy Graham gave his longest evangelistic crusade in Madison Square Garden, which lasted 16 weeks. Billy Graham was one of the most famous televangelists in history, and he helped usher in a new wave of Christianity in America. He used the medium of television to spread Christianity globally and spread his ideas to millions around the world. Graham was one aspect of the religious boom in America in the 50s. Overall, Billy Graham used television to spread Christianity around the world.
  • Launching of the Sputnik

    Launching of the Sputnik
    In October 1957, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik satellite into space, making it the first ever man-made object launched into space. The launch of Sputnik represented a breakthrough in scientific technology and helped begin the Space Age. The Sputnik launch also lead to the US-USSR space race, where both countries competed to achieve superior spacecraft capabilities. This race culminated in the first humans landing on the moon. Overall, Sputnik helped create a new age of space discovery.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cuban Missile Crisis
    In mid-1962, the US found ICBM launch sites being built in Cuba, so in October 1962, President Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine on Cuba. This was done to prevent the USSR from bringing in more weapons. On October 27, 1962, the USSR ship Grozny was caught trying to deliver ICBMs to Cuba. After we launch a warning shot on the Grozny, it stops moving and later leaves. Kruschev then later removes ICBMs from Cuba. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world has gotten to nuclear conflict.
  • The March on Washington

    The March on Washington
    In August 1963, the SCLC organized a March in Washington D.C. in order to end Jim Crow racial discrimination and launch a major jobs program to bring employment to black communities. 250K people came to the march, with people being bused in from all over the country. Martin Luther King became the face of the march when he gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. Overall, the March on Washington was successful, as it led to JFK initiating a strong federal civil rights bill in Congress.
  • The Assassination of JFK

    The Assassination of JFK
    On November 22, 1963, Pres. John F. Kennedy was assassinated as he rode through Dealy Plaza in Dallas, Texas. He was shot in the back by Lee Harvey Oswald, who was killed by Jack Ruby the same day. JFK's death traumatized the nation, and the 25th Amendment was later ratified, allowing Lyndon B. Johnson to take over as president. Overall, President John F. Kennedy's death traumatized America, and it lead to the 25th amendment, which stated who takes over if a president dies/resigns.
  • Lyndon B Johnson's War on Poverty

    Lyndon B Johnson's War on Poverty
    In March 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson created the Office of Economic Opportunity and the Economic Opportunity Act in order to end poverty in the US. LBJ attempted to accomplish this goal by furthering underprivileged Americans' job skills, education, and work. LBJ created a job corps, training programs, community action, loans, funds, etc. in order to help underprivileged Americans. Overall, LBJ's War on Poverty represented his ambition in ending poverty through the Great Society.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964
    On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law. The Act prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. The Civil Rights Act essentially ended the Jim Crow Era, and lead the way for future anti-discrimination laws, like the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Overall, The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was considered a significant step forward for equal rights in America and is considered a crowning achievement of the civil rights era.
  • The Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    On August 2nd, 1964, 2 US Navy destroyers were allegedly torpedoed by North Vietnamese ships at the Gulf of Tonkin. The US government panicked about the situation and passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which allowed Pres. Lyndon Johnson to take any measures he believed necessary to promote international peace and security in Southeast Asia. Soon after, American troops were deployed to Vietnam to fight against North Vietnam. The Gulf of Tonkin leads to American involvement in the Vietnam War.
  • The Watergate Scandal

    The Watergate Scandal
    On Jun 17, 1972, several burglars, who were members of Richard Nixon's re-election committee, were arrested at the Democratic National Committee office for wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Since Nixon had connections to the DNC burglars, he tried to cover up the incident to the American public by paying hush money and impeding investigations of the incident. Eventually, the scandal broke out, and Nixon resigned in 1974. The Watergate scandal changed how we held leaders accountable.
  • The Iranian Hostage Crisis

    The Iranian Hostage Crisis
    On November 4, 1979, revolutionary Iranian seized the US embassy in Tehran and held 50 Americans as hostages. For the next 444 days, the US government attempted to rescue the hostages, and the media hyperfocused on the incident. The hostage crisis severely damaged President Carter's reputation and led to greater distrust in the government. On January 20, 1981, the hostages were finally freed and returned back to America. The Iranian hostage crisis lead to a greater distrust of the US government.
  • The Economy Tax Recovery Act of 1981

    The Economy Tax Recovery Act of 1981
    In 1981, Pres. Reagan signed the Economic Recovery Act of 1981 into law. The act introduced a major tax cut for high-income taxpayers, reducing it from 70% to 50%. The act represented Reagan's idea of Reaganomics, which called for tax cuts for the rich in order to support the free market and to "trickle down" the tax cut to lower classes. Reaganomics was successful, as interest rates, inflation, and unemployment fell in the 80s. The Economic Recovery Act represented Reagan's economic philosophy.