APUSH Semester 1 & 2 Final

  • Jamestown Established

    Jamestown Established
    England was the slowest of the big powers of Europe to start colonizing the Americas. They had a few failed attempts to start a settlement in North America. Finally they gave some land to the joint-stock corporation, the Virginia Company. They created a settlement in what is present day Virginia. These settlers later discovered the cash crop tobacco that would make them rich for decades and help build up the English colonies. A system of representative government was also created there.
  • A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God printed

    A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God printed
    A big religious revival was happening in the colonies in the early 1700s called the Great Awakening. Jonathan Edwards was one of the main Puritan leaders of this movement. He was a great speaker and focused on the anger and judgement of God to get people to have new faith. He published his thoughts in "A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God" which was printed in multiple cities. It helped spread the Great Awakening across the colonies along with his various speeches he gave.
  • The Albany Plan of Union Proposed

    The Albany Plan of Union Proposed
    France and British war and conflict made it over to America and the French and Indian War started. The colonist realized that what the British wanted could be different than what they wanted. Benjamin Franklin decided to hold a meeting with delegates from all the colonies about defense and native allies. Here he says that all the colonies needed to unite. They declined but this was the first time the idea that they were all one was introduced. Before that they were just separate colonies.
  • The Treaty of Paris 1763

    The Treaty of Paris 1763
    After a lot of fighting in the French and Indian War, the British won and the Treaty of Paris 1763 was signed. It gave Britain a lot of land from France and made France leave all their other land in the Americas. This completely took out France from the new world. The war made George Washington a war hero which would be important later. The British spent a lot of money on this war and needed to make it back. Thus salutary neglect ended in the colonies and this led to the American Revolution.
  • Sugar Act of 1764

    Sugar Act of 1764
    The French and Indian War was extremely costly to the British. They realized that to make the money they needed they would have to get it from the colonist. They enacted a series of acts that added taxes on things. The Sugar Act was the first of them. The Sugar Act actually lowered a previous tax on French molasses that people got around. The intent was that people would actually have to pay the tax now. This angered the colonists and now salutary neglect was over.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Tensions were high between the colonists and the British. Multiple unpopular taxes went imposed on the colonists and lots of troops were sent to the big city ports. Colonists hated these troops and what they stood for. One day in Boston things were getting intense with people protesting. There were five troops there and the people were throwing things at them. Eventually, one of them shot and five colonists were killed. The papers called it a massacre and used it as propaganda against Britain.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    There was a tax on tea so the colonists decided to boycott tea. Britain enacted the Tea Act of 1773 which actually lowered the tax on tea. However, this angered the colonists even more because it was trying to persuade them to buy. The colonists wouldn't let a tea ship dock but it was really trying to. The revolutionary leaders planned the Boston Tea Party where they would go onto this ship and dump all the tea in the harbor. This infuriated the British and made them pass the Coercive Acts.
  • The Intolerable/Coercive Acts Passed

    The Intolerable/Coercive Acts Passed
    The British were infuriated by the Boston Tea Party and lost a lot of money. They decided to make the Coercive Acts to punish the colonists and make the money back. They closed the port of Boston, outlawed assemblies and took control of the government, and made it so people were tried in England for crimes in America. The colonists were outraged all over the colonies and called these acts intolerable. This led the colonists to be in more rebellion and create the first Continental Congress.
  • First Continental Congress Created

    First Continental Congress Created
    The Colonists were completely outraged by the Coercive Acts and knew something needed done. The Patriot leaders created the First Continental Congress and delegates were sent from 12 of the colonies. They broke into two groups: the radicals wanting war with Britain, and the conservatives wanting reconciliation with Britain. It was decided that the colonists would send an "olive branch petition" where they asked for peace, but if it didn't work they would declare war.
  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

    Battle of Lexington and Concord
    Colonists supplies and some Patriot leaders were in Concord. The British heard about this and sent some troops to take it, so Paul Revere and other riders went to warn the colonists and militia. The militia men engaged the British in Lexington and a shot was fired. The militia had to retreat but met them again at Concord. By the time the British arrived in Concord, the Patriots and supplies were gone. This helped the war not to be over before it started. The British also had a lot of casualties.
  • Thomas Paine’s Common Sense

    Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
    Americans were divided into loyalists and patriots. The incredible writer Thomas Paine wrote his pamphlet Common Sense to sway the people. In this pamphlet he called for independence from Britain with a lot of Enlightenment and Christian ideas. It was extremely accessible and written on the vernacular so everyone could understand it. It sold extremely well in the colonies and persuaded a lot of people. This greatly helped the push for independence.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The problems with the British kept building up until there was virtually no going back. King George had denied the Olive Branch Petition. The Patriots created the Second Continental Congress. Here they created a continental army and made paper money. They also had Thomas Jefferson create a draft of the Declaration of Independence. It listed grievances with Britain and incorporated a lot of Enlightenment. With this the moderates hopes of peace was over and war with Britain was declared.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Revolutionary War had been raging on and the Patriots weren't doing that well. The British general Burgoyne' army was near Saratoga and they were trying to engage the Americans there and have another army flank the Americans. However, the Americans made it there before the second army and completely defeated Burgoyne's army. This was a major turning point in the war. Both sides now had the same amount of armies. This also gave Franklin leverage to make an alliance with the French.
  • Articles of Confederation Created

    Articles of Confederation Created
    Now that the Patriots had declared their independence, they would need to create their own government. They didn't want an executive, standing army, or federal taxing authority. Instead of having a strong federal government, they wanted each state to have the power. They were hoping it to be a loose union of these states instead of one big country. It did not work well. The government was almost bankrupt, but could not raise taxes. The government also couldn't deal with Shay's Rebellion.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    General Cornwallis had been battling Washington in Virginia and was trying to trap him. However, winter approached so he went to Yorktown for protection where he thought he would have the British royal navy. What he didn't know was that the French navy had defeated the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. Cornwallis was now surrounded and surrendered. With that battle, all the major fighting in the war was done. The Patriots had pretty much won the war with this victory.
  • Treaty of Paris 1783

    Treaty of Paris 1783
    After the American victory at Yorktown, the Revolutionary War was practically over. Still, it took about two years for peace to actually be made. This was caused in part because France and Spain wanted to try and get more out of Britain. Finally the Treaty of Paris 1783 was created and signed. It said that the Americans got all of the British lands between the Atlantic and the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes. The French officially joined in a perpetual alliance with the U.S.
  • Constitution Ratified

    Constitution Ratified
    The founding fathers knew that the Articles of Confederation wouldn't work and a new constitution was needed. They decided that a stronger federal government was needed with checks and balances. There was a disagreement on if delegates should be decided by population or not; they decided to just make two houses. Two groups were formed: the Federalists who wanted the Constitution and the anti-federalists who didn't. The federalists ended up winning and the Constitution was ratified.
  • Washington Inaugurated

    Washington Inaugurated
    With the Constitution ratified, a president needed to be elected. The people chose the famous war hero Washington to be their first president and no one ran against him. Washington set many precedents and was a great first president. He knew that the fate of the Constitution was on him and did it well. He created the court system and the presidential cabinet. He also endorsed Hamilton's financial plan which made a national bank and helped build American industry.
  • Cotton Gin invented

    Cotton Gin invented
    Cotton was a cash crop in the south grown in plantations. However, it was pretty hard to produce because slaves would have to hand pick the seeds out of the cotton. This all changed when Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. Slaves could now produce much more cotton. Cotton now became a huge cash crop that made the south very rich. It also heavily increased the need for more slaves. Slavery was starting to lessen before this. Now slavery had a much bigger hold on America and became more used.
  • Interchangeable parts made

    Interchangeable parts made
    When things used to be made before around the 1800s, they were made one item at a time. There would be slight differences in the parts made for each item. This meant that if a part broke it couldn't just be easily replaced. Things were also harder to manufacture in bulk and quickly. This also changed when Eli Whitney created interchangeable parts for muskets. Now a bunch of identical parts of a product could be made and then assembled.This idea became key in the process of manufacturing things.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    This was the first intense close election. It was mainly between the Federalist Adams and Anti-federalist Jefferson. Jefferson had more electoral votes than Adams, but he tied with Burr. This meant that the house would decide who won the presidency. Jefferson was chosen. People were scared how this transition of power would happen because they were different ideologies. However, Adams peacefully stepped down and Jefferson was inaugurated. That was the first time this had ever happened.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Mississippi was really important to the U. S. because it could transport things in the west for trade. However the U.S didn't really have control of the river and just had a deal with Spain to be able to use it for a time. This caused Jefferson to want to buy New Orleans and he sent a delegate to Napoleon. napoleon only will accept the whole Louisiana territory to be bought. Jefferson is a strict constitutionist but buys the land anyway. This doubled the land of the U.S. for a cheap price.
  • Lewis and Clark’s Expedition

    Lewis and Clark’s Expedition
    Now that the United States bought the Louisiana territory, the U.S. had a lot of unexplored new land. Jefferson sent an expedition out, headed by Lewis and Clark. They were supposed to try to make good relations with the natives, bring back samples, map the land, and find a route to the Pacific Ocean. They went on a 1300 mile trek and made friends with some of the natives. The expedition was a success and Lewis and Clark came back and brought Jefferson the maps they made and the samples.
  • Trade Embargo of 1807

    Trade Embargo of 1807
    France and Great Britain were at war with each other again. Jefferson was wanting to keep the U.S. neutral between them. Both sides were against this and wanted the U.S. to only trade with them. This infuriated Jefferson and he enacted the Trade Embargo of 1807 which banned trade with both France and Great Britain. However, Jefferson wasn't that good as an economist and this completely devastated the economy. However, this did help American industry and helped the U.S. become self sufficient.
  • Battle of Thames

    Battle of Thames
    The War of 1812 wasn't going that well for the Americans. However, the Americans got a big victory in Canada in the Battle of Thames. They defeated the British and Indian forces there and burned the Canadian capital. They also took the life of a big Indian leader and British general, Tecumseh. Before the war, him and the Indians he led were making problems in the west. With his death, the Indian resistance in the Ohio River Valley was over. This caused a lot of settlers to move there.
  • The Missouri Compromise

    The Missouri Compromise
    A problem arose in Congress when Missouri tried to become a state. They wanted to be a slave state but the northerners denied them. This infuriated the south. The problem was made more complex when Maine wanted to become a free state. The southerners denied it and both sides were unhappy. Henry Clay proposed the Missouri Compromise where both would become states. For the future, a line was drawn on the Louisiana territory where anything north would be free and south slave states.
  • The Monroe Doctrine

    The Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was first said by President James Monroe to Congress. This happened somewhat after the war of 1812. It said that the United States would not interfere with Europe. It also said that the U.S. wouldn't interfere with the colonies in America and that colonization of the Americas was over. America would only interfere with things in the Americas and protect them. This lasted for a while and was a model for future presidents. It wouldn't be broken until World War One.
  • Tariff of Abominations

    Tariff of Abominations
    John Quincy Adams hadn't really done much with his presidency and it was nearing reelection times. He wanted to help American industry, that was just starting out, by placing tariffs on European goods. This was really good for the north and helped American industry to profit. However, the south was really against this. The south didn't have much industry and it just ended up costing them a lot of money. This tariff was really one sided. This hurt Adams and lost him the next election.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    President Andrew Jackson was very against native Americans. He wanted their lands and wanted them to be kicked off. He got Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act. It created Indian territory in the Louisiana Territory. The Indians were then forced to move to this territory. These lands were much worse than the lands they already lived on and lumber was more scarce. Some Indians agreed to move but others had to be forced to comply with the military. It led to the Trail of Tears where many died.
  • The Liberator published

    The Liberator published
    William Lloyd Garrison was a white abolitionist printer in Boston. He was heavily against slavery and was an abolitionist leader. Garrison even printed the weekly abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator. Some of the south justified slavery by saying that Africans were inferior to whites. In the Liberator, Garrison disproved that by highlighting African achievements. He also demanded that slaves be freed and the slaveholders not compensated. This was really helpful in turning people abolitionists.
  • Worcester v. GA

    Worcester v. GA
    After the Indian Removal Act, lots of Indians were furious. Some took up violence. However, others took to the law to change it. The Cherokees sued Georgia in Worcester v. GA. In this case the Supreme Court sided with the Cherokees. They said that Georgia didn't have control over the Cherokee and that Indian nations were "distinct political communities" and their territories were guaranteed by the government. Jackson went against this and still had the government take their lands.
  • The Panic of 1837

    The Panic of 1837
    In the 1830s there was the beginning of a workers movement. However, the Panic of 1837 ended this. It started when the Bank of England stopped giving out credit to the United States. Without this, lots of businesses had to pull gold from banks. Then when banks ran out of specie people pulled their money from other banks. This sent the economy into a depression and set a lot of people into poverty. It also made lots of workers unemployed. This completely killed the upcoming workers movement.
  • Steel Plow invented

    Steel Plow invented
    When people moved out west they realized that they had a big problem when it came to farming; their plows could effectively plow the thick prairie grass. This caused John Deere to make a new plow that could handle the thick prairie grass. Now people could actually plow the grass in the western plains and farm it. It helped to bring in lots of settlers because it was now easier to farm it. People could also take the grass off of the plow and build sod houses out of it.
  • Telegraph Invented

    Telegraph Invented
    The only way to communicate over distances was the postal system. This took extremely long and in some cases could be reliable. This all changed when Samuel Morse created the telegraph. Now messages information could be transported a lot quicker. He also developed a code for the telegraph that was called Morse Code. This invention was really important for the United States and telegraph lines were made that connected every major city. This helped to connect the country as it was expanding.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    Texas had a lot of white settlers from America come and still it. Eventually Mexico tried to stop this but Americans kept coming. Mexico started tightening their grip on Texas and banned slavery and increased taxes. The Texans didn't like this and decided to break away from Mexico and make their own country. Mexico didn't like this and sent troops to fight the Texans. Eventually America decides to annex Texas and Mexico gives up. However, the border was still disputed which would lead to war.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The United States wanted more land in the west so they started a war with Mexico. The U.S.s military was too strong and they virtually tore through Mexico and took their capital city. They had to make peace and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It said that the U.S. had Taxes and that it's border was the Rio Grande and gave us a lot of land west in the Mexican Cession. This included California that had a gold rush the next year. This sparked fierce debate over if slavery would be allowed.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    There were new problems on if slavery would be allowed in the west and once again Henry Clay was there to save the day. He created a series of acts called the Compromise of 1850. It stated that California got to be a free state and that the slave trade would be ended in Washington D.C.. The southerners got a new Fugitive Slave Act that gave more aid to federal slave catchers.It also made the territories of New Mexico and Utah and said that popular sovereignty would be used there to determine it.
  • Dred Scott Case

    Dred Scott Case
    As tensions were really high between north and south, the Dred Scott case happened in the Supreme Court. Dred Scott was a slave who lived in a free state for 5 years and argued that he should be free. The Supreme Court said that he was still a slave. It said that no African American free or enslaved could be a citizen and had no rights. They also said that Congress couldn't prevent people from bringing slaves into a free territory and Congress couldn't label a territory as free.
  • Lincoln elected president

    Lincoln elected president
    Tensions were extremely high between both the North and the South over the issue of slavery. Lincoln was an abolitionist Republican. In the election of 1860, Lincoln was running against the pro-slavery Democrat, Stephen Douglas. However, the Democrat part had recently split between north and south. This led the way for Lincoln to swoop in and win the election. With his win, the southerners feared for their rights to slaves; they started seceding because of this This led to the Civil war.
  • The Homestead Act

    The Homestead Act
    The United States had a lot of land in the west that didn't have very many settlers. Because of this, this land wasn't making any money for America. The government decided that they were going to make the Homestead Act to bring more settlers west. They would give each person 160 acres and the only requirements were you had to improve it, live on it, and farm it for five years. This worked and millions moved out west. It paired well with the newly made railroads and the west became profitable.
  • Pacific Railway Act

    Pacific Railway Act
    The U.S. already had some railroads but it didn't go all the way to the coast. The government decided to give the job of finishing the railroad to two companies. However, the government only had the money for about 15% of the project, so after that money was depleted they gave them land. Eventually the companies finally finished the transcontinental railroad and became large corporations. The railroad was extremely important because it connected the country and contributed to industrialization.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Civil War started out as only bringing the Confederate states back into the Union. However, as abolitionism was on the rise, Lincoln decided that he wanted to try to make the war about ending slavery. He had to wait for a win that finally happened at Antietam. After this win he gave his Emancipation Proclamation; it said that slavery was illegal in all states outside of the Union. At the time no slaves were freed, however, this came into play after the war was over.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    For the first 2 years of the Civil War the Union was doing bad; they really needed a win to boost morale and support for the war. They got this extremely needed victory at Gettysburg. With this victory the Confederates got a lot of casualties and had to completely end their offensive attacks on the Union. After the battle, Lincoln gave his famous Gettysburg Address. He said that the Union would win the war and that equality would be spread to all men. This farther emphasized the end of slavery.
  • 1866 Congressional Election

    1866 Congressional Election
    Republicans already held a majority in Congress. However, in this election the Republicans got an even larger majority making it 3:1. This made the Radical Republicans in charge and helped usher in a period of radical reconstruction. With this majority they could get anything passed and even override vetoes from the president. The Republicans made reforms across the south; however, the was later when reconstruction ended and the Republicans lost their huge majority.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Radical Republicans in power were eager to guarantee that Reconstruction happened and blacks were protected. The south started making black codes that suppressed the rights of blacks. To protect their rights, the Republicans enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1866. This acted guaranteed that all former slaves were now declared citizens. They also now with that were granted equal protection and rights of contract. They also got full access to the courts.
  • "Seward's folly"

    "Seward's folly"
    William Seward was the Secretary of State under president Lincoln. He was one of the first supporters of American imperialism and wanted the US to be a commercial empire. Seward believed that America needed to expand into more foreign markets and that it was important for US factories and ports to be linked to oversea markets. To help accomplish this goal, he acquired the island of Midway in the Pacific and Alaska. At the time, people didn't understand why he wnated the barren land of Alaska.
  • Reconstruction Acts of 1867

    Reconstruction Acts of 1867
    After the Radical Republicans got a 2/3s majority in Congress they now could do anything they wanted and get stuff passed. They took this opportunity to usher in Reconstruction with the Reconstruction Acts of 1867. It divided the south into five military districts. To become a state again southern states had to let freedmen vote, not let leading ex-Confederates vote, make new constitutions, and ratify the 14th amendment. Most states quickly were reinstated but the governments didn't last long.
  • 14th amendment passed

    14th amendment passed
    After the Civil War, black people's rights were not secure, especially in the south. The Radical Republicans in Congress wanted to protect the rights of blacks during this era of Reconstruction. They proposed the fourteenth amendment; it said that anyone born in the U.S. was a citizen and that states couldn't infringe on their natural rights. This meant that south states couldn't hurt the natural rights of blacks. It made it so that the federal government had control when rights were involved.
  • Knights of Labor Founded

    Knights of Labor Founded
    The labor movement was finally kicking off. Like all important movements, organizations were needed to help organize people to cause change. The most important early labor organization was the Knights of Labor. They grew overtime and became pretty big in the 1890s. Their goal was to gain political power and cause legislation against big business. They organized strikes and protests to help their cause. They had workers from ranging fields and backgrounds. They helped to pave the way to change.
  • First National Park made

    First National Park made
    When people started moving west, they started hurting the environment with their practices; they used farming techniques that hurt the landscape, brought non native species of animals to the west, and other things that weren't good for the environment. Congress started to preserve sites that were extremely naturally beautiful. This led to the creation of the first national park: Yellowstone. Railroads were important to this because people would use railroads to get there.
  • Comstock Act Passed

    Comstock Act Passed
    In the late 1800s, it was still taboo to talk about things like sex and contraceptives. However, people were beginning to talk more about them. Conservatives were very against this change in norms and wanted to end it. Eventually Anthony Comstock was able to get the Comstock Act passed; this act banned the circulation of literature that had information on sex, reproduction, and birth control. Critics called this a violation of American rights and that the government was modelling too much.
  • First Jim Crow Law Passed

    First Jim Crow Law Passed
    The Plessy v. Ferguson decision basically validated Jim Crow laws. These were racist laws in the south used to limit the rights of African Americans. By nature these laws were unconstitutional but the courts of the time thought otherwise. These laws segregated African Americans at schools, transportation, hotels, restaurants, and more. They also took away the black vote in some cases. These laws really illustrated the failures of Reconstruction, but they were shut down with Brown v. Board.
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877

    Great Railroad Strike of 1877
    Laborers were really politically weak during this time and had little rights or representation. An economic depression had also occurred in 1873 and workers experienced little relief and were facing hard times. Because of the depression, Railroad companies steeply cut their wages. To combat this, workers organized one of America's first big strikes. thousands of workers left the job and lots of people poured into big cities. Some militia men were sent to break the strike and it turned bloody.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act Passed

    Chinese Exclusion Act Passed
    A wave of Asian racism was hitting the west coast. In the late 1800s, lots of immigrants were coming from Asians countries like China and Japan. Immigrants have always been met with hostility; however, this hostility had an added amount of racism that made it much worse. Whites were competing more with Asians for jobs during an economic depression so they hated them more. This led to a law that completely banned the Chinese from entering the US. This act was later used on other Asians too.
  • Haymarket Square

    Haymarket Square
    The labor movement was taking off with the Knights of Labor being the biggest organization. The knights and two other unions held a protest in Chicago. The knights had reached an agreement and went back to work but one union was still protesting. This is when it turned bloody. Some anarchists joined the protest at Haymarket Square. Police were called to stop the crowd and a bomb was thrown by one of the anarchist that killed some of the policemen. The officer then shot at them.
  • The Dawes Act

    The Dawes Act
    The government wanted the Indian's reserve lands, so they devised a plan to get it. They made an act very similar to the Homestead Act but for Indians. If an Indian left their reserve they could get 160 acres if they lived and farmed on it. However, this land would be taken from the Indian reserve. The plan worked decently and it helped eventually get rid of 86 million acres from Indian reserves. This lessened the power of Indians even more and made more land for white settlers to take.
  • Gospel of Wealth Published

    Gospel of Wealth Published
    Andrew Carnegie was an extremely wealthy industrialist during the industrialist era. He made his fortune from steel and used vertical integration as a business model. Carnegie wrote the "Gospel of Wealth". In it he argued that rich businessmen had earned their success and deserved it. He also wrote that after providing for their family rich businessmen had the duty to give back to the world with money. When Carnegie was older, he himself gave away his millions to help people and better America.
  • US Maine explodes

    US Maine explodes
    The US had business interests in Cuba that was ruled by Spain at the time. Rebels wanted Cuban independence and began fighting the Spanish. This caused the Spanish to retaliate with inhumane violence against the Cubans and this made the economy unstable. To protect American citizens in Cuba and economic interests, the US sent the US Maine to Havana. However, it mysteriously exploded. The US blamed Spain and McKinley asked Congress to declare war. However, the Spanish were not actually to blame.
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association Created

    National American Woman Suffrage Association Created
    The women's movement was gaining traction during the early Progress era in the late 1800s. During Reconstruction the movement had split into two separate groups but now they had united once again. They formed the National American Women Suffrage Association. They rallied, marched, protested, and lobbied to further their cause. This was met with opposition and rival groups started popping up. However, the movement for women's suffrage kept growing and eventually the 19th Amendment was signed.
  • Atlanta Compromise

    Atlanta Compromise
    In early African American movement was brewing and Booker T. Washington was one of the leaders of it. He gave his Atlanta Compromise speech which said that blacks should accept segregation temporarily. He argued that there would be severe backlash if they went against segregation and that it was out of their control. He wanted the blacks to compromise and not go full force into civil rights. Washington was still an advocate for equal rights he just understood that it would take time.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy v. Ferguson
    The case was that a black man bought a first class ticket for a train but the first class was on for white people, so he wasn't allowed to sit there. He took this to the Supreme Court and they ruled in the train companies favor. They claimed the famous "separate but equal" doctrine. This validated segregation and made it legal under the law. Jim Crow laws became ever more prevalent now that they were protected. This case would later be overturned in Brown v. Board of Education.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Spain and the United States had a short war that lasted four months where the United States won the war. America was able to dominate in the war and force a quick surrender after they took the Philippines and beat the Spanish in the Caribbean. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Paris. The imperial US was able to acquire more land through this. The United States gained the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Cuba also gained its independence and the US got lots of influence there.
  • Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock

    Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
    The government has always been after Indian land and wanted to remove their power. They were always a problem for the government and they would have to make peace either by fighting or diplomacy. Eventually a bill passed that ended making treaties with the Indians; however they still held up old treaties. In Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, the Supreme Court ruled that the government didn't have to follow the treaties and could do whatever they wanted. This got rid of the little rights Indians had.
  • Ford introduces Model T

    Ford introduces Model T
    Cars had been around for a while but were very expensive and most people didn't have one. This all changed when Ford introduced his Model T car. He was able to make his car very affordable with it starting at $850 but eventually getting even cheaper. He was able to make it that cheap because he made every part standard and used an assembly like to make them. This was the first time anyone created things like cars with that process. A lot of more people could now get cars and they became common.
  • NAACP Founded

    NAACP Founded
    W. E. B. DuBois was an early black civil rights leader. He believed that black people needed to stand up for themselves no matter what violence may be caused because of it; it is necessary. DuBois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to help his cause. The organization provided scholarships, lobbied Congress, went to court, and did other things to help blacks. It would become increasingly important as the civil rights movement gained traction.
  • Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

    Franz Ferdinand Assassinated
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand was next in line for the Austrian throne. Austrians and Serbians were very at odds at this time and tensions were only growing. When he was riding through the Bosnian capital with his wife a Serbian nationalist assassinated both of them. This was the spark to the first world war. Soon Austria would declare war on Serbia. Then, Serbia's allies would declare war on Austria. Then, the dominoes would fall with all of Austria's joining the war.
  • Selective Services Act Passed

    Selective Services Act Passed
    America had now joined WWI and would now need to mobilize the troops. The United States needed more troops so they passed the Selective Services Act which meant that all males between 21 and 45 were to be registered to the draft. Around three million American men were drafted for the war. By the end of the war 70% of American troops were drafted. This draft was somewhat unpopular. This meant that a decent portion of the young men in America had to go to war. This would effect them moving foward.
  • Zimmerman Telegraph is intercepted

    Zimmerman Telegraph is intercepted
    America wanted to remain neutral in WWI and not fight in it. However, multiple events would happen that would change that and cause us to join the war. One of those things was the Zimmerman Telegraph. Germany feared that America would join the war so they wanted them to be distracted with Mexico. They sent a telegraph to Mexico calling for a surprise attack on america that could get their territory back. However, the US intercepted this telegraph and stationed troops near the border.
  • 18th Amendment Passed

    18th Amendment Passed
    The temperance movement had been growing in America and reached its peak in the early 1900s. Eventually it resulted in Congress passing the Eighteenth Amendment which banned the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol. However, this was extremely unpopular and lots of people found a way around it. Lots of people started illegally drinking and American consumption actually went up. This also led to the rise of organized crime who would become rich off of bootlegging alcohol.
  • 19th Amendment Passed

    19th Amendment Passed
    The women's suffrage movement had been growing in number since before the 1890s. The National Woman Suffrage Association was created then and they were extremely helpful to the creation of the 19th Amendment. The Suffragettes used the Great War to help them. They decided to be extreme patriots and do everything they could to help. Some groups also protested during the war. These things helped sway the anti-suffragists and the amendment was quickly passed through the house.
  • Immigration Act of 1924

    Immigration Act of 1924
    Nativism was growing among the American people. The mostly Protestant Americans were against the Catholic views of most immigrants. This was also during the time of the first red scare and people feared these immigrants held ideas of anarchism and socialism. To stop more southern and eastern European immigrants from coming the act was signed. This act limited the amount of immigrants from a country that could come by 2% of the amount of them in the US in 1890.
  • The Bonus Army March

    The Bonus Army March
    Amidst the Great Depression, Americans were growing discontent, especially with President Hoover. This was true for WWI veterans who were mostly unemployed. They were promised a bonus for their service but they were going to receive it until 1945. They planned a march on Washington to request that they get it now. It was denied by the Senate but some veterans stayed in Washington in tents. After a few months, Hoover called the army on them and their tents were burned and they were evicted.
  • FDR Elected President

    FDR Elected President
    The Great Depression was still raging on and Hoover's approach wasn't even close to helping. Hoover's main approach was to do nothing and it would work itself out. The depression was clearly not working itself out and the people were angered and discontent with him. In the 1932 election Hoover ran against the Democrat FDR who promised to experiment and try something new. FDR won an overwhelming victory. However, America would experience the worst of the depression before he took office.
  • Works Progress Administration created

    Works Progress Administration created
    The Great Depression was raging on and the unemployment rate was extremely high. FDR became president and ushered in his New Deal program to provide relief and help the people and economy. Part of this program was creating government jobs for people. Several organizations were created with the Works Progress Administration being the largest. It was able to provide jobs for eight million Americans. These people built infrastructure like bridges, sewage systems, and more.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    Black activism was on the rise before WWII and only grew with the war. Black activists organized the Double V campaign where they wanted a victory against fascism and racism. With the war came good paying defense jobs; however, most of these businesses wouldn't hire blacks. To combat this, black leaders planned to march on Washington. FDR feared this would production so he signed executive order 8802. This ended discrimination in employment in the government and defense industries.
  • Pearl Harbor Bombed

    Pearl Harbor Bombed
    The US was intent on staying neutral in the War and not joining it. However, the US had a lot of business interests in Asia and the Pacific. Japan felt that if they continued their aggression, the US would eventually try to stop them, so Japan wanted to try to cripple America in the Pacific so they wouldn't attack them. This attack came in a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. A lot of the pacific fleet was damaged or destroyed and the US was forced into the war.
  • Allied Conference at Bretton Woods

    Allied Conference at Bretton Woods
    All the countries of the Allies sent delegates to Bretton Woods, NH, to discuss the postwar financial order with the US and Britain leading it. Europe was devastated economically after the war and this conference was trying to stabilize it. The World Bank was created which would give loans for the reconstruction of Europe. The International Monetary Fund was also created which would stabilize national currencies with the dollar as the benchmark. This helped Europe and gave the US more power.
  • Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944

    Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
    The government wanted to thank veterans of WWII by issuing the Servicemen's Readjustment Act. This made it so that the government would pay for the college of veterans. The government would also give them health care and low interest home loans. This bill would have huge consequences. The opportunity for college was given to people that probably wouldn't have it otherwise. This helped lead to a lot of people rising to the middle class. More people than ever were also able to afford homes.
  • D-Day

    Stalin had been requesting that the Allies open up another front in France to take pressure off of Soviet troops and this finally came in D-Day. The Allies unleashed a major attack under General Eisenhower where they stormed the beaches of Normandy. They endured lots of casualties making it on the beach but were able to take it. There they rampaged through France and then were met by one final attack in Belgium where the Germans were defeated. They went to Germany and then Hitler killed himself.
  • Churchill gives Iron Curtain Speech

    Churchill gives Iron Curtain Speech
    After the end of WWII the Cold War was nearing as a result of the differences between the US and the USSR. This was evident in Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech. Despite the US' interests, the USSR was controlling east Europe and installing governments loyal to them. This made a steep divide between east and west Europe where the rest of the Allies supported democracy. Churchill named this divide the Iron Curtain. This divide was evidence that tensions were extremely high.
  • Levittown Founded

    Levittown Founded
    After the war, America had a period of prosperity. William Levitt, started using mass-production techniques to build suburban houses. This made it incredibly quick and cheap to create whole neighborhoods of towns. He founded his first community, Levittown. With the low house prices and loans through new government administrations and a lot more people were able to buy these houses and now become homeowners. People flocked to the suburbs and a new suburban culture was created.
  • Truman gives the Truman Doctrine

    Truman gives the Truman Doctrine
    At the start of the Cold War, the USSR was supporting communist revolutions in Greece and Turkey. The anticommunists in those countries needed support. This prompted President Truman to announce the Truman Doctrine. This stated that the US would support free peoples resisting communism. This was the essence of the policy of containment. Truman then gave lots of funding to both Turkey and Greece. The US would later interfere in other places to stop the spread of communism.
  • The Hollywood Ten put on trial

    The Hollywood Ten put on trial
    The Red Scare had swept across America. The people feared that communists spies had plots against them and the government. The HUAC was created which investigated Americans who could be communists. They helped fuel the flames of the red scare. They held a widely publicized hearing where ten people from Hollywood were put on trial for being communist. They ended up being jailed along with other people the HUAC later tried. These people were black listed from the industry.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    After WWII, Europe was having an economic depression. This could led to a global depression if no actions were taken. Bad economic conditions also sometimes drove people to communism which the United States was heavily against because of the policy of containment. This caused George Marshall to create his Marshall Plan which would help fund the rebuilding of Europe. The US sent billions of dollars to Europe to help rebuild it and it worked. The economy of East Europe started to improve.
  • NATO Created

    NATO Created
    West Berlin's survival became a symbol of resistance against communism. This inspired other West European countries to also resist. The United States had also been helping build West Europe up and had lots of influence there. The US created a pact among most of the West European countries. This pact, NATO, was an alliance that said that they would protect one another in the event of an attack. This helped guarantee the survival of democracy in the area. The USSR countered with the Warsaw Pact.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    The NAACP wanted to bring a case to the court that would challenge the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that enabled segregation. They decided to try to send a black elementary girl to a local white elementary school. The Supreme Court sided with Brown and overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling and said that separate couldn't be equal. This was a huge step in desegregation but it still would take a while for desegregation to occur. This made a name for the lawyer Marshall.
  • Rosa Parks won't give up seat

    Rosa Parks won't give up seat
    Rosa Parks was an NAACP activist and planned to refuse to get up on a bus to spark change. In Alabama she refused to get up from her seat for a white man. She was arrested and the black community was enraged. They chose to retaliate by planning a bus boycott where over 40,000 blacks boycotted the bus system for over a year. A majority of the bus companies customers were black so this severely hurt their business. The bus company eventually gave in and segregation on them was ended.
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act

    National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
    In 1956, President Eisenhower signed the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act amidst the Cold War. This provided much needed updates for roadways and helped to modernize them. These interstates would connect every major city. It would lead to a growth in commerce. It was a massive undertaking and would be the largest public works project in history. To help get it passed, it played off of Cold War fears. People could evacuate much quicker and they could function as emergency runways.
  • First ICBM Created

    First ICBM Created
    During the Cold War the US and USSR were engaged in an arms race to see who could develop better quality and quantity of weapons. The Soviet Union was ahead at the time and were able to create the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). This meant that they could now bomb America from much farther distances. This fact heavily scared Americans and showed how importance the arms race was.The government then pumped even more money into sciences so that the United States could catch up.
  • Election of 1960

    Election of 1960
    The Republican Seasoned politician, Richard Nixon, was going up against the young Democrat, JFK. This was during the Cold War and those ideas were the big ideas discussed. What made this election special was the fact that it was the first election with nationally televised debates. Nixon was a very good debater. However, JFK was extremely knowledgeable on how to act on TV and Nixon had little experience on that. This caused JFK to appear better and helped him just barely win the election.
  • March on Washington "I have a dream" speech

    March on Washington "I have a dream" speech
    President Kennedy was trying to bring about a new civil rights bill. To build more support for this bill, the civil rights leaders staged a massive demonstration in Washington D.C. that was endorsed by Kennedy. Over 400,000 people were in attendance from all over the country. It was here that MLK gave his famous "I have a dream" speech that fired up the whole nation and inspired lots of people. Shortly after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.
  • JFK Assassinated

    JFK Assassinated
    President Kennedy was riding in an open top car in Dallas, Texas in a motorcade. Suddenly three shots were fired and Kennedy was fatally shot. The country was absolutely devastated. Even opponents of Kennedy were destroyed by the news and the country entered a huge period of mourning. Most people would remember this event for the rest of their lives. Vice President Lyndon Johnson then became president. He would be very progressive and usher in his "Great Society".
  • Gideon vs. Wainwright

    Gideon vs. Wainwright
    Gideon v Wainwright was a landmark case during the era of the Warren Court that helped protect people’s rights in the courts. A bugler y occurred and Gideon was accused. He was too poor to afford a lawyer so he requested the state provide him with one. The state denied this request and Gideon was declared guilty. He brought it to the Supreme Court where they declared that a lawyer must always be provided due to the fifth and sixth amendments. Now lawyers are always provided if asked for.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights movement had been building up for a while. JFK was advocating for a new civil rights bill but was assassinated. President Johnson took up the mantel of advocating for a new bill. Using JFK's death and other things, he was finally able to get Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and signed it. It outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. Although it didn't immediately end discrimination, it was groundbreaking.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Incident

    Gulf of Tonkin Incident
    A conflict with Vietnam was in progress over the containment of communism. While Johnson was president, a US ship was said to be attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin. This was made out to be a big tragedy and blown out of proportion. Before this, America served as more of an advisor to South Vietnam, but this brought about more involvement in Vietnam. In what was called the Tonkin Resolution, Congress gave the President financial oversight and relingwished their power. This was very controversial.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a step in the right direction. However, it didn't remove obstacles from black voting. In the south, only a small number of blacks were registered to vote. Civil rights activists tried to get more blacks registered but were met with hostility and obstacles. It was becoming evident that a law would need to be passed to protect their vote, so the Voting Rights Act was finally passed that banned discrimination in elections. States were threaten to comply with this.
  • Miranda vs. Arizona

    Miranda vs. Arizona
    The Warren Court under President Johnson and his "Great Society" was very progressive and helped to protect people's rights in the eyes of the law. This was a landmark case that used the Fifth Amendment to stop prosecutors from using things said during an interrogation before their Miranda rights are read to them. These rights are that they have the right to have an attorney present and have the right to remain silent. Now these rights are always stated when people are arrested.
  • Burglary at Watergate

    Burglary at Watergate
    Five men that were a part of Nixon's campaign team broke into the democrat convention at Watergate to try and bug it and find information. They were caught and arrested. Nixon didn't order it or know about them doing it. However, he helped try to cover it up from the start and it was a major controversy. He fired some of his employees and even fired the person that was investigating him. This caused Congress to put three articles of impeachment for him, so he resigned.
  • War Powers Act

    War Powers Act
    After the Gulf of Tonkin incident, President Johnson was given special powers through the Tonkin Resolution. Congress gave the president financial oversight over the war. This increased federal power and meant that Congress gave up one of their rights. Years later under president Nixon the War Powers Act was passed despite his veto. It undid this and helped to limit the president's power in war. The act made it so that the president would have to talk with Congress before sending troops abroad.
  • Camp David Accords Signed

    Camp David Accords Signed
    There was a lot of instability in the Middle East. This was bad for doing business there which was bad because the US gets a majority of their oil from these countries. Some of these conflicts were caused by the idea of the US and Britain backed Israel. Jimmy Carter's goal was to try to bring peace to the Middle East and wanted to solve this conflict. Finally, after talking with some Middle East countries, he was able to organize a peace talk with Iran and Egypt where they recognized Israel.