APUSH Review: Ayden Franklin

  • Period: 1491 to

    Period 1/2: 1491-1763

    Colonization, European Exploration, Great Awakening
  • 1492

    Columbus Finds the Americas

    Columbus Finds the Americas
    Christopher Colombus's expedition and accidental finding of the Americas sets up European expansion into the New World for centuries ahead. His expedition found the "Indians" and began persecuting them, a pattern that would also continue for centuries.
  • Jamestown

    England's first successful colony in the New World. Funded by a Joint-Stock company, where people buy shares to financially support the colony. The colonists found success through tobacco farming.
  • Africans Introduced for Slave Labor

    Africans Introduced for Slave Labor
    The introduction of Africans for slave labor in the United States will create conflict lasting centuries. This starts the Columbian Exchange as well, and soon enough millions of slaves will live in the colonies.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was written by the pilgrims fleeing England, landing at Plymouth. The Compact set up a direct democracy and was the first document that set up self-government in the New World.
  • Period: to

    Great Puritan Migration

    Thousands of Puritans fled England to the Caribbean, Virginia, and Massachusetts so they could freely practice their religion. These ideas greatly influenced the ideals that founded the US.
  • Po'Pay's Rebellion / Pueblo Revolt

    Po'Pay's Rebellion / Pueblo Revolt
    Natives of modern-day New Mexico revolt against the occupying Spaniards. Their success in kicking the Spaniards out is an early victory for the many Indians struggling around the continent due to European control.
  • Trade and Navigation Acts

    Trade and Navigation Acts
    Three of these acts were passed, one in 1651, another in 1660, and the last passed in 1696. These Acts greatly limited the colonies' trade with other nations and limited their production of certain goods. These acts eventually were basically ignored by the colonists, a trend that will lead to conflict.
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    The Great Awakening

    This time period encouraged people to challenge old ideas and religions. There was a new interest in religion, where more diversity led to more acceptance. People began to value the common man and individualism.
  • Period: to

    French and Indian War

    France loses territory in the New World resulting from the war. Britain viewed the colonists as bad fighters, and the colonists viewed Britain as jerks at the end of the war. But most importantly, the end of the war marks the end of salutary neglect.
  • End of Salutary Neglect

    End of Salutary Neglect
    Britain ends its light treatment of the colonies and began heavily taxing the colonists in order to pay off their debts from the French and Indian War. This is the major turning point in the relationship between Britain and its colonists.
  • Proclamation Act of 1763

    Proclamation Act of 1763
    England limited the colonists by prohibiting all settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. The colonists saw this as unnecessary and were frustrated, but later disregarding this limitation and moving west anyway.
  • Period: to

    Period 3: 1763-1800

    Revolutionary War, Creation of Central Government, Constitution, Articles of Confederation
  • Stamp Act of 1765

    Stamp Act of 1765
    The Stamp Act imposed a tax on all printed paper and goods, and forced colonists to spend lots of money on stamps. The colonial response was a unifying sense of protest.
  • Stamp Act Congress

    Stamp Act Congress
    The colonies got together and came to the conclusion that they do not want parliamentary representation. They also concluded that they wanted the right to tax themselves. In response, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Red Coats patrolling in Boston were harassed by colonists, until firing upon them and killing five. The news of the shooting spread around the colonies and further united them against Britain, pushing them to war.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Sons of Liberty snuck on to a British Merchant ship and dumped shiploads of tea into the Boston Harbor. This protest on the Tea Act fueled the tension between Britain and the Colonies, as well as provoked Britain into making unwise decisions.
  • The Intolerable Acts / Coercive Acts

    The Intolerable Acts / Coercive Acts
    The Intolerable Acts were put in place to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party. As a result of the acts, the colonies gained more unity, another call for a continental congress, reiterated their rights of Englishman, and Massachusetts prepared to take arms.
  • Meeting of Second Continental Congress

    Meeting of Second Continental Congress
    The meeting of the second continental congress discussed creating a 14th colony of Indians, and authorized an invasion of Canada. It also determined George Washington as commander of the Continental Army. The Congress was the governing body of the colonies during the war.
  • Signing of Declaration of Independence

    Signing of Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration confirmed the colonists' wants to break apart from Britain. Written by Thomas Jefferson, it justified the colonists' revolt as Parliament no longer protected their natural rights.
  • Seige of Yorktown

    Seige of Yorktown
    Yorktown is where British General Cornwallis finally surrenders. This marks the colonists' successful revolt and breaking away from Britain.
  • Ratification of the Articles of Confederation

    Ratification of the Articles of Confederation
    The articles set up a weak and almost powerless central government over the freed colonies. The articles were a great stride towards the complete unity of the colonies but were provided countless problems and needed fixing.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The treaty finalized American independence and officially ends the war. It confirmed that America would own all land east of the Mississippi.
  • Ratification of The Constitution.

    Ratification of The Constitution.
    The Constitution established Americas's fundamental laws and government. It guaranteed basic rights to all Americans that were violated when they were colonists. The Consitution was a big step from the articles, but still to this day needs amending.
  • Washington becomes President

    Washington becomes President
    Washington is unanimously elected as the first president of the US. He sets a two-term precedent and imposes a position of neutrality and isolationism.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Britain finally agrees to leave the North-West forts. In return, the US will pay Britain all pre-revolutionary war debt to Britain.
  • Creation of the First Party System

    Creation of the First Party System
    The first party system of the US consisted of the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. This two-party system modeled American politics for centuries to come.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 pt 1: 1800-1824

    The Era of Good Feelings, end of the first party system,
  • Marbury v. Madison

    Marbury v. Madison
    This court case is very important to the American Judicial system because it set up judicial review. The court has the ability to deem legislation and executive decisions as unconstitutional.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    The US bought roughly 828,000 square miles of land from France for 15 million dollars, known as the Louisiana Purchase. This gave the US control over the Mississippi River and roughly doubled country's size.
  • Era of Good Feelings begins

    Era of Good Feelings begins
    With the federalist party dissolved, only one major party had control in politics. During this time people tended to agree on things in politics, and there was an increase in national pride.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    In response to the impressment of American merchant ships by France and Britain, President Jefferson cuts trade with the entire world. As a result, Jefferson loses his popularity as people believe he abandoned his principles.
  • Macon's Bill #2

    Macon's Bill #2
    The bill was between France and Britain, where whoever respected the United States first by stopping to attack the US's ships, the US will open trade with them. France agrees, and Britain begins attacking US ships again.
  • War of 1812 begins

    War of 1812 begins
    While Britain continued to battle with France in the Napolean war, the US waged war with Britain on North America. The US claimed impressment violated their neutrality, and new leadership in Congress known as the War Hawks were eager to start war.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Treaty of Ghent
    This treaty officially ended the war of 1812 between the US and Britain. Both sides had many demands, but the treaty ended up changing nothing except for forcing the two countries to meet before waging war over disputes.
  • The Hartford Convention

    The Hartford Convention
    During the war of 1812, the federalists met to discuss their demands regarding future presidents. They wanted to limit congress's power, and limit the president to 1 term. This convention, however, marks the end of the Federalist party
  • Henry Clay's American System

    Henry Clay's American System
    Clay's economic plan envisioned a protective tariff to encourage American production, a national bank, and improvements to infrastructure. The plan shaped US economics for the first half of the century and helped the nation grow greatly.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    This doctrine would be the guiding principle for US foreign policy until the end of the century. The US says that there should be no European colonization in the Western Hemisphere, and then the US will not get involved in internal European problems.
  • Jackson Elected President

    Jackson Elected President
    Jackson was a popular candidate for president as he was a war hero. His era, known as Jacksonian Democracy, led to increased democracy and the rise of the common man.
  • Period: to

    Period 4 Pt 2: 1824-1848

    Jacksonian Democracy, Rise of the Common Man, Second Party System, Manifest Destiny
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    Andrew Jackson sought a second term and opposed John Quincy Adams once again. The debates became personal attacks between the two, and after Jackson won he claimed to have a mandate, but that was not the case.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    President Jackson signed into the Indian Removal Act, giving him to authority to force Indian tribes away from their homeland and west of the Mississippi. This forced relocation is known as the Trail of Tears.
  • Black Hawks War

    Black Hawks War
    As natives were being pushed farther west, conflict aroused between competing tribes and Americans. An Indiana militia came into battle with Black Hawk's tribe, both sides having their loses.
  • Seminole War Begins

    Seminole War Begins
    The Seminole Indians resisted removal from their homeland in Florida and fought back for eight years known as the Seminole War. The US Govt spent 20 million dollars fighting, and lost 1500 American soldiers.
  • Nullification Proclamation

    Nullification Proclamation
    President Jackson ordered the people of South Carolina that they could not nullify the Tariff of 1832. This disputed a state's right to nullify federal law.
  • The Bank War

    The Bank War
    Andrew Jackson opposed the Second National Bank. He vetoed the Bank Recharter Bill of 1832, and the shutdown of the bank was replaced by state banks.
  • Election of 1844

    Election of 1844
    James Polk and Henry Clay were the major candidates for the presidency. Polk won and had a very strict platform, of which he achieved. therefore, he did not run for a second term.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    Another goal of Polk is completed, and the US gains a substantial amount of territory. The population was growing and moved west, and the west began to gain an important voice in politics. Many questions came with the new westward territories.
  • End of Mexican-American War

    End of Mexican-American War
    As a result of the Mexican-American war, the US paid Mexico 18 million dollars for the Mexican Cession. Polk accomplished one of his goals, and as the US continued westward expansion and controlled the continent, the slavery question grew stronger.
  • Period: to

    Period 5: 1848-1877

    Civil War, Abolition of Slavery, Reconstruction
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The newly formed state California hoped to come in as a free state, but South Carolina was outraged and ordered the federal government to disallow it. Henry Clayś compromise made it so California would be a free state, but the fugitive slave law would be stricter, and popular sovereignty will determine other state's position on slavery.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    This novel revealed the horrors of slavery in the south and sold millions of copies. After reading this, many people took a stronger stand against slavery.
  • Start of Missouri/Kansas Border Wars

    Start of Missouri/Kansas Border Wars
    Since the state's positions were up for grabs, people moved to Kansas and Nebraska to vote for or against becoming a slave state. There were riots and attacks, and this proved that Americans were willing to fight each other over the slavery question.
  • Kansas/Nebraska Bill

    Kansas/Nebraska Bill
    In order to make the Transcontinental RR, there needed to be more states in the middle of the country. This bill addressed the slavery question following creating more states: popular sovereignty would decide the new state's position on slavery.
  • Formation of the Republican Party

    Formation of the Republican Party
    As the Second Party System began to fall, The republican party was formed. The party was officially free-soilers, but all abolitionists join.
  • Sumner-Brooks Incident

    Sumner-Brooks Incident
    Brooks beat Sumner with a cane on the Senate floor after Sumner discussed Brooks' relative Andrew Butler's decision making. Tye evident greatly added to the polarization of the country over slavery.
  • John Brown's Raid

    John Brown's Raid
    John Brown was a radical abolitionist and attempted to start a freedom crusade in Virginia. He and his small group raided a federal arsenal and were caught by Robert E. Lee, charged for treason and hanged.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    Abraham Lincoln wins the Election over Democrat Douglas. He ran a free-soil campaign and is the first Republican president. The south did not recognize the Republican party.
  • The South begins to secede

    The South begins to secede
    South Carolina secedes in December before Lincoln's inauguration, and the other deep end south states follow suit. They form the Confederate States of America.
  • Civil War Begins

    Civil War Begins
    With the south opening fire on Fort Sumter, the war began. The South won the first battle of the deadliest war fought on US soil, taking 620,000 American lives.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Given by President Lincoln after Antietam, the proclamation announced that all slaves in states of rebellion were free. The South obviously didn't comply with Lincoln's order, so most slaves were not freed yet.
  • Ratification of the 13th Amendment

    Ratification of the 13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment officially abolished slavery and involuntary servitude unless as a punishment for crime.
  • Reconstruction begins

    Reconstruction begins
    Reconstruction was a pivotal moment in US history. It dealt with correctly integrated and punishing the south back into the Union, and also dealt with determining the legal status of African Americans in the country.
  • Period: to

    Period 6: 1865-1898

    Gilded Age, Nativism, Corruption
  • Transcontinental Railroad Completed

    Transcontinental Railroad Completed
    The Transcontinental Railroad had been a dream for many Americans and was finally completed under President Ulysses S. Grant. Goods were able to move faster and become cheaper, and business grew greatly.
  • Compromise of 1877

    Compromise of 1877
    As the election of 1876 was very controversial, a compromise had to be made to favor both sides. Republican Rutherford B Hayes would be president, both reconstruction would come to an end. The South was nowhere near where it should have been after reconstruction.
  • Railway Strike of 1877

    Railway Strike of 1877
    As the labor movement was taking off, these strikes were the first nationwide strike in America. US troops were sent out in order to restore order. Strikes from the period did not accomplish much, but they raised awareness and laid out the groundwork for future movements.
  • Election of 1880

    Election of 1880
    Republican candidate Garfield wins the election, but the party was split into Stalwarts and Half-breeds. Garfield was then assassinated, and VP Arthur became president.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    Chinese Exclusion Act
    Chinese immigrants were no longer allowed to immigrate to the US for ten years and made them illegible for naturalization. This act shows the returning nativist sentiment so common throughout the gilded age.
  • Pendleton Act

    Pendleton Act
    This act made it so you must qualify for government positions as opposed to having political ties people in power. Before this, elected officials were able to appoint peers based on politics and not qualification.
  • Election of 1884

    Election of 1884
    Democratic candidate Cleveland won the election over Republican candidate Blaine. Cleveland took a Laissez-faire approach to the economy, leading to the rise and control of big business over American politics.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

    Interstate Commerce Act
    This act solidified the federal government's authority to regulate interstate trade. This made railroads the first industry subject to federal regulation.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    Indian reservations were divided into family plots, and some plots were sold to white people. Indian children were forced to go to boarding schools. This shows the attempts from the US to assimilate the Indians into white culture.
  • Sherman Anti-trust Act

    Sherman Anti-trust Act
    Many monopolies were dissolved as a result of the act. Not only did it break up monopolies, but the act also broke up labor unions for the first ten years.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    The US military shot upon and killed several hundred Indians in this domestic massacre. The group of Indians continued to participate in a banned ritual and were killed for it.
  • Omaha Platform

    Omaha Platform
    The Populist party grew in popularity during the gilded age, and many of their goals that were outlined in this platform were integrated into US law shortly after.
  • Pullman Strike

    Pullman Strike
    This was a national strike and boycott and railroads containing Pullman cars. The federal government got involved and stopped the strike with an injunction.
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff

    Wilson-Gorman Tariff
    The tariff was slightly lowered, and the first income tax was introduced. Shortly after, however, the Supreme Court deemed the income tax unconstitutional.
  • Wilmington Massacre

    Wilmington Massacre
    Blacks in NC were slowly taking office with the fusionist party. Hundreds of rural white people in Wilmington got together and killed nearly 60 African Americans in the region to get them out of office.
  • Sinking of the Maine

    Sinking of the Maine
    The US ship "The Maine" exploded when docked in Savannah. Hearst blamed Spain for the attack while using yellow journalism, and the US responded with increased anger at Spain. This fueled the US into fighting the Spanish-American War.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The treaty concluded both the war in the Caribbean and the war in the Pacific just after a few months of fighting. From the treaty, the US gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam. Cuba was given "independence", however, the US was allowed to interfere to protect order
  • Period: to

    Period 7 Pt 1: 1898-1918

    World War 1, Conservationism, Imperialism, Progressivism
  • US Starts War with Spain

    US Starts War with Spain
    The US started war with Spain in Cuba. Under the Teller Amendment, the US promised that the war would only be for Cuban independence, but that would not be the case. The US was not prepared for war, however.
  • McKinley's Assassination

    McKinley's Assassination
    President McKinley was assassinated by a random anarchist after one year into his second term. Teddy Roosevelt was given the VP job so the Republican party could kill his career, but instead, he became president.
  • Panama Canal Construction Begins

    Panama Canal Construction Begins
    The US began to finish the work France did in creating a Panama canal. The canal would be vastly important for the US for trade and navy operations. The Canal would cost 440 million dollars to build and was finished in 1914.
  • Hepburn Act

    Hepburn Act
    In progressive attempts to limit big business, the act made it so the ICC could establish max rates that Railroads could charge, and RR's could not give free passes to anyone.
  • Meat Inspection Act

    Meat Inspection Act
    This act made it so any meat that crosses state boundaries must be inspected by the federal government. Acts like this were common in this progressive era to attempt to fix the wrongs of the gilded age.
  • 1912 Election

    1912 Election
    Teddy Roosevelt returned to run after Taft's presidency. Roosevelt's New Nationalism was seen as too progressive, and he lost the Republican primary but rejoined in his newly formed Bull-Moose party. Woodrow Wilson ended up winning the election, the first Democrat in a while.
  • Ratification of the 16th Amendment

    Ratification of the 16th Amendment
    The 16th amendment allowed the federal government to collect an income tax. It had been debated and attempted to be put in law for decades, and was finally contitutionalized under Taft.
  • Clayton Anti-Trust Act

    Clayton Anti-Trust Act
    The act explained unethical big business practices and upheld multiple rights of labor. The act gave the federal government more control over big business.
  • National Park Service Created

    National Park Service Created
    As conservationism and preservationism had been major topics under Teddy Roosevelt's campaign, the national park service was finally created under Woodrow Wilson.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    As the US continues to stay out of world war 1 and Wilson won his second term, the US interrupted a telegram for Mexico sent from Germany. Germany hoped to get Mexico to attack the US, to gain their land lost decades ago. This was a final straw for the US to join the war
  • The US joins World War 1

    The US joins World War 1
    after years of staying "neutral" in the war, the final straw was broken and the US joins the war. The entire American society went through change during mobilization for the war effort. The US saw a relatively low death toll compared to other European nations but still played their vital role in the War.
  • Period: to

    Period 7 Pt 2: 1918-1945

    World War 2, The great depression, the roaring 20s
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    This treaty officially ended world war 1. Woodrow Wilson disagreed with the harshness of the treaty but was unable to get the US to ratify the treaty. Due to England and Frances's command, all blame was put on Germany, putting them millions in debt and faced an extreme economic downfall.
  • Schenck v US

    Schenck v US
    The major outcome of this court case is that speech can be limited if it presents a clear and present danger.
  • Ratification of the 18th amendment

    Ratification of the 18th amendment
    The 18th amendment put prohibition into American law. Prohibition greatly shaped the society during the '20s, leading to an increase in organized crimes, smuggling, bootleggers, and speak-easies.
  • West Virginia Mine Wars

    West Virginia Mine Wars
    Miners did a strike in West Virginia in response to poor wages and conditions. The miners marched through the town and were bombed by the mine owners. 900 miners were arrested and 120 were killed.
  • Ratification of The 19th Amendment

    Ratification of The 19th Amendment
    The 19th amendment made it so you shall not be denied your right to vote based on sex. This gave women the right to vote around the country. Women were gaining a role in society and began furthering themselves from societal standards during the '20s.
  • Emergency Immigration Quota Act

    Emergency Immigration Quota Act
    As nativism soared during the '20s as a result of the red scare, the emergency Quota Act greatly reduced and limited immigration to the country.
  • Kellog-Briand Pact

    Kellog-Briand Pact
    This pact outlawed war and was signed by nearly every country. The '20s were a time where we saw a return to the gilded age. An increase in nativism, crime, and corruption
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    The stock market crashed on Black Tuesday. This marked the beginning of the Great Depression, which was combatted horribly by President Herbert Hoover.
  • Bonus Army Incident

    Bonus Army Incident
    As veterans were promised payment after world war 1, they sought immediate payment and marched through D.C. in protest. Hoover sent out the US army to clear out the vets. This action was met with public outrage, summing up the American response to Hoover's poor attempts at combatting the Great depression.
  • Election of 1932

    Election of 1932
    Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt landslides incumbent Hoover in the election. FDR's philosophy for combatted the great depression was to provide instant relief to the people, provide economic recovery to get the economy moving, and reform the make sure this never happens again.
  • Establishment of the CCC and WPA

    Establishment of the CCC and WPA
    Roosevelt established the CCC and WPA for the conservation of our wilderness. These organizations greatly combatted the Great Depression as they provided a job for millions of Americans and had projects that bettered society.
  • Social Security Act

    Social Security Act
    Passing this act created the social security system in the US. Roosevelt passed countless legislation during the Great Depression to recovery the country and the people loved him.
  • Wagner Act

    Wagner Act
    The Wagner Act created an organization that could oversee labor relations in the country. Roosevelt's New Deal put industry at a balance and greatly bettered the relationships between workers and employers.
  • Neutrality Act

    Neutrality Act
    The Neutrality Acts of 1936 & 37 put an embargo of war sales to countries who started the war, and sold materials on a cash and carry basis. The US's goal before entering the war was to keep England going, as we were not as neutral as we said.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor and US Enters War

    Attack on Pearl Harbor and US Enters War
    Japan bombed the US marine base Pearl Harbor, wiping out ships and thousands of people. The US immediately declared war on Japan and soon enough had entered World War II. The US played a pivotal role in turning the tides of the war, and society changed as the country mobilized for war.
  • D-Day

    D-Day was the turning point for the allies in world war 2. Allied forces attacked German forces with over 150,000 soldiers, and won the raid of Normandy.
  • US Drops Atomic Bomb

    US Drops Atomic Bomb
    The US decides to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and later Nagasaki. After Yalta concluded the war in Europe, the bombs quickly led Japan to surrender and put an end to World War 2. The results of the post-war conferences led to the Cold War.