• Jamestown Settlement

    Jamestown Settlement
    In 1606, the Virginia Company (a joint-stock company created by King James)sent three ships of 104 men and boys to create a settlement in North America.The newcomers attempted to establish themselves in their new home.The First Supply to Jamestown was brought in attempt to focus on money-making industry.Disease, famine, and attacks from neighboring Indian groups hurt the population. Later, after further establishment, Bacon's Rebellion caused the burning of many important buildings in the city.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment (in contradiction to the Great Awakening) was a switch from the superstition and blind faith of the day, to a mindset of reason, independent-thinking, and science. Figures such as Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire encouraged ideas such as religious tolerance, questioning the world around you, and even analyzing what government should look like. This movement lead to the moral foundations of our country, increased literacy rates, and an increase in schools.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a revival of protestant beliefs that was a part of a much wider movement that was taking place in England, Scotland, and Germany. In this time period spirituality and religious devotion were revived. Supporters of this movement included Jonathan Edwards (Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God) and George Whitefield (preached in Boston Commons). This caused the birth of deep religious convictions in the Colonies. It encouraged the ideas of equality in the eyes of God.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    This war was a global struggle that extended across 5 continents. Britain wanted to expand its territory into land that was claimed by the French.This sparked England, France, and Spain to battle over colonies in the new world. While Britain was fighting overseas, its ally Prussia was expanding its power in Europe.The Treaty of Paris, signed by France, Spain, and Britain, drew colonial lines mostly in Britain's favor.This most likely led to France's interference later in the Revolutionary War.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The British Empire was deeply in debt from the Seven Years War and began looking at the colonies for revenue. The Stamp Act taxed all paper goods in the colonies. Colonists began to protest the taxation without representation. They would often resort to mob violence. They argued that the British Parliament didn't have the power to levy internal taxes. Though eventually repealed, the Stamp Act was the beginning of colonial resistance that eventually led to the Revolutionary War.
  • Quartering Act

    Quartering Act
    The Quartering Act required colonies to provide barracks that they were required to house British troops in. If there wasn't enough room in the barracks then they were required to house them in inns, ale houses, etc. In addition to this, if redcoats came knocking at a colonist's door they were required to house and provide for them as long as they wanted to stay. The colonists were already upset about the Townsend Act and with the British so close tensions only rose.
  • Tea Act

    Tea Act
    Created by Parliament the Tea Act in an effort to save the East India Company it gave Britain the right to import tea to the colonies without first stopping in England first. It kept the previous tax on tea in the colonies. It also appointed commission agents who would have the right to sell tea in the colonies. This act led directly to the Boston Tea Party. The colonists became more and more opposed to taxation without representation and this acted as a catalyst to the Revolutionary War.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    Enraged by the high taxes being placed on them, colonists led by Samuel Adams, in political protest, threw 342 chests of tea into the sea.Fired up by the recent Boston Massacre, the colonists used this protest as an act of defiance against the concept of taxation without representation,but more specifically the Tea Act which heavily taxed the colonists' tea.As a result Britain tightens its grips and punishes the colonies by enforcing old laws and passing new ones-most notably the Coercive Acts.
  • Shot Heard Round the World

    Shot Heard Round the World
    Hundreds of British troops set off from Boston to Concord to seize artillery that was being stored there. Thanks to the Sons of Liberty being able to move the supplies, and the rides of a few brave men, many were informed of the approaching British. The "shot heard round the world" was originally fired in Lexington but the fighting moved to Concord. The Colonial Militia was able to force a British retreat back to Boston. This effectively started the Siege of Boston and the American Revolution.
  • Battle of Bunker Hill

    Battle of Bunker Hill
    The Battle of Bunker Hill was one of the early battles of the Revolutionary War. The colonists lost the battle,but casualties on both sides were high at the end of the battle.The remaining Americans left the hill to avoid being captured. Three weeks later Washington arrived to take control of the army. Despite the British win, the morale among the Continental Army was boosted.This also helped the British to realize that the war with the colonies would be more costly than they initially thought.
  • Signing of the Declaration of Independence

    Signing of the Declaration of Independence
    With the fighting surrounding the Revolutionary War, the movement for independence was about to take a huge new step. Written by Thomas Jefferson, edited and approved by the Continental Congress, the Declaration of Independence informed of the 13 colonies splitting from Great Britain. The main values portrayed by this document were equality, freedom, and self-government. This document founded our nation and gave us the building blocks to create the morals our country has today.
  • Washington Crossing the Delaware

    Washington Crossing the Delaware
    Christmas night Washington and his army set off to cross the Delaware River. His goal was to cross at night and march to Trenton, NJ where a Hessian garrison was located. Through setbacks such as darkness and storms, Washington's army assembled on the Jersey shore. They marched to Trenton where the Continental army secured their first major military victory of the Revolutionary War. This boosted the army's morale and paved the way for another victory in Princeton.
  • Saratoga

    Saratoga represents a turning point in the War.John Burgoyne and his army planned to move South where he will meet up with two other British armies to face the Continentals.The other two British armies didn't show up, Burgoyne and his men were stuck in a swampy area, and they were quickly surrounded.After the Battle of Quebec the Continental army was defeated, both in spirit and in numbers.The win for the colonies boosted morale,provided more supplies to our army, and leveled the playing field.
  • Battle of Yorktown

    Battle of Yorktown
    After a failure of a campaign through Southern Colonies General Cornwallis had retreated to Yorktown and fortified it. George Washington, with help from other generals, surrounded all sides of the fort by land. With the French Navy surrounding on the other side, the Americans and French began to lay siege to the British position. With nowhere left to turn Cornwallis surrendered (however he himself did not do this, he sent someone in his place). This ended major fighting in the war.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Appointed by the Continental Congress, John Jay,John Adams,and Benjamin Franklin were sent to negotiate with Britain after the Revolutionary War.The newly elected Lord Shelburn saw the term of recognizing America's independence as an opportunity to build trading connections.This made the terms of the Treaty of Paris very favorable for the US.Britain acknowledged the independence of the newly formed United states and ceded the Northwest Territory, which doubled the land area of the United States.
  • Shay’s Rebellion

    Shay’s Rebellion
    After the Revolutionary War, in MA economic and tax policies caused many to live in poverty. At first farmers tried to solve these issues peacefully. They proposed reforms and created documents of grievance, however, strategies changed over time. Daniel Shays led a group of 600 men to shut down a courthouse in Springfield. The group of rebels was eventually dispersed. The movement inspired the government to provide more economic relief and prompted other states' to do the same.
  • Continental Congress

    Continental Congress
    The purpose of the CC was to figure out what America's government should look like. Revision to the AOC was the original reason for the meeting, but many of the delegates who attended had bigger plans. The first months saw heated debates over proposed revisions, however, nothing could be agreed upon. The Committee of Detail was put in charge of drafting the Constitution. The resulting document became the foundation that America as we know it is today.
  • Virginia Plan

    Virginia Plan
    This plan was written by Madison and proposed at the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention. This plan would create a three-branch government: legislative, judicial, and executive. It also divided the legislature into the House of Representatives and the Senate. Representation was based on states' populations. Smaller states opposed this plan because they felt like their state's voice wouldn't be heard. This plan is the basis for representation and division of powers we see today.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    With populations rising in the frontier regions and the attempted organizations of states some rules had to be set. Written by Thomas Jefferson, the Northwest Ordinance created the territories that would eventually become the states we know as OH, IN, IL, MI, and WI. It prohibited slavery and set aside funds for schools. It set regulations for the appointment and election for positions of power. Overall, this provided for orderly settlement, admission, and governing of new territories.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    Alien and Sedition Acts
    The Alien and Sedition Acts were created in preparation for a possible war with France.These 4 laws raised residency requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years, allowed the president to deport, arrest, and imprison "aliens."The Sedition Act made it illegal for any false information to be printed about the government.The widespread anger over these acts allowed for Jefferson to win the presidency over Adams in the 1800 election.By 1802 most of the acts had either been replaced or expired.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    In 1793, France and Britain went to war and America remained neutral.When the US and Britain signed a treaty, France became enraged believing the treaty violated former agreements.The French seized US merchant ships.Adams sent a three-man team to try to negotiate. France wouldn't even speak to them unless demands were met.When asked to see a report of the incidents Adams replaced the negotiators names with XYZ.As a result the US took defense measures.This marked the beginning of the Quasi-War.
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

    Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
    These were the Democratic-Republican's responses to the Alien and Sedition acts. It was drafted in secret by Madison and Jefferson. It stated that the acts were unconstitutional and therefore should be null and void. It also became the first push in a state's rights movement. The resolutions pushed the separation of powers. Though they didn't influence other states to do the same, the resolutions are seen as examples of a state's ability to nullify federal acts.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    In the Election of 1800 John Adams (Federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (Republican) competed for presidency.Jefferson won the election and brought the end of the Federalist era, and brought in the Jeffersonian era.In this election Federalists lost both the presidency and congressional power. His victory in the election and the following changes earned this election the name "The Revolution of 1800." Up until this point power had never been transferred from two polar opposite parties so peacefully.
  • Marbury v. Madison

     Marbury v. Madison
    Jefferson defeated Madison in the election of 1800. James Madison, a member of Jefferson's cabinet at the time, found a letter granting John Marbury a federal judgeship and he orders him not to deliver it.Marbury then sues to get the position.The Supreme Court sides with Madison and refuses to grant Marbury the position.They find part of the judiciary act unconstitutional and therefore void.In doing this the Court claims the right of Judicial Review, which is still important in our world today.
  • The Louisiana Purchase

    The Louisiana Purchase
    Jefferson worried that the US could lose control of the MS river and New Orleans. Jefferson send Monroe to negotiate purchasing New Orleans.Napoleon isn't interested in selling unless they take the whole of the Louisiana territory. Jefferson was a strict constructionist and he struggled with what to do. Eventually he makes the purchase and effectively doubles the size of the US. The US purchased 828,000 square miles of square miles for 4 cents an acre. This secured New Orleans and the MS River.
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Lewis and Clark Expedition
    The Lewis and Clark Expedition was a federally funded plan thought up by Jefferson. The goals included exploring the Missouri River, expanding fur trade, making diplomatic contact with Indians, and finding the Northwest Passage. As they ventured out they recorded their experiences and documented new flora and fauna. Many of their goals were met with success, however they were not able to discover a Northwest Passage. They were able to make peaceful contact with Natives and expand fur trade.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Embargo of 1807
    During the Napoleonic Wars, France and Britain interfered with US merchant ships. In response, Jefferson pushed the embargo into effect. It closed US ports to all exports and it limited British imports, with the intent to punish the countries. The embargo had terrible results on the US economy, much more so than on the British or French. Smuggling, joblessness, and profits from exports fell dramatically. Pressure to remove the embargo built up, and in 1809 Jefferson repealed the act.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    A treaty had been created that ended the War of 1812, but the news was slow to spread.Jackson led a force of motley warriors up against British forces. His army was made up of many different people groups.The British are destroyed by American forces.They suffered 2,042 casualties and the American army only suffered 71. From this Jackson is associated with winning the war. The results were a rise in Nationalism, expansion ideas, and the beginning of the establishment of a transportation system.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a series of revivals among Protestant Christians in the early 1800s. It was very emotionally driven and helped the church grow. This revival encouraged a personal relationship with God, free will, and a greater role for women. The church was being used as a vehicle for social change in society. Two major preachers of this time were Charles Finney and Lyman Beecher. The Second Great Awakening paved the way for movements such as Abolitionism and Temperance.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    Outlined in Monroe's speech to congress in 1823,this warned European nations to not interfere with the Western Hemisphere.It also lets them know that any further colonization or military intervention would be viewed as a potentially hostile act.This went both ways,however, the US promising not to involve themselves with European politics or their colonies in he Western Hemisphere.It became the building block for other foreign policies.This document created a policy that is still relevant today.
  • Corrupt Bargain

    Corrupt Bargain
    Election of 1824 Clay, Adams, Jackson, and Crawford ran for president, but Jackson won the popular majority.No candidate received a majority of electoral votes. The decision went to the House of Reps and Clay dropped out.After this Adams and Clay meet privately (no one knows what's discussed).In the days that follow the meeting Clay publicly supports Adams and the House elects him president, and later Clay is appointed Secretary of State. Jackson's supporters claimed a corrupt bargain was made.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Indian Removal Act
    The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by Andrew Jackson.Jackson wanted to make Westward expansion easier for Americans.This called for Indians to relocate to territories in OK and NE.For those who believed strongly in Manifest Destiny, this was acceptable because the Natives were getting in the way of Westward expansion.Some tribes went peacefully but many resisted.Tribes such as the Cherokee were forced to march to new land by the US government in what became known as the Trail of Tears.
  • Americanization of Native Americans

    Americanization of Native Americans
    After the Dawes Act and the relocation of Indians the government's goal was to break tribal ties between and force assimilation in order to get to their lands. Natives lost 86 million acres of reservation land and were forced to adjust to the shrinking sizes. The government created boarding schools that Natives were required to attend. Children as young as 6 were taken from reservations. This was cultural genocide and had terrible effects on the Native American culture.
  • Battle of the Alamo

    Battle of the Alamo
    The Battle of the Alamo was fought between the Republic of Texas and Mexico, and it lasted thirteen days.A group of Texas volunteer soldiers occupied the fort until General Santa Anna led thousands of troops in a siege against them. Davy Crockett and James Bowie held their own, but were eventually overtaken. All of the American forces were killed. Despite the loss the phrase "remember the Alamo"became a symbol of endurance and resistance. This became a popular phrase in the Mexican-American War.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    The term "Manifest Destiny" was first coined in 1845 to describe the mindset of westward expansion. It originally came about in response to the possible annexation of Texas and a dispute with Britain over the Oregon territory. This idea was that the US was destined by God to expand across North America and spread ideas of democracy.Manifest Destiny expanded trade and helped us gain more land. This did increase the issues of slavery, however, and created issues that led to the Civil War.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    This War was the first armed conflict fought on foreign land. Mexico had an immigration problem as more and more Americans came into TX, so they closed their borders. Mexico put soldiers in cities, enforced Catholicism, and began to tax. TX was annexed which allowed the US to defend. When American troops enter disputed land and are met with Mexican forces, they're all killed. Congress allows Polk to go to war with Mexico. The treaty of Guadalupe Hildago officially ends this war two years later.
  • Gold Rush

    Gold Rush
    When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in CA Sutter and his partner Marshall attempted to keep it secret. News spread quickly however, and Sutter soon found himself surrounded by thousands of fortune seekers. Though millions worth of dollars was mined most miners never struck it rich. Mining camps were established, but were riddled with crime. Eventually they transformed into cities. The Gold Rush drew in more than 300,000 people and is attributed to pushing CA towards statehood.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought an end to the Mexican-American war for Texas. With the American advance through Texas into Mexico, the Mexican government fled to the city of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Once they recognized they were defeated and Mexico City had been taken they surrendered. Mexico ceded 55% of it's territory including Texas. It also recognized the Rio Grande as the Southern border of Texas. The US compensated Mexico with $15 million dollars. This extended the US reach Westward.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    This Convention was the first women's rights convention. Held in NY, over 300 women attended to discuss women's rights to discuss social, civic, and religious issues. Women who were also involved in the Abolitionist Movement such as Elizabeth Stanton organized the convention. The convention's manifesto, The Declaration or Sentiments. It described the women's complaints and demands. It asserted the women's constitutionally guaranteed rights. The convention launched the women's suffrage movement.
  • Bleeding Kansas

    Bleeding Kansas
    After the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act the rift between pro and anti-slavery groups grew. Violence between these two groups became more and more common. At the time there was one free government and one pro-slavery government in Kansas. In Lawrence, a pro-slavery group looted stores and set fire to a hotel. John Brown and a group of men responded by going to a pro-slavery settlement and killed seven men there. Bleeding Kansas led to tension in national political spheres.
  • Dred Scott Case

    Dred Scott Case
    Dred Scott was born into slavery and was connected with someone in the military. He eventually moved to Illinois which was a free state. Scott sues because he can't legally be held in a free state, however, the judge doesn't rule in his favor. Scott's wife Harriet also filed for her freedom. The case eventually reached the Supreme Court who ruled that Scott was still enslaved. This outraged abolitionists and added fuel to the fire that would eventually start the Civil War.
  • Anaconda Plan

    Anaconda Plan
    The Anaconda Plan was proposed by Winfield Scott of the US navy. The first part of the plan was to blockade the South's coast from and ships that would try to get through fro trade. Major ports are blocked, making the goal to hinder trade a success. The second part of this plan was to conquer New Orleans and take control of the Mississippi river. It would allow the Union to get a foothold deep in the South and attack from any angle. This plan was successful--total war was waged on the South.
  • Battle at Fort Sumter

    Battle at Fort Sumter
    This battle marked the start of the Civil War.The South was angry that there were US forts in the Confederate States. The soldiers at Fort Sumter were running out of supplies so Lincoln sent a brigade of soldiers to resupply. When the South sees this they attack the soldiers at Fort Sumter.After 34 hours of bombardment Anderson and 86 of his troops surrendered. The Confederate troops then occupied the fort for four years. The day following the attack Lincoln issued a call for Union volunteers.
  • Morrill Act

    Morrill Act
    The Morrill Act set aside federal land for states,but they could only use the land to create universities.Over 10 million acres were provided by the grants.Most of this land was taken from Native Americans unjustly.These grants emphasized agricultural and mechanical arts.This opened up the opportunity for farmers and other lower class people to get an education.This grant increased public education and the access to it. After this act was passed there was at least one university in every state.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation when America was in its third year of the Civil War.It declared all slaves in seceded states free.This left slavery intact in the loyal border states.It did,however, fundamentally change the character of the war. After the enactment of the proclamation every Union victory expanded freedom.This also allowed blacks to join the Union Army and Navy.Overall this started America on its way to completely abolishing slavery and strengthened the Union.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Battle of Vicksburg
    Lasting over a month, the siege of Vicksburg took over a month, but eventually brought a victory for the Union. It was a culmination of a long land and naval campaign by the North. Its capture allowed for the Union to gain control of the Mississippi River and severed the Confederacy. This allowed for Northern traffic the entire length. The Union Army severely outnumbered the Confederate army. There were multiple attempts to capture Vicksburg before but they all failed for one reason or another.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    Civil Rights Act of 1866
    The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave blacks citizenship and offered some protection against black codes. This is when the 14th amendment was created. This amendment protected all people born or naturalized in the US as US citizens. They were given the right to file suit, make and enforce contracts, and to buy, sell, and inherit property. It protected all people in the US regardless of race. States were required to protect citizens through legality. President Andrew Johnson later vetoed this.
  • Railway Act

    Railway Act
    The Pacific Railway Act established the construction of the transcontinental railroad. This was the biggest more expensive project the US has ever tried to do and they couldn't afford it. President Lincoln made a deal with the railroad companies. He would pay them per mile of the railroad that they completed, they would also get to keep some land around the rail they laid. He said he wanted it done by 1875 and if they didn't they would lose the land. The companies had it done by 1871.
  • Jim Crow Laws

    Jim Crow Laws
    A system of laws ensuring social segregation in transportation, accommodations, schools, courts, etc. which arose in every Southern State. This occurred after the Reconstruction period in America. Redeemer democrats systematically exclude black voters. These laws legalize segregation and restrict black civil rights. By 1910 the process was complete. The North and the federal government didn't do anything about this. This was a means for Americans to justify segregating African Americans.
  • James Garfield Assassination

    James Garfield Assassination
    President Garfield had only been in office for around four months and had already clashed with the opposite party and didn't have an easy introduction to being in office. He took a holiday to get a break, and as most presidents before him, he didn't have any protection. While he was away he was shot. Garfield lived in pain for another two months ,but eventually dies in September. Garfield's assassination was instrumental to the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    Enacted in 1890, the The Sherman Antitrust Act, is defined as a law that prohibits any business activity that is considered to be 'anticompetitive'. This includes price fixing and monopolization.Despite the rapid economic growth at the time of its creation, companies utilizing anti-competitive business practices and structures, such as trusts, cartels, and monopolies, were the driving force for the act. It has played a very important part in the regulation of businesses within U.S. history.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    This war was a conflict between the US and Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas. The war originated in the Cuban struggle for independence from Spain.The growing popular demand for U.S. intervention became a necessity after the sinking in Havana harbor of the American battleship USS Maine, which had been sent to protect U.S. citizens after anti-Spanish rioting in Havana. This resulted in Cuban independence and the US gaining control of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico.
  • Model T

    Model T
    Cars had been around for a number of years,but due to their price the majority of people didn't have one.This changed when Ford introduced his Model T car.He was able to make his car very affordable with it starting at $850 but eventually getting even cheaper.The price was so low because he made every part standard and produced them using an assembly line.This was the first time anyone created items such as cars using that process. After this cars became more popular due to their affordability.
  • NAACP Founded

    NAACP Founded
    W. E. B. DuBois was an early black civil rights leader. He didn't have the same strategy of Civil Disobedience like MLK, and believed black people needed to take a stand even if it meant violence. DuBois founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to help his cause. The organization provided scholarships, lobbied Congress, went to court, and created other movements to help blacks. It would become increasingly important as the civil rights movement gained popularity.
  • The Great Migration

    The Great Migration
    Between 1915-1960 over five million blacks moved from the South to the north in the Great Migration. Oppressive economic conditions in the South caused many blacks to seek the greater prosperity offered in the North. The plantation economy in the South offered little chance of advancement. Many blacks also wanted to escape the unfair and oppressive conditions in the South. Inequality in education, lynching, and denial of suffrage were all common forms of discrimination in the South.
  • Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

    Franz Ferdinand Assassinated
    In 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was next in line for the Austrian throne. Austrians and Serbians were very at odds at this time and tensions were only growing. When he was riding through the Bosnian capital with his wife, a Serbian nationalist assassinated both of them. This was the spark to the first world war. Soon Austria would declare war on Serbia. Then, Serbia's allies would declare war on Austria. Then, the dominoes would fall with all of Austria's allies joining in the war.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    The US intercepts a telegram known as the Zimmerman Note, in which Germany promises to give Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona back to Mexico. It was part of an effort carried out by the Germans to postpone the transportation of supplies and other war materials from the US to the Allies.The main purpose of the telegram was to make the Mexican government declare war on the US in hopes of tying down American forces. It helped to generate support for the American declaration of war on Germany.
  • Volstead Act/Prohibition

    Volstead Act/Prohibition
    Enacted in 1919, the Volstead Act outlawed the manufacture, sale, distribution, or importation of alcohol.As a result the nation saw a rise in organized crime. Underground distribution became more common. Establishments such as speakeasies became popular.The start of the Prohibition also saw the beginning of NASCAR. The act was originally vetoed by president Wilson but passed when congress overruled the veto.Eventually when it became clear that the Volstead Act was unenforceable it was repealed.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti

    Sacco and Vanzetti
    Animosity toward immigrants was highlighted in the case of Sacco and Vanzetti. Mainstream America at the time had a fear of communism and radical politics. This led to the development of anti-immigrant beliefs. With very little evidence the two Italian immigrants, and admitted anarchists, were charged with a robbery and murder in their neighborhood, wrongfully accused, and killed as a result. As a result, many protested the wrongful hostility toward the two men.
  • Harlem Renaissance

    Harlem Renaissance
    After Slavery had been outlawed, many blacks began to seek further participation in American Society. Sharecropping, lynchings, and groups like the KKK left former slaves feeling stuck. The Harlem section of Manhattan drew nearly 175,000 African Americans, making it the largest concentration of blacks in the world…thus the name the ‘Harlem Renaissance.’ Coming from a common background they formed their own community with a determination to forge a new identity as a free people.
  • KKK (1920s)

    KKK (1920s)
    The KKK reached its peak in the 1920s. By this time it had anywhere from 2 million to 5 million members. Most members were middle class white men and their families. The Klan feared an influx of Eastern European immigrants. Bigotry’s appeal was becoming public. The KKK was also very violent with hundreds or beatings, whippings, and murders all at the hands of the Klan. Eventually people began to see fault with its ideas, which became its ultimate downfall.
  • The Election of 1932

    The Election of 1932
    In the election of 1932, Democrat Franklin Roosevelt defeated Republican Herbert Hoover. Hoover, who was seen as inactive and unpopular, and didn't have much hope of winning the election. The election was held during the Great Depression, and saw a dramatic shift in our politics. Roosevelt's campaign promise was to recover America through a "new deal." He avoided specifics when explaining his plan, but he did make it clear that it would include heavy use of federal power.
  • The New Deal

    The New Deal
    The New Deal was first a campaign promise by FDR before he took office in 1932. While campaigning, few details were given regarding the specifics of this plan. Once in office we see that the New Deal was a series of projects and programs put in place and funded by the government. Roosevelt acted quickly and frequently to provide jobs and relief to Americans. Over the next eight years, experimental programs such as the CCC and WPA were created and provided work for unemployed Americans.
  • 1935 Social Security Act

    1935 Social Security Act
    The Social Security Act created a safety net for all Americans. The act included several provisions such as old age assistance, aid to dependent children, and grants to the states to provide medical care. In addition to this the act created a social insurance program for citizens 65 and older who were retired. It provided them with an income after they stopped working. This was intended to give older Americans an incentive to retire. This was ineffective due to the steady 17% unemployment rate.
  • The Formation of HUAC

    The Formation of HUAC
    HUAC was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and rebellious activities on the part of private citizens, public employees and organizations suspected of having Communist ties. Citizens suspected of having ties to the communist party would be tried in a court of law. Also during this time, Senator Joseph McCarthy began a campaign against alleged communists in the U.S. government and other institutions. McCarthyism spread, and so did it's ideologies.
  • Four Freedoms Speech

    Four Freedoms Speech
    On January 6, 1941 Roosevelt gave his State of the Union address, which later became known as his Four Freedoms Speech. In this speech he proposed speech, religion, want, and freedom from fear as fundamental freedoms to every human. He used this speech to define war as a "noble defense of democratic societies." Roosevelt wanted to rally the people against the Axis threat. He wanted the people to feel support for the Allied forces. These freedoms became a symbol of hope during WWII.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    In 1941 1,400 Cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba.In 1959, Fidel Castro came to power in an armed revolt. The US distrusted Castro and was wary of his relationship with Khrushchev, the leader of the USSR.JFK becomes president of the US in 1961 and inherits a planned invasion of Cuba from the Eisenhower administration. The invasion was a failure and all of the Cuban exile invasion force was either killed or captured by Castro's army.
  • Executive Order 8802

    Executive Order 8802
    With Black Activism on the rise before WWII it only continued to grow during the war. Black activists organized theDouble V campaign. They wanted a victory against fascism abroad and racism at home.Defense jobs were formed during the war; however,most of these businesses wouldn't hire blacks. To combat this,black leaders planned to march on Washington.FDR feared this would have negative consequences so he signed executive order 8802.This ended discrimination in defense industries and employment.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    On the morning of 12-7-41 hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the Pearl Harbor.The attack damaged or destroyed almost 20 ships (8 of which were battleships) and over 300 airplanes. Over 3400 people were wounded or killed.The attack was a surprise, however war between the US and Japan had been brewing for a long time, due to Japans increasing friendliness towards China.The bombing was devastating in losses.The day after the attack President Roosevelt declared war on Japan.
  • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066
    Executive Order 9066 was issued by FDR on February 19,1942. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the public's fear shifted to Japanese Americans. This order moved all people deemed to be a threat to national security from the coast inland. Relocation Centers, or Internment Camps cost their occupants personal liberties and their lives as a whole. The US government had no rights to uproot or hold the Japanese Americans in these camps, but popular opinion prevented change in this direction.
  • D-day

    D-day (also known as operation Overlord) brought the air, sea, and land forces from the Allied armies. The goal was to reduce the German divisions in the USSR's territory. The Allies spent 18 months training and planning the best plan of attack. This became the largest seaborne invasion in history and was the turning point of WWII. Within 7 days the Allies controlled 80 miles of French Coast. Not only did we take land from Germany, but this also gave us a foothold close to Germany.
  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    At Yalta, Roosevelt and Churchill discussed with Stalin the conditions under which the Soviet Union would enter the war against Japan and all three agreed that, in exchange for potentially crucial Soviet participation in the Pacific theater, the Soviets would be granted a sphere of influence in Manchuria after Japan’s surrender. The Allied leaders also discussed the future of Germany, Eastern Europe and the United Nations.
  • Vietnam Split

    Vietnam Split
    Southeast Asia, namely Vietnam, was considered an important sphere of influence by the US and Soviet leaders.When nationalist forces created North Vietnam in 1956 the USSR and China recognized and backed the new communist country while the US became committed to stopping the spread of communism and backed South Vietnam. As in Korea,the US and the USSR avoided direct warfare by backing the opposing governments.The tensions from both of the countries materialized in the backing of other countries.
  • The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    In an attempt to end the war in the Pacific without a costly invasion of Japan, the US dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945 respectively. The two atomic bombings, together with the Soviet Union’s declaration of war on Japan, finally convinced Emperor Hirohito to surrender to the Allies, effectively ending World War II.WWII transformed both the United States and the USSR, turning the nations into world powers, and competition increased.
  • The Hollywood Ten

    The Hollywood Ten
    Referred to as the Hollywood Ten, they were indicted for contempt of Congress and sentenced to brief imprisonment. Although the leaders of the motion picture studios had initially supported the Hollywood Ten, they soon denounced them, and the Hollywood Ten were suspended without pay. They were writers, producers, and actors who were all suspended without pay. After the televised hearings the Hollywood ten were blacklisted and served time.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    After WWII,Europe was in the midst of an economic depression.If actions weren't taken, a global depression was a very likely possibility.Poor economic conditions would occasionally drive people to communism,which the US was heavily against due to the policy of containment. This caused George Marshall to create his Marshall Plan which would help fund the rebuilding of Europe.The US sent billions of dollars to Europe to aid in the reestablishment of their economy, and it was pleasantly successful.
  • The Forming of NATO

    The Forming of NATO
    NATO was formed in 1949 with the signing of the Washington Treaty, NATO is a security alliance of 30 countries from North America and Europe. NATO’s fundamental goal is to safeguard the Allies’ freedom and security by political and military means. NATO remains the principal security instrument of the transatlantic community and expression of its common democratic values. This creates a collective security system. The first Supreme Commander was Eisenhower.
  • The Occupation of Korea and the Start of the Korean War

    The Occupation of Korea and the Start of the Korean War
    Japan occupied Korea in 1910,but ceded control of Korea when it surrendered at the end of WWII.The US and the USSR agreed to split Korea into two occupation zones.The zone north of the 38th parallel was occupied by the USSR and it helped the Koreans living there form a communist government.The US occupied the south and it oversaw a democratic government. When the two major powers withdrew, friction between the north and south finally erupted into war in 1950 when North Koreans invaded the south.
  • Stalin's Death

    Stalin's Death
    Joseph Stalin,second leader of the Soviet Union,died at the age of 74, after suffering a stroke. He was given a state funeral in Moscow on 9 March, with four days of national mourning declared.The Soviet Union remained a repugnant dictatorship,but it was a very different place after Stalin was gone. Stalin's death led to a temporary thaw in Cold War tensions.In 1955, Austria regained its sovereignty and became an independent, neutral nation after the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country.
  • Korean Armistice

    Korean Armistice
    The south was unprepared for the aggression and invasion from the north and was immediately overrun. Eventually, the US stepped in to help the South Korean military, essentially creating a proxy war between the Soviet Union and the United States. No final peace treaty was ever signed to end the Korean War. Instead, the two sides signed an armistice in 1953 that ceased hostilities and formed the Korean Demilitarized Zone, a no-man’s land between the two countries which constituted the new border.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to organize the Territory of Nebraska.This was controversial and contained the possibility that slavery could be extend into the territories it was once banned in. It fueled the conflict over slavery. In order to get votes the Missouri Compromise was repealed and 2 new territories were created.It allowed for popular sovereignty.As a result a conflict known as "Bleeding Kansas,"a battle between pro and anti-slavery forces occurred in an attempt to sway the vote.
  • The Beginning of the Space Race

    The Beginning of the Space Race
    The US and the USSR each wanted to achieve technological superiority over the other. Included in that struggle was the race to become the first country to build a rocket capable of launching an object into space. Not only would this be an immense technological achievement, but a rocket that was powerful enough to carry a payload into space could also carry a nuclear warhead capable of reaching the other country. This would give the respective country a relatively advantage over the other.
  • The Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act

    The Eisenhower Interstate Highway Act
    The Interstate Highway Act was the largest public works project in history. It was created to update America's roads. This effectively connected the country. In order to pass create this act, Eisenhower had to play of of Cold War fears in order to get the American people on board. Eisenhower pointed out that this would make potential evacuation easier and the new and improved roads could act as emergency runways.Though they were never needed for this purpose,Eisenhower was able to pass this act.
  • Creation of ICBMs

    Creation of ICBMs
    The Soviet Union announces that it has successfully tested an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capable of being fired “into any part of the world.” The announcement caused great concern in the United States, and started a national debate over the “missile gap” between America and Russia. Mutually assured destruction was assumed. Now the two world powers had nuclear weapons, and mutually assured destruction was holding everything together by a thread.
  • First Satellite

    First Satellite
    In October of 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite. Sputnik caught Americans off guard and embarrassed the nation. For the US military, this was proof that the USSR had the missile technology to attack the United States. The USSR put Sputnik 2 in orbit before the US was able to put its first satellite, Explorer 1, into orbit in January of 1958. Both countries then began a race to the moon.
  • Little Rock 9

    Little Rock 9
    Even after Plessy had been struck down,integration was still being blocked by local and state governments in the South. They were allowed to attend by law, but feared unfair treatment.9 students in Little Rock were the first to attempt integration. The governor ordered the AK National guard to prevent them from entering. Whites picketed, protested, and threatened the 9 attending school. President Eisenhower ordered the 101st airborne division to make sure the 9 made it to and from school safely.
  • Lunch Counter Sit-Ins

    Lunch Counter Sit-Ins
    The Lunch In Greensboro North Carolina, four black college students sit down in a segregated Woolsworth department store and ask to be served. After being denied service they refused to leave and begin a sit-in. The event inspired similar sit-in protests at lunch counters throughout the south.
    Six months after the four students were denied service, they were finally given the service they requested. Once again economic pressure by the African American community sparked a change.
  • JFK Elected

    JFK Elected
    Senator John F. Kennedy both pledged to strengthen American military forces and promised a tough stance against the Soviet Union and international communism. Kennedy warned of the Soviet's growing arsenal of ICBMs and pledged to revitalize American nuclear forces.He also criticized the Eisenhower administration for permitting the establishment of a pro-Soviet government in Cuba.Kennedy was well known for serving during the height of the Cold War and foreign policy with Cuba and the Soviet Union.
  • The Freedom Rides

    The Freedom Rides
    In the Summer of 1962, organized by CORE and SNCC, over 1,000 student volunteers both black and white, took it upon themselves to work their way through the south to test new laws outlawing segregation. Several groups of riders are viciously attacked and buses bombed by mobs of angry white racists. Eugene ‘Bull’ Connor, the Commissioner of Public Safety knew the mobs were waiting and intentionally arrived with the police 15 minutes late, giving the mobs time to do serious damage.
  • The Grozny

    The Grozny
    Through aerial surveillance the US discovers that Cuba was building ICBM launch sites. The Soviet Ship the Grozny was detected setting sail for Cuba. The US puts up a naval blockade surrounding Cuba. The US and the USSR were at a standoff. The Grozny crosses the Quarantine line, but stops after the US navy ships fire star shells across her bow. Moscow orders the Grozny to turn around. If they had chosen to continue further it would've put the US in a terrible position.
  • Children's Crusade

    Children's Crusade
    In downtown Birmingham,hundreds of school kids staged a school walk-out to participate in a march. Many of them are arrested, only to be set free and repeat the process again the next day.‘Bull’ Connor,the Commissioner of Public Safety, stops the marches by ordering the crowds sprayed with fire hoses and releasing dogs on them. The march is televised and causes JFK to publicly support civil rights and new civil rights legislation. After JFK took his stand, many others around the country did too.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a step in the right direction. However, it didn't remove obstacles from black voting. In the south, only a small number of blacks were registered to vote. Civil rights activists tried to get more blacks registered but were met with hostility and obstacles. It was becoming evident that a law would need to be passed to protect their vote, so the Voting Rights Act was finally passed that banned discrimination in elections. States were threaten to comply with this.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    Operation Rolling Thunder was an American bombing campaign during the Vietnam War. U.S. military aircraft attacked targets throughout North Vietnam from March 1965 to October 1968. This was intended to put military pressure on North Vietnam’s communist leaders and reduce their capacity to wage war against South Vietnam. It marked the first sustained American assault on North Vietnamese territory and displayed a greater U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. The operation was a failure.
  • Miranda v. Arizona

    Miranda v. Arizona
    The Warren Court, under President Johnson and his "Great Society" was very progressive and helped to protect people's rights. Miranda v. Arizona was a landmark case that used the Fifth Amendment to stop prosecutors from using things said during an interrogation before their (what became known as) Miranda rights are read to them. These include they have the right to have an attorney present and have the right to remain silent. Now these rights are required to be stated to anyone arrested.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    The My Lai Massacre was the mass killing of over 500 unarmed villagers, thinking they were part of the communist South Vietnam,when in reality they were allies. Old men, women, and children made up the majority of the victims.Almost the entire village was wiped out by American soldiers.Months after this happened pictures reached the public and the American people were enraged.The government tried to hide what had happened.The people were angry at both LBJ and the soldiers that fought in Vietnam.
  • Watergate

    Watergate was a break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington. Two of the men were found to have connections to Nixon,and two others were ex-CIA agents. The investigators on the case discovered that there were tapes of everything said in the Oval Office,and demanded they be released. Nixon refused until the court demanded he release them.Due to the mounting suspicion and the cover-up President Nixon was forced to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment.
  • Camp David Summit

    Camp David Summit
    Leaders from Egypt, Israel, and America met at Camp David to try to reach a peace agreement. Things looked to be going pretty well until Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem got into a disagreement and both refused to sign a treaty. After Carter was able to mediate between the two leaders the countries were able to come to some semblance of peace. They signed the Camp David Accords which brought peace and changed the dynamics of the Middle East.
  • Reagan is Shot

    Reagan is Shot
    After delivering a speech in a Washington D.C. hotel, while walking out Regan and many members of his entourage were shot. He was immediately rushed to the hospital. He was shot in the left lung, but luckily the bullet missed his heart by an inch. Reagan was prepped and prepared for surgery. After he began his recovery he also resumed some of his executive duties. By April 11th he was back at the White House and in good spirits. The assassination attempt only caused Regan's popularity to rise.
  • Reagan and the Cold War

    Reagan and the Cold War
    Though the Cold War didn't officially end until Bush, it's ending is widely attributed to Reagan. Regan realized that the USSR spent the equivalent on their military that the US spent (though they spent a much greater part of their budget on it). Reagan challenges them knowing they can't match our increased spending. The USSR's command economy was causing them to spend themselves into bankruptcy. Over time the USSR began to lose it's satellites.
  • Iran Contra Scandal

    Iran Contra Scandal
    The Iran-Contra Affair was a secret U.S. arms deal that traded arms to free some Americans held hostage by terrorists in Lebanon, but also used funds from the arms deal to support armed conflict in Nicaragua. The scandal and shady deals severely hurt Reagan's image. He claimed to not remember if he approved the plan or not. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, of the National Security Council stated that he did initiate the dealings but didn't directly say the president was involved.