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    2nd Great Awakening

    Definition-Which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Significance-The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement during the early nineteenth century. The movement started around 1800, had begun to gain momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870.
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    Barbary Pirates

    Muslim pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa
    They seized merchant ships, engaged in Razzias, raided european coastal towns and villages mainly in Italy, france, spain, and portugal
    The purpose of their attacks were to capture slaves for the ottoman slave trade and the general arab slave market
  • Louisiana Purchase

    The colonies added Louisiana from France and paid $15 million(which was $18 per sq. Ft.)
    They mainly bought the land from the natives because they owned the majority of the land purchased by the colonies
  • Marbury v. Madison

    The Court found that Madison’s refusal to deliver the commission was illegal, but did not order Madison to hand over Marbury’s commission via writ of mandamus
    the Court then held that the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 enabling Marbury to bring his claim to the Supreme Court was itself unconstitutional, since it purported to extend the Court’s original jurisdiction beyond that which Article III, Section 2, established.
  • Lewis and clark Expedition

    Definition-Was a U.S. military expedition, led by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark, to explore the Louisiana Purchase and the Pacific Northwest. Significance-Opened up new territory for the fur and lumber trade and pointed out the best lands for future settlement and agriculture
  • Burr v Hamilton

    Definition-A duel between two U.S. Vice presidents.The two men had long been political rivals, but the immediate cause of the duel was disparaging remarks Hamilton had allegedly made about Burr at a dinner. Significance-Resulted in the death of Hamilton the following day.
  • Cheasapeake-Leopard Affair

    Definition-Was a naval engagement off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia. Significance-It was a symbol of the degraded relationship between Great Britain and the United States, and a spark that slowly burned to the unleashing of hostilities in the War of 1812.
  • Embargo Act

    Definition-Was a general trade embargo on all foreign nations that was enacted by the United States Congress. Significance-It prohibited American ships from trading in all foreign ports. ... In 1806, France passed a law that prohibited trade between neutral parties, like the U.S., and Britain.
  • Nonintercourse Act

    Definition-It allowed the resumption of world trade with the exclusion of trade with England and France, thus barring French and British vessels from American ports Significance-Congress to prohibit American ships from trading in foreign ports.
  • Macon's bill

    Definition-Which became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American ships, cargoes, and crews during the Napoleonic Wars. Significance-To persuade France and Britain to recognize American neutrality since France and Britain had been seizing American ships during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Fletcher v peck

    Definition-The court invalidated a state law as unconstitutional for the first time. Significance-A grant to a private land company was a contract within the meaning of the Contract Clause of the Constitution.
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    Definition-Victory of a seasoned U.S. expeditionary force under Major General William Henry Harrison over Shawnee Indians led by Tecumseh's brother. Significance-The U.S. victory broke Tecumseh's power and ended the threat of an Indian confederation.
  • War of 1812 p1

    Definition-Was a conflict fought between the United States and its indigenous allies on one side, and the United Kingdom, its dependent colonies in North America, indigenous allies, and Spain on the other.
    Significance-Although often treated as a minor footnote to the bloody European war between France and Britain, the War of 1812 was crucial for the United States.
    Federalists opposed the war, considering it unjust and immoral, and championing peace, neutrality, and free trade.
  • War of 1812 p2

    War hawks-Members of Congress who put pressure on President James Madison to declare war against Britain in 1812. The War Hawks tended to be younger congressmen from Southern and Western states.
    Major battles-
    Battle of New Orleans
    Battle of Lake Erie
    Battle of Bladensburg
    Burning of Washington
    Battle of Plattsburgh
  • War of 1812 p3

    Cause and effect-Were a series of economic sanctions taken by the British and French against the US as part of the Napoleonic Wars and American outrage at the British practice of impressment, especially after the Chesapeake incident of 1807.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    Definition-Ended the War of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain. Significance-All conquered territory was to be returned, and commissions were planned to settle the boundary of the United States and Canada
  • Hartford convention

    Definition-New England Federalist Party met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing. Significance-Declaration calling on the Federal Government to protect New England and to supply financial aid to New England's badly battered trade economy
  • Tariff of 1816

    Definition-Increased the cost of European goods in the United States. Significance-Level the playing field for American businessmen.
  • Henry clays american system

    Definition-A tariff to protect and promote American industry. Significance-Improving the economy of the United States. Introducing a protective Tariff to enable the nation to raise money from these taxes.
  • Rush Bagot Agreement

    Definition- an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to eliminate their fleets from the Great Lakes. Significance-It signified an improvement of diplomatic relations between the US and Great Britain. The agreement terminated the expensive arms race on the Great Lakes
  • American Colonization

    Definition-formed in 1817 to send free African-Americans to Africa as an alternative to emancipation in the United States. Significance-send free African-Americans to Africa as an alternative to emancipation in the United States.
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    Era of Good Feelings

    Definition-National mood of the United States from 1815 to 1825, as first described by the Boston Columbian Centinel on July 12, 1817. Significance-Reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars
  • Seminole Raid of 1818

    Definition-over attempts by U.S. authorities to recapture runaway black slaves living among Seminole bands. Significance-attacked several key Seminole locations and forced the tribe farther south into Florida.
  • Onis-Adams Treaty or the Florida Purchase

    Definition-accord between the United States and Spain that divided their North American claims along a line from the southwestern corner of what is now Louisiana, north and west to what is now Wyoming, and thence west along the latitude Significance-the western limits of the Louisiana Purchase and Spain surrendered its claims to the Pacific Northwest
  • Panic of 1819

    Definition-Investment in western lands collapsed. Significance-the first widespread and durable financial crisis in the United States.
  • Dartmouth College v Woodward

    Definition-the state of New Hampshire had violated the contract clause in its attempt to install a new board of trustees for Dartmouth College.
    Significance-The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college.
  • McCulloch v Maryland

    Definition-Congress had implied powers under the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution to create the Second Bank of the United States Significance-Congress has implied powers derived from those listed in Article I, Section 8.
  • Adams-Onos treaty

    Definition-United States and Spain defined the western limits of the Louisiana Purchase and Spain surrendered its claims to the Pacific Northwest. Significance-Spain defined the western limits of the Louisiana Purchase and Spain surrendered its claims to the Pacific Northwest.
  • Tallmadge Amendment

    Definition-prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and provided for emancipation of those already there when they reached age 25. Significance-prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and provided for emancipation of those already there when they reached age 25
  • Missouri Compromise

    Definition-admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Significance-regulated slavery in the western states
  • Commonwealth system

    Definition-A system of government-assisted economic development embraced by republican state legislatures throughout the nation Significance-a broad system of state mercantilism
  • Cohens v Virginia

    Definition-Supreme Court case in which the court reaffirmed its right to review all state court judgments in cases arising under the federal Constitution. Significance-Court's assertion of its power to review state supreme court decisions in criminal law matters when the defendant claims that their constitutional rights have been violated
  • Gibbons v Ogden

    Definition-gave Congress complete power in regulating interstate commerce. Significance-it freed all navigation of monopoly control
  • Monroe doctrine

    Definition-warns European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs. Significance-1823 U.S. President James Monroe proclaimed the United States as protector of the Western Hemisphere
  • Corrupt bargain of 1824

    Definition-Henry Clay offered the White House to whichever man was willing to appoint him Secretary of State Significance-Clay had led some of the strongest attacks against Jackson
  • Erie Canal

    Definition-Providing overland water transportation between the Hudson River on the east and Lake Erie at the western end. Significance-It was the longest artificial waterway and the greatest public works project in North America.
  • American Temperance Society

    Definition-Was a society established on February 13, 1826, in Boston, Massachusetts. Significance-Advocated for abstaining from drinking distilled beverages
  • Tariff on abominations

    Definition-Was a protective tariff passed in the early 19th century to support growing domestic industries by raising the costs of imported goods, a view that came to be known as protectionism. Significance-Provide even more protection to the Industrialists and manufacturers in the North by increasing duties on imported foreign (British) goods to nearly 50%.
  • American Peace Society founded

    Definition-The first nationally based secular peace organization in the United States. Significance-The Society was only opposed to wars between nation states; it did not oppose the American Civil War, regarding the Union's war as a "police action" against the "criminals" of the Confederacy.
  • Revolution of 1828

    Definition-The 1828 United States presidential election was the 11th quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, October 31 to Tuesday, December 2, 1828. It featured a rematch of the 1824 election, as President John Quincy Adams of the National Republican Party faced Andrew Jackson of the Democratic Party. Significance-Andrew Jackson's victory broke the line of presidents from Virginia and Massachusetts, and to many citizens represented the triumph of the common man
  • Spoils system

    Definition-the practice of a successful political party giving public office to its supporters. Significance-defend it as a means of maintaining an active party organization
  • Indian removal act

    Definition-authorizing the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. Significance-It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi
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    Peggy Eaton Affair

    Definition-a scandal that involved members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet and their wives. Significance-scandalized the nation and changed the events of American history.
  • Nat Turners rebellion

    Definition-rebellion of enslaved people Significance-hardened proslavery attitudes among Southern whites
  • McCormick invents the Mechanical Reaper

    Definition-to harvest crops mechanically. Significance-revolutionized agriculture
  • Cherokee Nation v Georgia

    Definition-United States Supreme Court case. It ruled that it had no original jurisdiction in the matter, as the Cherokees were a dependent nation, with a relationship to the United States like that of a "ward to its guardian," as said by Chief Justice Marshall. Significance-important case in Native American law because of its implications for tribal sovereignty and how to legally define the relationship between federally recognized Native American tribes and the U.S. government
  • Trail of tears

    Definition-the forced relocation during the 1830s of Eastern Woodlands Indians Significant-because of its devastating effects
  • Worchester v Georgia

    Definition-the states did not have the right to impose regulations on Native American land. Significance-the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional
  • Nullification Crisis

    Definition-conflict between the U.S. state of South Carolina and the federal government of the United States in 1832–33. Significance-first time tensions between state and federal authority almost led to a civil war
  • Jackson's Bank War

    Definition-the political struggle that ensued over the fate of the Second Bank of the United States during the presidency of Andrew Jackson Significance-political struggle that ensued over the fate of the Second Bank of the United States during the presidency of Andrew Jackson
  • American Antislavery Society

    Definition-of the cause of immediate abolition of slavery in the United States. Significance-North to convince people of slavery's brutality
  • Species Circular

    Definition-an executive order issued by President Andrew Jackson requiring that payment for the purchase of public lands be made exclusively in gold or silver. Significance-the government would only accept gold or silver in payment for federal land
  • The Alamo

    Definition-fought between the Republic of Texas and Mexico from February 23, 1836 to March 6, 1836. Significance-enduring symbol of their resistance to oppression and their struggle for independence
  • John Deere invents the steel plow

    Definition-commercially successful cast-steel plow. Significance-greatly to the agricultural world
  • Panic of 1837

    Definition-Was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major depression, which lasted until the mid-1840s. Significance-Was a financial crisis in the United States that triggered a multi-year economic depression
  • "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign of 1840

    Definition-A man of the common people from the rough-and-tumble West. They depicted Harrison's opponent, President Martin Van Buren, as a wealthy snob who was out of touch with the people. Significance-The United States presidential election of 1840 saw President Martin Van Buren fight for re-election against an economic depression and a Whig Party unified for the first time behind war hero William Henry Harrison and his "log cabin campaign. "
  • Irish Potato Famine

    Definition-Known as the Great Hunger, began in 1845 when a fungus-like organism called Phytophthora infestans spread rapidly throughout Ireland. Significance-Changed the island's demographic, political, and cultural landscape, producing an estimated 2 million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline
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    Definition-Pacifists who had advanced notions of gender and racial equality. Significance-Believed it was possible to form a more perfect society upon earth
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    Dorthea Dix and Mental Hospitals

    Definition-Her efforts are credited with the establishment of 32 state mental hospitals throughout the United States. Significance-Instrumental in the establishment of humane mental healthcare services in the United States
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    American Renaissance

    Definition-Period of American architecture and the arts from 1876 to 1917. Significance-It was the first time in history that American writers were considered equal or even better than European writers
  • Brook Farm

    Definition-Sought to equally distribute the tasks of daily life while providing education for all participants Significance-The distinguished literary figures and intellectual leaders associated with it
  • Commonwealth v Hunt

    Definition-Ruled that the common-law doctrine of criminal conspiracy did not apply to labour unions. Significance-It was a victory for the workers
  • Webster-Ashburton Treaty

    Definition-Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain establishing the northeastern boundary of the U.S. and providing for Anglo–U.S. cooperation in the suppression of the slave trade. Significance-Established the present boundary between Maine and New Brunswick
  • Seneca Fall Convention

    Definition-Was the first woman's rights convention in the United States. Significance-The meeting launched the women's suffrage movement, which more than seven decades later ensured women the right to vote
  • Onedia Community

    Definition-Was a perfectionist religious communal society founded by John Humphrey Noyes and his followers in 1848 near Oneida, New York. Significance-Was a Perfectionist communal society dedicated to living as one family and to sharing all property, work, and love