• Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species

    Introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection.
  • Congress authorizes a transcontinental railroad

    Transcontinental railroads helped open up unpopulated regions to exploration and settlement that would not otherwise have been feasible.
  • Homestead Act

    Gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a "homestead", at little or no cost. This originally consisted of grants totaling 160 acres.
  • National Labor Union organized

    Founded in 1866 and dissolved in 1873, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor and the AFL (American Federation of Labor). It was led by William H. Sylvis.
  • 1868 Grant defeats Seymour for the presidency

  • Fisk and Gould corner the gold market

  • Transcontinental railroad joined near Ogden

    Utah Knights of Labor organized
  • Standard Oil Company organized

    Standard Oil was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world. Its controversial history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that Standard was an illegal monopoly.
  • Tweed scandal in New York

  • Crédit Mobilier scandal exposed

    Liberal Republicans break with Grant. Grant defeats Greeley for the presidency.
  • Panic of 1873

    The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis which triggered a severe international economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879, and even longer in some countries. Known as The Great Depression.
  • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) organized

  • 1875 Whiskey Ring scandal

    Civil Rights Act of 1875. Resumption Act passed.
  • Hayes-Tilden election standoff and crisis

  • Bell invents the telephone

  • Compromise of 1877

    Reconstruction ends. Railroad strikes paralyze nation.
  • Nez Percé Indian War

    An armed conflict between several bands of the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and their allies, a small band of the Palouse tribe led by Red Echo (Hahtalekin) and Bald head (Husishusis Kute), against the United States Army.
  • Edison invents the electric light

  • Garfield defeats Hancock for presidency

  • Garfield assassinated

    Arthur assumes presidency.
  • First immigration-restriction laws passed

  • Chinese Exclusion Act

  • "Civil Rights Cases"

    Pendleton Act sets up Civil Service Commission
  • Brooklyn Bridge completed

    Metropolitan Opera House built in New York
  • Cleveland defeats Blaine for presidency

  • Mark Twain publishes The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

  • Louis Sullivan builds the first skyscraper in Chicago

    Linotype invented
  • Haymarket Square bombing

    American Federation of Labor formed. Wabash case.
  • Statue of Liberty erected in New York harbor

    Given to the U.S. as a gift from the French. It displayed freedom and a welcoming to immigrants.
  • Interstate Commerce Act

  • American Protective Association (APA) formed

    Hatch Act supplements Morrill Act
  • Harrison defeats Cleveland for presidency

  • Edward Bellamy publishes Looking Backward

    American all-star baseball team tours the world
  • Thomas B. “Czar” Reed becomes Speaker ofthe House of Representatives

  • 1889 Jane Addams founds Hull House in Chicago

    Moody Bible Institute established in Chicago
  • “Billion-Dollar” Congress

    McKinley Tariff ActSherman Silver Purchase Act (repealed 1893)
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

  • National American Woman Suffrage Association formed

  • Basketball invented

  • Homestead steel strike

    Coeur d’Alene (Idaho) silver miners’ strike.
    People’s party candidate James B. Weaver wins
    twenty-two electoral votes.
    Cleveland defeats Harrison and Weaver to
    regain presidency.
  • Populist party candidate James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election

  • Depression of 1893 begins

  • Lillian Wald opens Henry Street Settlementin New York.

    Anti-Saloon League formed.
    Columbian Exposition held in Chicago.
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff

    (contains income-taxprovision, declared unconstitutional 1895) Republicans regain House of Representatives.
  • Democratic Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894

  • J. P. Morgan’s banking syndicate

    Loans $65 million in gold to federal government
  • Plessy v. Ferguson legitimizes “separate butequal” doctrine

  • Utah admitted to the Union

    McKinley defeats Bryan for presidency
  • Free-silver election of 1896

  • Library of Congress opens

  • Dingley Tariff Act

  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman publishes "Women and Economics"

  • Kate Chopin publishes The Awakening

  • Theodore Dreiser publishes Sister Carrie

  • 1900 Gold Standard Act

  • United States Steel Corporation formed

  • 1907 Oklahoma admitted to the Union

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded

  • 1924 Indians granted U.S. citizenship

  • 1934 Indian Reorganization Act