• Bessemer Process

    William Kelly discovered that cold air blown on red-hot iron caused the metal to become white hot by igniting the carbon and thus emilinating impurities.
  • National Labor Union

    represented a gaint bootstrike of workers and one of the earliest national scale unions to organize in the Americas or Europe.
  • Haymarket Square

    Chicago police adavnaced on a meeting called to protest alleged brutallities by the authorities. Suddenly a dynamite bomb was theon that killed on injured several dozen people.
  • The "Bloody Shirt" Elects Grant

    Grant, a democratic, was nominated by the Republicans
  • "Black Friday"

    Treasurey began selling gold
  • Knights of Labor

    began as a secret society which sought to include all workers in "one big union".
  • Credit Mobilier Scandal

    Union Pacific RR men created construction company to build the transcontinental RR. They then hiredthemselves at inflated prices earning dividends as high as 348%. Paid off congressmen to conceal conspiracy.
  • Liberal Republican Revolt

    Liberal Republican Party formed to oust Grant and the cronies, and to end military Reconstruction. Nominated Horace Greely for president.
  • Panic of 1873

    Large economic growth led to banks gave out too many riskey loans. Many lost savings, especially blacks.
  • Dropping Silver

    Congress formally dropped the coinage of silver dollars.
  • Whiskey Ring

    Treasury Dept. allowed distilleries to not pay excise taxes for years. Grant's personal secretary and Sec. of War were invloved.
  • Women's Chrsitian Temperance Union

  • Resumption Act of 1875

    pledged the government to the further withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and to the redemption of all paper currency in gold at face value (beginning in 1879)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    guarenteed equal accomadations in public places and prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection.
  • Hayes-Tilden Disputed Election of 1876

    19 ofthe 20 disputed votes composed the totoal electoral count of Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida.185 to 184 electorla votes and both candidates had 50% in this situation.
  • Mark Twian

    Born as Samuel Clemens, Mark Twain writes the classic American novel Tom Sawyer.
  • Compromise of 1877

    The election deadlock itself was to be broken by the Electoral Count Act; setting up commissionof 15men slected from the senate, the House and the Supreme Court. Democrats said Hayes could take office in return for his withdrawing intrusive troops from the two states in which they remained, Louisiana and South Carolina.
  • President Garfield Assasination

    recently elected president Garfield isshot in the back in a washington railroad station and dies.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    prohibiting nearly all furhter immigration from China (at least until 1943)
  • Standard Oil Company

    Organized in 1870, Rockefeller formed e Standard Oil Company and dominated the oil industry.
  • Pendleton Act of 1883

    It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitve examinations rather than "pull".
  • Campign of 1884

    Grover Cleavland and James G. Blaine; major mudslinging. Cleveland takes over in 1885 and becomes the first Democratic to take the oath of office since buchanan
  • American Federation of Labor

    consisted of an association of self-governening national unions, each of which kept independance.
  • Lady Liberty

    A centennial "birthday oresent" from the French people, the Statue of liberty arrived from France in 1886
  • Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

    Prohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly. Also forbade unfiar discrimination agasint shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul than a long one.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890

    forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distraction between"good" trusts and "bad" trusts. Proven very ineffective.
  • National American Women Suffrage Association

    Militant suffragisits; de-emphasized the argument that women deserved the vote as a matter of right.
  • Homestead Strike of 1892

    Three hundred armed Pinkerton detectives floated on barges down the Monongahela River to the site of the Carnegie steel plant at Homestead, Pennsylvania.
  • Presidential election of 1893

    With the populists divided and the Republicans discredited, Grover Cleveland takes office again; first ever reelected after defeat.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    It ruled that "seperate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection" clause of the 14th Amendment.
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    W.E.B. Du Bois demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic.