• Founding of the ANC

    Founding of the ANC
    The organisation was initially founded as the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) on 8 January 1912 in Bloemfontein, with the aim of fighting for the rights of black South Africans. The organization was renamed the ANC in 1923.
  • Congress Youth League Founded

    Congress Youth League Founded
    The youth additionto the ANC. It called for civil disobedience and strikes in protest at the hundreds of laws associated with the new apartheid system.
  • Defiance Campaign

    Defiance Campaign
    "Turning point on the road to freedom"
    The period 1950 -1952 began with a commitment to militant African nationalism and mass action and to tactics of boycotts, strikes and civil disobedience. The period culminated in the Defiance Campaign, the largest scale non-violent resistance ever seen in South Africa and the first campaign pursued jointly by all racial groups.
  • Sharpeville Massacre

    Sharpeville Massacre
    The objective of the march: Get rid of the passes. Boycot their passes and get arrested (which would stop labor.) Fifteen minutes of gunfire onto black South Africans. 69 black South Africans were killed and 180 had bullet wounds. Most of them were shot in the back, as they were trying to run away.
    No weapons were found on the black South Africans, only personal belongings.
  • Spear of the Nation Formed

    Spear of the Nation Formed
    It represented the creation of a modern guerilla army, inseparably part of a broader liberation movement, that had as its mission the pursuit of a guerilla war against the armed forces of the State in support of the political programme of the African National Congress (ANC). Was born out of the Sharpeville Massacre, because they realized that there was no way to be completely nonviolent.
  • Soweto Uprising

    Soweto Uprising
    When high-school students in Soweto started protesting non-violently for better education with their native language on June16 1976, police responded with teargas and live bullets. It is commemorated today by a South African national holiday, Youth day, which honors all the young people who lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Bantu Education.
  • Steve Biko Dies in Police Custody

    Steve Biko Dies in Police Custody
    Biko died in police custody "following a seven-day hunger strike." His true cause of death was because of police brutality once the police beat him. Mr Biko had been in custody since 18 August when he was arrested and detained under the Terrorism Act. He was the 20th person to die in custody during those past 18 months.
  • Desmond Tutu Wins Nobel Peace Prize

    Desmond Tutu Wins Nobel Peace Prize
    Tutu's role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. The means by which this campaign is conducted is of vital importance for the whole of the continent of Africa and for the cause of peace in the world.
    Wanted equal civil rights, no pass code laws, end Bantusans, and have a common system of education. He worked for these through non-violent efforts during Apartheid.
  • Nelson Mandela Released From Prison

    Nelson Mandela Released From Prison
    On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months with help from the US CIA. He was accused of leading sabotage. When on trial, Mandela said, "I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities." He was sentenced to life in prison, but was freed from prison in South Africa after 27 years.
  • Nelson Mandela becomes president of South Africa

    Nelson Mandela becomes president of South Africa
    Nelson Mandela has become South Africa's first black president after more than three centuries of white rule. "Never, never again will this beautiful land experience the oppression of one by another." -Nelson Mandela
  • Albert Luthuli Wins Nobel Peace Prize

    Albert Luthuli Wins Nobel Peace Prize
    Albert Lutuli received his Nobel Prize one year later, in 1961. During the selection process in 1960, the Norwegian Nobel Committee decided that none of the year's nominations met the criteria as outlined in the will of Alfred Nobel. (The real reason he has to wait was because of the civil rights movement.) Albert Lutuli therefore received his Nobel Prize for 1960 one year later, in 1961.
  • Nelson Mandela Sentenced to Life In Prison

    Nelson Mandela Sentenced to Life In Prison
    In 1956, Mr Mandela was charged with high treason, these charges were dropped four years later. In 1964 he was sentenced to life in prison for sabotage.