AP United States History

  • Aug 8, 1513

    Vasco Nuñez Balboa claims Panama for Spain

  • Sep 8, 1517

    start of Protestant Reformation

    movement to reform Catholic Church, translate Latin bible to English; triggered by Henry VIII's break from Church
  • Sep 8, 1519

    Magellan takes 5 ships from Spain to Philippines

  • Jun 30, 1520

    Noche Triste

    Aztec attack on Spaniards
  • Aug 13, 1521

    Surrender of Aztecs

  • Sep 8, 1532

    Francisco Pizarro destroys Incan city

  • landing of Raleigh's expedition

    forms Roanoke Island
  • Spanish Armada invades England; defeated

  • Edict of Nantes

    issued by Henry VI; limited toleration granted to French Protestants; religious wars ensued
  • Battle of Acoma

    Spanish attack on Pueblo in Rio Grande Valley; led by Don Juan Oñate
  • Jamestown settles

  • First Anglo-Powhatan War

  • Massachusetts Bay Colony settles

  • Period: to

    Great Migration

    70,000 refugees left England; 20,000 came to Massachusetts
  • Harvard established

  • Pequot War

  • Anne Hutchinson banished to Rhode Island

  • Period: to

    English Civil War

  • Second Anglo-Powhatan War

  • Act of Toleration passes, Maryland

    guaranteed toleration of all Christians and death penalty to Jews and Atheists in Maryland
  • Barbados Slave Code enacted

    denied fundamental rights to slaves; masters given complete control
  • Half-Way Covenant enacted

  • Royal African Company chartered

  • King Phillip's War

    Metacom "King Phillip" assaulted English villages in New England
  • Bacon's Rebellion

  • Popé's Rebellion

    Indians drove Roman Catholic missionaries out of New Mexico
  • Pennsylvania founded

    founded by William Penn for his fellow Quakers
  • Protestantism outlawed by Henry VIII

  • Dominion of New England enacted

    imposed by Sir Edmund Andros
  • Period: to

    Glorious Revolution

    overthrowing of James II
  • Period: to

    Salutary Neglect of England

  • Period: to

    Leisler's Rebellion

    lordly landholders vs. aspiring merchants
  • Period: to

    King William's War

    French trappers vs. British settlers + respective Indian allies
  • Period: to

    Salem Witch Trials

  • Period: to

    Queen Anne's War

    English vs. French in North; English vs. Spanish in FL
  • New York Slave Revolt

  • Period: to

    Great Awakening

  • Molasses Act

    squelched North American trade with French West Indies
  • Zenger Trial

  • South Carolina Slave Revolt

  • War of Jenkin's Ear

    small scale war, Britain vs. Spain in Caribbean + Georgia; merged with War of Austrian Succession; became King George's War
  • George Washington inaugurates war with France

  • Albany Congress forms

  • Period: to

    French-Indian War

    Britain vs. France in North America
  • Battle of Quebec

    one of the most significant engagements in British vs. American history; uprooted French power in North America
  • Pontiac's Uprising

    Ottawan Chief led tribes + French traders in attack against British in Ohio Valley
  • Proclamation of 1763

    London government's prohibition on settlements beyond Appalachians
  • Paxton Boys' march on Philadelphia

  • Sugar Act

    duty on imported sugar from West Indies
  • Stamp Act Congress forms

    27 delegates from 9 colonies hold debates on their rights/grievance
  • Quartering Act

    required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for redcoats
  • Stamp Tax

    mandated use of stamped paper, taxes on paper goods
  • Declaratory Act

    passed to replace Stamp Act; reaffirmed Parliament's unqualified sovereignty over American colonies
  • Charles Townshend takes control of British Ministry

  • Townshend Acts

    levies on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea; proceeds paid colonial governors
  • Period: to

    Regulator Movement

    uprising against unfair taxation and control of colonial affairs by seaboard elite in North Carolina
  • Treaty of Fort Stanwix

    signed by Iroquois and US granting Ohio to US; first treaty between Native Americans and USA
  • Boston Massacre

    Bostonians provoked 10 redcoats; RCs opened fire in retaliation, killed/wounded 11 people
  • Committeees of Correspondence form

    formed originally by Samuel Adams; spread spirit of resistance through exchange of letters.
    Set up in every colony; fostered intercolonial unity and communication
  • Boston Tea Party

  • Lexington & Concord

    first battles of Revolutionary War
  • Second Continental Congress forms

    met in response to Concord and Lexington
  • Bunker Hill

  • Olive Branch Petition adopted

    adopted by Continental Congress; professed American loyalty to crown and begged to halt hostilities
  • Colonies officially proclaim rebellion

  • first Anti-Slavery Society founded

    founded by Quakers in Philadelphia, PA
  • Revolutionary War becomes a World War

    France offers treaty of Alliance
  • formal "declaration" of independence

    written by Richard Henry Lee
  • Declaration of Independence approved

    written by Thomas Jefferson
  • Battle of Long Island

    500 ships carrying 35,000 men came from Britain; George Washington met troops with 18,000 ill-trained Patriots
    American loss; Washington escaped to Manhattan Island
  • Model Treaty drafted

    reflected desire for commercial partnerships, not political or military entanglements
  • Period: to

    First Continental Congress meets

  • "Common Sense" published

    published by Thomas Paine
  • Battle of Trenton

    George Washington surpsied/captured 1,000 Hessian troops
  • Burgoyone's Invasion

    British scheme to cut New England off from other colonies by capturing Hudson River Valley; thwarted by Benedict Arnold
  • "The Bloody Year"

  • Articles of Confederation adopted

    not ratified in all 13 colonies until 1781; "firm league of friendship"
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Burgoyone forced to surrender command to American general, Horatio Gates; ensured aide from France
  • Period: to

    battle of Valley Forge

    Pennsylvania; George Washington Army without food or equipment for the winter
  • Armed Neutrality organized

    organized by Catherine the Great of Russia; no protected trading rights of nonparticipating countries + maintained passive hostility of neutral countries towards Britain
  • Benedict Arnold turns traitor

  • Period: to

    "Darkest Days"

    money inflation, enormous debt, unity withered, mutinous sentiments
  • Battle of Yorktown

    George Washington overatkes Cornwallis; French naval fleet prevents British reinforcements
  • Treaty of Paris

    British formally recognize independence of US; came about by John Jay's disregard of orders (went to London instead of negotiating with Paris)
  • Society of the Cincinnati est.

    exclusive hereditary organization of former officers of the Continental Army
  • Land Ordinance of 1785

    sale of land in Old Northwest; proceeds put toward paying off national debt
  • Shay's Rebellion

    armed debtors seek lowered taxes and an end to property foreclosures in Massachusetts; debtor-relioef laws passed in response; provoked fear of "mobocracy"
  • Convention of "Demigods"

    convention in Annapolis regarding control of commerce
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Land belongs to Federal Government; area becomes state when population is greater than or equal to 60,000 people
  • Judiciary Act of 1789

    organized federal legal system; established Supreme Court, federal district courts and circuit courts as well as office of Attorney General
  • Bank of the United States founded

  • Neutrality Proclamation issued

    issued by George Washington; proclaims American neutrality in conflict between France and England
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    held in Southwestern PA; whiskey distillers oppose excise tax on whiskey; put down by George Washington's militia
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers

    Miami Confederacy vs. US Army; Britain refused to assist Indian allies
  • Jay's Treaty

  • Treaty of Greenville

    Miami Confederacy forfeits Old Northwest land to US and receives $20,000 + annual $9,000 and the right to hunt on the ceded land
  • Pinkney's Treaty

    drafted to ensure good relations between Spain and the US in response to Jay's Treaty.
    Greanted America free navigation of Mississippi River and the disputed territory in Florida
  • Sedition Act

    anyone defaming government officials or interfering with government policies liable to imprisonment and a heavy fine
  • Convention of 1800

    formally dissolved US treaty with France
  • Revolution of 1800

    electoral victory of Democratic-Republicans over Federalists
  • Judiciary Act of 1801

    last act passed by Federealist Congress; created 16 new federal judgeships; ensured Federalist grip on Judiciary branch
  • Tripolitan Wars

    Pirates of North African Barbary States demanding blackmail money for safe passage of American ships thought the Mediterranean; pasha of Tripoli informally declares war on US for dissatisfaction with money given
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Jefferson sends Monroe to Paris: meet with minister Robert R. Livingston.
    Order to try to buy New Orleans + the land east of it for no more than $10mill.
    Napoleon suddenly cedes all of Louisiana; no alliance needed.
    paved way for diplomatic success in the future.
  • Corps of Discovery

    Lewis and Clark expedition through Louisiana Territory; chartered to find water route to Pacific Ocean
  • Orders in Council

    edicts issued by British crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping.
    French response=seizure order of all ships entering British ports.
    American trade cut off both ways
  • Embargo Act

    forbade exporting goods from America; hoped to resolve conflict between France and Britain by cutting off their supplies; instead, crippled American economy + revived Federalist party
  • James Madison sworn in to office

  • Non-Intercourse Act

    reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France
  • Battle of Tippecanoe

    William Henry Harrison and Indiana Army defeat Shawnee Prophet; Tecumseh, after, formed alliance with British against US
  • Madison declares war on Indian tribes

  • Period: to

    War of 1812

    U.S. vs GB
  • 4,000 British troops arrive in Chesapeake Bay; War of 1812

    dispersed 6,000 militiamen at Bladensburg--"Bladensburg Races";
    Advanced on Washington, set fire to public buildings including Capitol Building and White House
  • War of 1812 battle: Thomas Macdonough vs. British invasion

    fought in NY on floating slaughter-houses on Lake Champlain. American Victory
  • Period: to

    Hartford Conventions

    states that sent full delegations: MA, CT, RI
    partial delegations: NH, VT met in complete secrecy; discussed grievances / seeking rederess for wrongs
    1. financial assistance froM Washington to compensate for loss of trade
    2. proposition of constitutional amendments requiring 2/3 vote in Congress on embargos, addition of states, war declarations **Demands brought to Washington just as news of Ghent and New Orlenas reached New England Death of Federalist party
  • Treaty of Ghent signed

    armistice; no mention in draft of the instigating points of the war, i.e.:
    1. Indian threats to America
    2. search and seizures
    3. Orders in Council
    4. impressment / confiscations
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Andrew Jackson in command of defense of New Orleans circa 1814.
    British launch assault; worst defeat for GB in entire war.
    Andrew Jackson made a national hero: NATIONALISM**
  • Rush-Bagot Agreement

    Severely limited naval power of Canada and U.S. on Great Lakes