AP ART HISTORY TIMELINE

Timeline created by 59JulHam
  • 3,000 BCE

    Palette of King Narmer

    Palette of King Narmer
    Palette of King Narmer was created sometime between 3000 and 2920 B.C.E. in Hierakonpolis, Egypt.
    The Palette of King Narmer is a ritual object dedicated to a god. The work itself depicts scenes and figures very important to Egyptian culture, and uses the hierarchical scale to indicate the importance of each individual. It is thought to depict the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt and shows some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found.
    (Information from Khanacademy.org)
  • 2,500 BCE

    Seated Scribe

    Seated Scribe
    The Seated Scribe, created sometime between 2620 and 2500 B.C.E, 4th Dynasty, Old Kingdom.
    The Sculpture is made of painted limestone, showing a middle aged Egyptian man sitting down with a scribe. The work is important due to it's nontraditional depiction of man. Unlike other works, this man is shown more realistically, with more fat shown on his body. Though the scribe is not a person of royal status, he is still important enough to be immortalized in art.
    (Information from Khanacademy.org)
  • 1,800 BCE

    The Great Pyramids of Egypt

    The Great Pyramids of Egypt
    The Pyramids of Egypt, created between 2600 and 1800 B.C.E, Giza, Egypt.
    The Pyramids are the most famous and discussed structures in history, and are one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. There are many theories based on how and why they were constructed. The three primary pyramids were built over a span of three generations by rulers Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure and were part of a royal mortuary complex.
    (Information from Khanacademy.org and ancientegypt.co.uk)
  • 1,700 BCE

    Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)

    Sika dwa kofi (Golden Stool)
    The Golden Stool, called Sika dwa kofi, was found from the Ashanti peoples in South central Ghana in 1700 C.E. The piece is gold over wood with gold cast attachments. The Golden Stool is the royal throne, said to have descended from the sky, and is heavily protected by it's people. Nobody could sit on it, not even the king, and it had to be kept from touching the ground, meaning it was on some sort of cloth or blanket at all times. It's believed a spirit of the people live in the stool.
  • 1,350 BCE

    Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Three Daughters

    Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Three Daughters
    Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Three Daughters, 1350 B.C.E, Amarna period, 18th dynasty, Egypt.
    This piece is important due to it's depiction of the change in state religion and art style that took place for a short period of time within Egyptian culture. Akenaten and his wife are portrayed as the only ones with access to the one god, Aton, which did not sit well with the priests. Upon Akhenaten's death, the traditional style was put back into place.
    (Information from Khanacademy.org)
  • -900 BCE

    Chavin de Huantar

    Chavin de Huantar
    Archaeological site in Northern Highlands, Peru, created between 900 and 200 B.C.E. from stone. It contains ruins/artifacts from the Chavin, a major pre-incan culture. the site is a large ceremonial center for people of the region to came to worship together. Home to artifacts including the Lanzon and golden nose rings called Nariguera. These rings were believed the size of the ring represented their ranking.
    Information: Wikipedia, KhanAcademy
  • -720 BCE

    Lamassu

    Lamassu
    The Lamassu, 720-705 B.C.E, citadel of Sargon ll, Khorsabad, Iraq, Neo-Assyrian.
    The Lamassu statues are giant sculptures carved from monolithic stone depicting winged bulls with the heads of men. They are guards to the city that represent the power of the Assyrian king. They are incredibly detailed and are meant to be seen from both the frontal and side view.
    (Information from Khanacademy.org)
  • -221 BCE

    Terra Cotta Warriors

    Terra Cotta Warriors
    More than 6000 life sized statues called Terra cotta warriors guard the emperor’s tomb. They’re from the Qin Dynasty, 221-209 B.C.E, and are made from painted terracotta clay. These statues remained hidden for 2200 years, along with statues of horses and chariots. They were left in military formation, ready for battle if they needed to protect the emperor. The overall style varies between naturalism and idealism when it comes to the individual portraits.
  • -180 BCE

    Funeral Banner of Lady Dai

     Funeral Banner of Lady Dai
    The funeral banner of Lady Dai is painted silk funeral banner from Han Dynasty, China, 180 B.C.E.These banners were part of a practice, being draped over the coffin, mean to attract the spirit from it’s tomb. During the Han dynasty people believed in a close relationship between the living and supernatural worlds. The banner is shaped as a T, or feiyi, with an elaborate design.
  • 300

    Catacomb of Priscilla

    Catacomb of Priscilla
    The Catacomb of Priscilla is part of Late Antique Europe, 200-400 C.E., located in Rome, Italy.
    The Catacomb of Priscilla is home to 40,000 stacked tombs where many Christian and Jewish people were buried. It contains some of the earliest traces of christian art and symbolism. This site was popular for grave robbing due to the many treasures the dead were buried with.
    (image: bbc.com, information from KhanAcademy)
  • 500

    Gold and Jade Crown

    Gold and Jade Crown
    The Gold and jade crown was created during the Three Kingdoms Period in the Silla Kingdom in Korea, 5th to 6th century C.E. The crown is very elaborate, made of pieces of gold sheet, gold wire, greet, and white jadeite. The crowns were fragile, used for formal and ceremonial events, hardly worn at all. Chinese letters with meanings such as mountain were placed in front of the crown, with 77 pieces of jade to decorate.
  • 530

    San Vitale

    San Vitale
    The San Vitale was created as part of early Byzantine Europe, 526-547 C.E., in Ravenna, Italy.
    The San Vitale is a 6th century church that is significant for it's nontraditional shape. Inside, the building is covered in religious glass mosaics,many with Christ from the old and new testaments. The columns also show a new christian style, different from earlier Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns.
    (image: Wikipedia, Information from KhanAcademy)
  • Sep 27, 600

    Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George

    Virgin and Child between Saints Theodore and George
    The Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George was created in Early Byzantine Europe during the 6th or early 7th century.
    This piece was created using an encaustic painting technique, utilizing wax to bring out color. We see a woman and her child with two soldiers, and angels looking up to the hand of god.
    (Info/image: KhanAcademy)
  • Feb 22, 631

    The Kaaba

    The Kaaba
    The Kaaba is a black stone building located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, rededicated by Muhammad between 631 and 632 C.E., made from Granite masonry, covered by a silk curtain and calligraphy. The Kaaba is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine, muslims turning in it’s direction when they pray. Though Kaaba means cube the building is not a cube, and the interior is bare save for three wooden pillars and lamps. The Kaaba is the first step of the Hajj, or obligatory pilgrimage.
  • Feb 22, 691

    Dome of the Rock

    Dome of the Rock
    One of the most iconic symbols for the Middle East, the Dome of the Rock is located in Jerusalem, Palestine. It was created by the Umayyad between 691 and 692 C.E. from stone masonry, wood, glazed ceramic tile, and bronze. The building’s roof shines, used as a symbol of power of the new faith of Islam. The building also has many inscriptions that address their religious beliefs, as well as others such as Christianity.
    Image/info: KhanAcademy
  • Sep 27, 700

    Lindisfarne Gospels

    Lindisfarne Gospels
    The Lindisfarne Gospels was created in Early Medieval Europe around 700 C.E.,and is made from Illuminated manuscript.
    The book is an example of Hiberno-Saxon art which is art from the British Isles between 500-900 C.E. It is two-hundred and fifty-nine pages and is read by Monks. The work in incredibly detailed with many fine lines creating intricate patterns to create letters and illustrations.

    (Image/Info: KhanAcademy)
  • Jan 25, 725

    Yaxchilan

    Yaxchilan
    A Mayan center in Chiapas, Mexico created in 725 C.E. from limestone. It is full of elaborate decorations, including the famous carved stone lintels above the doorways.They were commissioned by rules of the city and record the dynasty in both text and image. These lintels often showed scenes of rituals as well as captives. Captives were often sacrifices, an aspect of Mayan warfar.
    Info: Khanacademy
  • Feb 27, 743

    Todai-ji

    Todai-ji
    The Great Buddha Hall of Todai-ji was created in 743 C.E. in Nara, Japan, and rebuilt after the original burned down in 1700 from wood with ceramic-tile roofing. The temple is the largest wooden building in the world, 187 feet wide and 160 ft tall.The temple was constructed by emperor Shomu, and is important for the spread of Buddhism contributed to the unification of Japan and it’s political groups. Inside is a 53 foot bronze statue of the Cosmic Buddha.
  • Feb 27, 930

    Lakshmana Temple

    Lakshmana Temple
    The Lakshmana Temple is located in Khajuraho, India, and was created during the Chandella Dynasty between 930 and 950 C.E. The temple is made from sandstone and features images of dancing, bare-breasted women known as asparas. The temple displays Indian architecture well, which was known for it’s decorative styles. Carved imagery and narrative reliefs are an example of what decorates the exteriors, which are more decorative than the interiors.
  • Jan 25, 1070

    Great Serpent Mound

    Great Serpent Mound
    The Great Serpent Mound is located in Adams County, Southern Ohio, created in 1070 C.E. from the earth. It's the largest serpent effigy in the world. Many were made but also destroyed for farm land. Snakes and other reptiles are often symbols of supernatural power in native cultures. The head of the serpent aligns with the summer solstice sunset, and the winter points to the winter solstice sunrise, thus leading to a belief the snake marks seasons.
    Info: Khanacademy
  • Sep 27, 1150

    Church of Sainte-Foy

    Church of Sainte-Foy
    The Church of Sainte-Foy was created around 1050 to 1130 C.E. in Conques, France.
    The Church of Sainte-Foy, Saint Faith, is an important Romanesque pilgrimage church and abbey. Using the cruciform plan, the church is laid out to symbolize a cross, and standing before the doors of the church, you are met with the scene of the last judgment carved above, Christ judging those below him.
    (Info/Image: KhanAcademy)
  • Feb 8, 1200

    Great Mosque of Djenné

    Great Mosque of Djenné
    The Great Mosque of Djenne, located in Mali, was founded in 1200 C.E. And rebuilt between 1906-1907. The building is constructed from adobe, the style hypostyle, using walls and towers to have similarities to monumental and rural buildings. It is considered by many architects to be one of the most unique religious buildings in the world. The building makes use of African symbols important to African art including ancestor fertility symbols and symbols for strength.
    Nytimes.com/KahnAcademy.com
  • Mar 28, 1300

    Moai on platform

    Moai on platform
    The Moai of Rapa Nui, or Easter island, date back between 1100 and 1600 C.E. They are large Volcanic tuff figures on basalt bases, and are known as ahu. They’re built 36 feet high on average. It’s believed these are sculptures of dead chiefs, and are built near the coast. Their facial features are exaggerated, with long earlobes, pointed noses, sharp chins, and dark eyes.
  • Jan 25, 1440

    City of Cusco

    City of Cusco
    The city of Cusco,built in 1440 C.E. in Central Highlands, Peru, was the capital of the Inca empire before Spanish invasion. The inca people worshiped animals and nature, the city taking on a puma shape. Many of the buildings were decorated in gold, as there was a temple worshiping the sun, however the Spanish took much of the gold. Stone wall around the city were made as the Inca tried to barricade themselves in from the Spanish.
    Info: Youtube, Khanacademy
  • Feb 22, 1522

    Court of Gayumars

    Court of Gayumars
    The Court of Gayumars is a folio from the Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnama, from Sultan Muhammad, made between 1522 and 1525 C.E. out of ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper. The Shah Tahmasp’s Shahnama the national epic of greater Iran, consisting of 60k verses, and the largest epic written by one person. The folio depicts the first king, Gayumars, and his son, Siyamak, in the idyllic colorful paradise before the murder of Siyamak.
  • Feb 22, 1539

    Ardabil Carpet

    Ardabil Carpet
    The Ardabil Carpet was a carpet intended for a mosque, made between 1539 to 1540 C.E. from silk wool. Ruler Shah Tahmasp established carpet factories in promotion for the creation of these works. The piece contains no human or animal forms and a large medallion in the middle, the piece symmetrical in design. The background being a dark blue contrasts greatly with the golden dots and designs around the medallion. The carpet's made from 25 million knots, 340 per square inch.
  • Feb 8, 1550

    Wall plaque, from Oba's palace.

    Wall plaque, from Oba's palace.
    The Wall plaque, from Oba's palace, was created between 1550 and 1680 C.E. The Edo peoples located in Benin, Nigeria, created the piece from cast brass. This piece is one of 900 brass plaques made for the royal palace. The piece depicts the Oba, or King, being supported through his hard work. The Oba is dressed in ceremonial attire, including a leopards tooth necklace. The piece is another example of the hierarchy scale, the king being the tallest in the work.
    Info/Image: Metmuseum.org
  • Ahu 'ula (feather cape)

    Ahu 'ula (feather cape)
    Ahu ‘ula are feather capes, symbols of the highest ranking men of he ali’ I, the chiefly class of Hawaii. They date back to the 18th century and were made from feathers and fiber. They were made by bundling small feathers together with a netting made from an endemic plant producing one of the strongest fibers worldwide. The Ahu ‘ula were worn into battle, and thousands of them could be connected to form garments.
  • Staff god

    Staff god
    The Staff god is a long wooden staff with a decoratively carved top. It come from the Cook Islands of Central Polynesia, dating back to the 18th and 19th century C.E. Made from wood, tapa, fiber, and feathers, are between 28 inches and 18 feet long, and show a prolific face with stylized features. Staff gods combined images of the gods with their human descendants, representing the soul of the god.
  • Female deity

    Female deity
    The Female Deity is a wooden sculpture made between the 18th and 19th century C.E. in Nukuoro, Micronesia. There were many of these made to represents deities in simplified human forms. While their bodies are simple, tattoos are carved into their shoulders. During festivals citizens gather around the statues and offer fruits as sacrifice.
  • Folio from a Qur'an

    Folio from a Qur'an
    The Folio from a Qur’an is from the 18th to 19th century C.E. made by the Abbasid from Ink, color, and gold on parchment. Calligraphy was a popular art form in the Islamic world, pieces such as these translating to quotations taken from the Qur’an, the religious text of Islam. The language, Arabic, is written in dark brown ink and have red and yellow circular accents. The titles of each Qur’an were written in gold ink and surrounded by a rectangle filled with gold decorative vines.
  • A Philosopher giving a lecture at the orrery, by Joseph Wright of derby

    A Philosopher giving a lecture at the orrery, by Joseph Wright of derby
    This piece was painted by Joseph Wright of Derby between 1763 and 1765 with oil on a canvas.
    This work is important as it depicts a great shift from religious and wealthy subjects to great minds of the age of the Enlightenment. Society has begun to take interest in the scientific approach to how the universe may work. In this piece, we see general people painted to be as they are, and not idealized, modified.
  • The Swing

    The Swing
    The Swing was painted with Oil on canvas by Jean-Honore Fragonard in 1767 C.E.
    This piece is considered to be the most Rococo piece of the Rococo art movement. Rococo art is more pastel and contains more themes on love and relationship, unlike past art movements and styles. In this piece, we have a woman, her husband, but also her lover, who is hidden away in the plants, in view of the woman and her dress. There is also the emphasis on nature instead of formal settings.
  • The Oath of the Horatii

    The Oath of the Horatii
    The Oath of the Horatii was painted in 1784 with Oil on canvas by Jacques-Louis David.
    This piece is presented as a prime example of Neoclassical art and tells the story of an oath set in a Roman atrium. Three brothers are saluting towards swords held by their father, about to go into combat to settle a war. The trio are making an oath to defend Rome or die trying. Behind them are women,family, grieving for the men.
  • Liberty leading the people

    Liberty leading the people
    This piece was painted with Oil on canvas in 1830 C.E. by Eugene Delacroix.
    Delacroix stands as the most representative painter of French romanticism, and his piece Liberty leading the people depicts the July Revolution of 1830, which lead to the replacement of the abdicated King Charles X. This event is important in french history, and the uprising can also been seen as it's featured in other works of art and literature, such as Les Miserables.
  • Still Life in Studio

    Still Life in Studio
    This piece was done by Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre in 1837 C.E., Daguerreotype.
    Daguerre did not invent photography, but made it popular. He demonstrated the process to other artists and scientists and produced daguerreotype cameras to sell. People such as artists developed on the process and made it better, for example, with reduced exposure time. Obtaining images Daguerre's way spread about the world.
  • Hiapo

    Hiapo
    The Haipo, or barkcloth or tapa, originates from the Niue island between 1850 and 1900 C.E. The back cloth is painted with fine black lines in a circular design, with the occasional figure, star, or fish. It is unknown what these were made for, for the size is too small for clothing or blankets, however they were brought to Niue from Samoan missionaries.
  • Transformation Masks

    Transformation Masks
    Transformation masks were made in the late 19th century in Kwakwaka'wakw (Northwest coast of Canada) for dancers during ceremonies. The dancers would pull string and the mask would transform, typically from an animal to a mythical being. These masks were only part of the full outfit, which included a cloak. The masks may have also conveyed social positions, for only certain people could wear them.
    Info: KhanAcademy
  • A Book from the Sky

    A Book from the Sky
    Book from the Sky is a mixed-media installation piece made by Xu Bing between 1987-1991.It displays more then 400 hand-printed books, opened on wooden mounts, perfectly aligned in rows across the ground. Scrolls become an inverted dome across the ceiling and surround the walls. The writing on the books, a mix of invented Chinese characters,is a critique to meaninglessness of contemporary political language.The meaning of the work has been interpreted differently depending on the viewer’s origin
  • Female (Pwo) mask

    Female (Pwo) mask
    The Female (Pwo) mask was created by the Chokwe peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the late 19th and early 20th century C.E. The mask is created from wood, fiber, pigment, and metal. Masks such as this one are worn by males during a performance honoring the women, and women wore them when visiting neighboring tribes when negotiating loyalty and protection. These are buried with the masquerader upon death.
    KhanAcademy.com
  • Bundu mask

    Bundu mask
    The Bundu mask was created by the Sande Society located in the African forests of Sierra Leone and Liberia. They were made in the 19th to 20th century, carved from wood and included cloth and fiber. These masks were worn on top of the head in long dances that depict messages from spirits. The masks place importance in culture, marriage, and is a way to track lineage. The Society was important to many girls of their communities, as it helped teach them about their place in their culture.
  • Vietnam Veterans Memorial

    Vietnam Veterans Memorial
    The Vietnam Veteran Memorial is located in Washington, D.C., and was designed by Maya Lin in 1982 to be made from granite. The Memorial recognizes the men and women who died or went missing during the Vietnam War. The piece is minimalist and contains 58,286 names listed chronologically by date of casualty. The dark V shape is described by Lin as “a wound in the earth that is slowly healing.
  • Androgyn III

    Androgyn III
    Androgyn III was created by Magdalena Abakanowicz in 1985 C.E. with Burlap, resin, wood, nails, and string. The piece is a fragmented human figure, a torso without legs or a head, sitting on a stretcher of wood, and depending on the angle you view the piece, the figure appears as a hollow shell. The slumped over posture is meant to convey inwardness and solitude, the existence of mankind.
  • Pink Panther

    Pink Panther
    Jeff Koons’ Pink Panther is a glazed porcelain sculpture created in 1988. It stands 41 inches tall and features Jayne Mansfield, half clothed, holding the cartoon character Pink Panther with on hand. Koons’ work, such as Pink Panther, were controversial for their misuse of copyrighted images, Koons being sued for copyright infringement. Koons’ intention was not to make high end art, but to take advantage of the art market, which would have favored his work.
  • Untitled (#228)

    Untitled (#228)
    Untitled (#228) is from a series of historical portraits photographed by Cindy Sherman in 1990 C.E. Sherman’s elaborately staged photographs take heavy inspiration from old masters of historical paintings. She used both film and digital based cameras to create compositions resembling formats of other mediums, such as television. Untitled (#228) stands seven feet high and four feet wide, picturing Sherman in colorful fabrics, which she had bought from secondhand stores.