Ing 38192 64825

European History from XVIII to XX Century.

  • Birth of Montesquieu

    Birth of Montesquieu
    Charle-Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, was a french philosopher and politician who devised the system of division of powers.
  • Birth of Voltaire

    Birth of Voltaire
    French philosohper who idealized and defended the main principles of the enlightment: justice, equalty and free speech.
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    Ancien Régime

    The Ancien Régimen was the social-political system of France and other kingdoms in Europe between the XV century and the XVIII one. Society was divided in closed groups called estates and the King had absolute power.
  • Birth of Rousseau

    Birth of Rousseau
    At this year, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born. He was a swisse philosopher whose ideas contributed to the french revolution and a new education system. He believed that society was what corrupted man, who was born as a good person.
  • Birh of Diderot

    Birh of Diderot
    Denis Diderot was a French writer and philosopher. His main work was the Encyclopedia (in collaboration with Jean d'Alembert), published at 1751. This makes him one of the fathers of the Enlightment.
  • The Enlightment

    The Enlightment
    At this year, philosophers and intelectuals started to develop a new ideology wich defended the importance of reason, knowledge and human unbreakable rights.
  • Louis XV becomes King

    Louis XV becomes King
    At this year, Louis XV arrives to the throne of France. He'll be known as the symbol of the Absolutism because of his words:
    "I am the state".
  • Birth of Adam Smith

    Birth of Adam Smith
    Adam smith was a scottish economist who is currently known as the father of the modern economy: the capitalism. He also influenced a lot in matter of education.
  • Birth of George Washington

    Birth of George Washington
    George Washington was commander in chief during the War of Independence and the first man to become president of the United States, in 1789.
  • Birth of Thomas Jefferson

    Birth of Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson is nowadays known as one of the fathers of the United States for writing of the Statement of Independece at 1776. He later became president at 1801.
  • Birth of Robespierre

    Birth of Robespierre
    At May of this year, Maximilien Robespierre was born. One day, he would became one of the more important persons in the French Revolution, leading the jacobines and the sans-cullotes through many riots, a Constitution and a dictatorship. He got too radical and was killed by the people in 1794.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    At this century, the primary sector got an enormous avance due to some innovations. The Norfolk system divided land into 4 plots, in wich different plants were cultivated. Some plants were for the farmers, and other ones for the animals, wich faeces were used as fertilizer. This replaced the fallow system, in wich farmers couldn't use a third of the land. Also, the land was given to the farmers and not to a superior entity (a noble), and new machines were invented, such as the iron plow.
  • Demografic Revolution

    Demografic Revolution
    Due to the extinction of the bubonic plague and improvements in health, nutrition and hygiene, society got a big growth in terms of population, putting an end to the old demographic cycle.
  • Transports Revolution

    Transports Revolution
    During this years, many ways of transports were invented or improved, such as the channel navigation and the railways. This allowed mundial economy and communication to enhance even more.
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    First Industrial Revolution

    During more than 100 humanity experienced the greatest evolution in the field of production to date, thanks to the incorporation of a new system: factories. Innovative machines were used in them, work was divided and the law of supply and demand was imposed. Also a new economic-way of thinking (capitalism) improved the mass production.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    At this year, James Watt changed the history of machinery with the invention of the steam machine, wich also brought a new type of energy based on coal and water.
  • Mechanical Spinning Machine

    Mechanical Spinning Machine
    Jjames Hargreaves, Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton designed the machine that, accompained by the cotton trade with America would lead to the textile sector revolution Great Britain.
  • Birth of Napoleon Bonaparte

    Birth of Napoleon Bonaparte
    At August of this year, the famous Napoleon Bonaparte was born. He was an strategist man who's warlike abilities let him implant a Consulate in France and conquer half Europe, creating the Napoleonic Empire.
  • Encyclopedia Publication

    Encyclopedia Publication
    At this year, Diderot and d'Alembert finished the writing and publication of The Encyclopedia, wich objective was to spread reason and science to the ones who were being abused by the aristocracy.
  • Tea Mutiny

    Tea Mutiny
    In answer of the new Tea Acts, wich impeded the American exportations, merchants in Boston assaulted a boat, starting the Independence's War.
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    War of Independence

    During nearly ten years, the American colonies fought the United Kingdom for their Independence.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    At this event, also known as the Peace of Versailles, the European countries recognised the Independence of the United States
  • Modern-Blast Furnaces

    Modern-Blast Furnaces
    At this year, the engineer Henry Cort invented a new way to manufacture iron with innovative furnaces powered by mineral coal. This changes made the metallurgical sector evolve in a very ambitious way, leading iron to become one of the main materials.
  • EEUU Constitution

    EEUU Constitution
    At this year, the first Constitution in history was approved. In it were recognised national sovereignty, power's division and universal male suffrage.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    After many centuries of servitude, the third estate organises to break in Bastile, threatening the nobility and putting an end to the Ancien Régime.
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    Contemporary Age

    Once overthrown the absolutism, society starts to evolve in political, economic, and maybe social aspects, thanks to the revolutions and the arrival of industry.
  • French Constitution no.1

    French Constitution no.1
    This Constitution, the first after the French Revolution, recognised power's division and census suffrage, but it was still a monarchy.
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    The Terror

    Due to the growing threats, Robespierre took radical meassures to fight the counter-revolutionaries, such as beheavin 50 thousands of people. This 50 evolved to 100 reached a brutal but ephemeral period known as The Great Terror. This kind of meassures led the people to overthrow him at 1794.
  • Louis XVI Execution

    Louis XVI Execution
    Accused of conspiring against the people, Louis XVI, current king of France, was beheaded by the Girondin Convention (the most moderate group of libertarians). This led the other Eurpoean countries to form the First Coalition against France, wich likewise led the people to radicalize the Revolution.
  • French Constitution no.2

    French Constitution no.2
    Robespierre, helped by the sans-culottes (revolutionaries of the working class) implanted a dictatorship and a second Constitution, wich recognised the popular sovereignty and the universale male suffrage.
  • Constitution no.3

    Constitution no.3
    At the year of 1795 or the third year, a new Contitution was made. This one also recognised census suffrage, popular sovereign and division of powers, wich were distributed to tho chambers (legislative power) and a directory integrated by five people (executive power). The last ones had to face counter-revolutionaries and a group called "Conspiracy of the Equals", plus the gradually-growing coalition.
  • Smallpox Vaccine

    Smallpox Vaccine
    At this year, the scientist Edward Jenner developed a vaccine (the first in history) against the letal disease of smallpox. Although it was efficient, people didn´t dare to use it until the following century.
  • Putsch of Napoleon

    Putsch of Napoleon
    The directory of the third Constitution couldn't face all the counter-revolutionaries, so Napoleon Bonaparte had to. This made him very popular among France, and the current rulers decided to send him to war against the Coalition in Italy. Napoleon easily defeated them, and on his return, supported by the burgoisie, he declared the state as a Consulate, in wich Ducos, Sieyès and him were the consuls.
  • Napoleon is proclaimed Emperor

    Napoleon is proclaimed Emperor
    Napoleon Bonaparte has now the supreme charge in France, and is ready to conquer more territories.
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    The Napoleonic Empire

    During this ten years, Napoleon conquered many countries and territories. What wasn´t under his power was indirectly influenced by him. Although this, his abitiouness led him to loose encounters such as Trafalgar (1805), Borodino (1813) and Leipzig (1813), by a second coalition. At the same year and after a the Independence Spanish War (caused by a treason), Spain defeated him at the battle of Vitoria. With enemies by all Europe, Napoleon was banished to the Elba island at 1814.
  • Steam Boats

    Steam Boats
    At 1807, the engineer Robert Fulton put into operation the world's first steam-powered boats line.
  • Birth of Abraham Lincoln

    Birth of Abraham Lincoln
    He was the sixteenth president of the United States. He also led the country during de secession war and abolished slavery.
  • Birth of Pierre J.Proudhon

    Birth of Pierre J.Proudhon
    Pierre J.Proudhon is nowadays known as the father of anarquism and mutualism, both idealisms that he developed being in prison.
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    Vienna Congress

    Once overthrown the Napoleonic Empire, the main Europeans powers assembled in Vienna to discuss what meassurements should they take to bring back the Absolutism and how would they hand out the territories. With conferences like this one, they also avoided warllike conflicts.
  • The Holy Trinity

    The Holy Trinity
    At 1815, Rusia, Austria and Prusia joined to form a new coalition: the Holy Trinity. The objective of this union was to preserve the monarchical legitimacy and to irrump in any country that opted by revolution. This coalition inspired the fundation of a quintuple one at 1818.
  • Death of Napoleon

    Death of Napoleon
    At 1815, Napoleon returned from his banishment and recovered the power during 100 days. Later, he was defeated at Waterloo in 1815 and definitely neglected in the Santa Elena island, in wich he died.
  • Birth of Karl Marx

    Birth of Karl Marx
    Karl Marx was born at this year. He was obviusly the father of Marxism beside Friedrich Engels. Aalthough he didn't do much more than writting during his lifetime, the ideas he left to the world were crucials for the Workers Revolutions at the following years.
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    First Revolutionary Wave

    The first returns of Revolution had place at Spain, in where the commander Riego demanded a Constitution to the king. Althouth his efforts, the Holy Trinity achieved its objective and prevented this.
    9 years later, greeks got their independence from the Ottoman Empire.
  • Association Right and Syndicates.

    Association Right and Syndicates.
    Thanks to their perseverance, working class got to be allowed (by the recognisement of the Association Right, in Great Britain) to form Syndicates, wich main function was to demand better terms of health, hygiene and better paid jobs. This syndicates represented a threaten to the burgoisie, whose main interest was to improve production.
  • Freight Rail

    Freight Rail
    Perfeccionating the invention of George Stephenson, destinated to work in mines, England inaugurated the first Railway, wich travelled all along the country and was powered by steam.
  • Birth of Nationalisms

    Birth of Nationalisms
    During the XIX century, some states started to develop a patriot feeling and demanded that frontiers should correspond to nations and not to arbitrary territories.
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    Second Revolutionary Wave

    During less than two years, France got a more libertarian king (Louis Philip from Orleans) and Belgic got independent, but Poland and some Italian States didn't had the same fate and could not get their independence.
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    German Unification

    German territory was divided into 39 minor states, wich had a common nationalism feeling. At 1862, William the First, king of Prusia, and his first Minister Birmack, started a long, complex series of conflicts withDenmark, France and Austria to get the desired Unification at 1871. The victory was double, because they also won new territories: Lorena and Alsace. This made Germany became the strongest power in Europe.
  • Birth of Worker Movement

    Birth of Worker Movement
    Due to the harsh working conditions and an absence of political importance, the proletariat (working class) developed many libertarian ideologies such as cartism, ludism, marxism and anarchism.
  • Marxism

    During the post-rural exodus, urban workers, whose works took places in factories, were shamelessly abused by the burgoisie, wich controlled everything. Karl Marx and his followers developed Marxism, an idealism wich bases were: the continious fight between oppressors and oppressed, now with the burgoisie replacing aristocracy (wich was gradually loosing power); and the "project" by wich proletarians may win the fight: getting to the top of the government and implantig a dictatorship.
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    Third Revolutionary Wave

    Louis Philip form Orleans, king of France, was overthrown and Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (nephew of the other Napoleon) proclaimed the second French Empire at 1852.
    Although all the revolutions, monarchies achieved to preserve their power, but not for much time.
  • Anarchism

    Around this year, and in answer of the abuse the working class suffered by part of the burgoisie, Joseph Proudhon and Mijaíl Bakunin developed anarchy: a politic system with no system or rulers in it.
  • Birth of Nikola Tesla

    Birth of Nikola Tesla
    Nikola Tesla was one of the greatest scientifics in the human history, and his inventions are responsible of that we have electrcity at our houses nowadays. Eitherwise, many people don´t know who he is and still think that Thomas Edison ideas were originals and not based on his experiments.
  • Petrol Mining

    Petrol Mining
    At this year were perforated the first extraction wells of petrol, one of the most important fuels, specially in car industry (another big invention).
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    Italy Unification

    During this ten eleven years, Victor Manuel II, king of Piedmont, and his servants, took part in many wars, alliances and conflicts to achieve the unification of the Italian states at 1870, with the "conquering" of Roma.
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    International Workers Associations

    At 1864, a big association between workers around all Europe was founded. This "association" failed because the conflicts between Anarchists and Marxists. ¿The reason? While anarchists had idealized to earn liberty just by liberty, marxists had planned to implant a new way of ruling over the burgoisie (wich could be considered as a role-exchange) Years later, at 1889, another International Association was made. This one, only formed by marxists, got some actual achievements in histoy.
  • Rural Exodus

    Rural Exodus
    With the arrival of the industrial revolution, people who lived in the country had to emigrate to the urban areas. Such big was the displacement of persons that a the end of the exodus the proportion of urban and non-urban people was inverted.
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    Second Industrial Revolution

    With a beginning in the 1870's, the new stage of the industrial revolution brought new energies, such as electricity and petrol, new sectors (quimic industry) and a growth of the capitalism, wich became the main world's politic system. It evolved and generated new pseudo-economic systems. The corporstions started to trade with actions (stock exchange), plus new ways of working arrived (chain work) and enterprised collaborated by three associations types: Crankcases, Holdings and Trusts.
  • First Flight

    First Flight
    The Wrights Brothers were the first to make a denser than air-object fly through sky, with the help of a motor.
  • Trans-Siberian Railway

    Trans-Siberian Railway
    Russia inaugurated the world-longest railway (between Moscow and Vladivostok) at 1905. It's still working nowadays.