A History of the World in 6 Glasses

  • 10,000 BCE

    First Permanent Settlements (Beer)

    First Permanent Settlements (Beer)
    The Neolithic Revolution is a term used to describe the change from being hunter-gatherers, who hunted animals, gathered edible plants, and collected cereal grain from the wild, to living in more permanent settlements. Cereal grains are key ingredients for beer that could be stored for long period of time. These grains and other goods encouraged people to settle in villages of simple, round huts with roofs supported by wooden posts. The floors of these houses went about a yard into the ground.
  • 9000 BCE

    Adoption of Agriculture (Beer)

    Adoption of Agriculture (Beer)
    Some anthropologists believe that beer played a major role in the first uses of agriculture, a major turning point in history. Following the first permanent settlements, people began cultivating crops such as barely and wheat (main ingredients in beer) intentionally, rather than just gathering them from the wild abundances. The switch from hunting band gathering to farming was a slow transition over a few thousand years. Farming paved the way for the emergence of modern civilization.
  • 7000 BCE

    Major Spread of Agriculture (Beer)

    Major Spread of Agriculture (Beer)
    Farming spread throughout the Fertile Crescent and Nile River Valley between 7000 BCE and 5000 BCE. An increasing number of plants and animals (originally sheep and goat) were domesticated. In an added note, new farming techniques were adopted. This made farming easier, and, more appealing, leading to the major spread. This point in history marks us closer to an even more complex society.
  • 4300 BCE

    Cities Begin to Arise (Beer)

    Cities Begin to Arise (Beer)
    From around 4300 BCE, in both Mesopotamia and Egypt, villages began banding together. These bands of villages were eventually called cities. The exact reasoning behind this is unknown, but it is most likely associated with the desire of people to be near religious and/or trading centers, and for security purposes.
  • 3400 BCE

    First Examples of Writing (Beer)

    First Examples of Writing (Beer)
    The written history of beer and all other things began in Sumer, a region in southern Mesopotamia. The earliest written documents are said to be Sumerian wage lists and tax receipts, written in cuneiform. In these documents, the symbol for beer occurred throughout quite frequently, as did the symbols for grain, textiles and livestock. It can be easily seen that writing was originally invented to record distributions of goods such as bread and beer, but don't mention anything about beers origin.
  • 870 BCE

    Great Feast of King Ashurnasirpal II (Wine)

    Great Feast of King Ashurnasirpal II (Wine)
    Said to be one of the largest in history was the feast held by King Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria, which marked the inauguration of his new capital at Nimrud. The feasting lasted a total of ten days, and a record setting amount, 69, 574 people, attended the celebration. To demonstrate his power and wealth, the King served guests an abundance of food. The most impressive choice made by the king about the feast was the choice of drink; wine rather than beer, even though he had Mesopotamian heritage.
  • 300 BCE

    Rome Population Begins to Swell (Wine)

    Rome Population Begins to Swell (Wine)
    From 300 BCE - 0 CE, Roman population increased from about one hundred thousand to one million. This made Rome the most populated metropolis in the world. During this increase in population, wine production escalated rather quickly at the center of the Roman world, leading to wine consumption spreading on it's fringes. With this, people embraced wine drinking, along with any other Roman customs wherever Roman rule extended to, and sometimes even beyond.
  • 212 BCE

    Sack of the Greek Colony of Syracuse (Wine)

    Sack of the Greek Colony of Syracuse (Wine)
    By mid second century BCE, Rome dominated the Mediterranean basin over the Greeks. It is strange, this victory, for most of Roman sophistication was shown through Greek culture, such as imitating their architecture and worshiping the same gods. After Rome took over the Greek colony of Syracuse, they felt they owed it to the Greeks to carry on their legacy. Wine drinking allowed them to do so. The cultivation and consumption of wine provided a bridge between Roman and Greek values.
  • 180 BCE

    Death of Marcus Aurelius (Wine)

    Death of Marcus Aurelius (Wine)
    In 180 BCE, Marcus Aurelius died from illness rather than poisoning. His reign was a period of relative peace, stability, and prosperity, so it is said that his death marked the end of the Golden age of Rome. Following his death and rule was a series of short-lived emperors, who did what they could to defend the empire from barbarians surrounding it. Almost none of these rulers died of natural causes. For the last week of his life, Marcus Aurelius consumed nothing but theriac and Falerian wine.
  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad (Wine)

    Birth of Muhammad (Wine)
    Although wine drinking/culture remained mostly unbroken in Christian Europe, patters would begin to change definitely, following the rise of Islam, in sections of the former Roman world. Founder of Islam, the Prophet Muhammad, was born around 570 CE. He grew up, finding prophecy as his calling at the age of forty. His teachings made him unpopular in the city of Mecca, who praised the traditional Arab religion, so he fled to the city of Medina. After his death, Islam dominated religion in Arabia.
  • 1368

    Emperor Shen Nung Begins Rule (Tea)

    Emperor Shen Nung Begins Rule (Tea)
    The first cup of tea was brewed by emperor Shen Nung. Shen Nung's reign lasted from 2737 BCE - 2697 BCE. Nung was China's second legendary emperor. He is credited with inventions of agriculture in China, the plow, as well as discovering medical herbs. An ancient Chinese story tells that one day Nung was boiling water for a drink, using branches from a wild tea bush to make the fire. Suddenly, a gust of wind carried some of the leaves from the bush into his pot, forming a refreshing drink; tea.
  • 1400

    Slave Trade Begins (Spirits)

    Slave Trade Begins (Spirits)
    In the 1440's, Portugal began shipping black laborers (slaves) to Europe, from their trading posts on the African west coast. At the beginning of this process, the slaves were kidnapped. This was resolved when the Portuguese began to "trade" the slaves for European goods. Most slaves would be used on sugar plantations (sugar being an ingredient in spirits, a popular drink at the time). The slave trade would only increase when Christopher Columbus discovers America, and sets up sugar plantations.
  • 1492

    Columbus Discovers the New World (Spirits)

    Columbus Discovers the New World (Spirits)
    Columbus had been in search of a western route to the East Indies, where he would find gold, spices, and silk. He instead stumbled upon the islands of the Caribbean. Columbus claimed these Islands ideal for sugar growing, an industry he was familiar with. The use of slaves for sugar production increased dramatically with this new discovery made by Columbus, sugar being one of the main ingredients in distilled beverages, which were increasing in popularity at the time.
  • First English Colony in North America (Spirits)

    First English Colony in North America (Spirits)
    When England planned to establish colonies in North America, it was because they believed it was a land of many goods, metals, minerals, ect, in which they could profit from. Due to these beliefs, the first colony was established in 1607 named Virginia after Queen Elizabeth I, also known as the virgin queen. The reality of the American climate, however, hit the Europeans when crops such as bananas and sugar, a main ingredient in spirits, wouldn't grow, and attempts to make silk also failed.
  • Bacon Publishes "The New Logic" (Coffee)

    Bacon Publishes "The New Logic" (Coffee)
    Francis Bacon did not believe information on scientific concepts found in ancient texts to be completely accurate, as opposed to direct observation and experiment. He felt rather than building new concepts on top of old concepts, all scientific knowledge should be destroyed and reconstructed bit by bit. Due to all of this, he published, "The New Logic," thanks to the reduction of church authority in northern Europe. Bacon and his followers felt everything could be challenged, nothing assumed.
  • Accession of Charles II (Coffee)

    Accession of Charles II (Coffee)
    After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, the public opinion in England was that the monarchy be restored as it was when King Charles I ruled. This made way for the accession of Charles II in 1660. Around this same time, coffeehouses became places of political discussion and debate. One of Charles II's advisers said that the king's supporters had met in coffeehouses during the previous king's rule suggesting that Charles II may not have became king if not for coffeehouse gatherings.
  • Marriage of Charles II and Catherine (Tea)

    Marriage of Charles II and Catherine (Tea)
    Tea began to become more popular and more fashionable in England after the marriage of Charles II to Catherine of Braganza. Catherine was daughter of King John IV of Portugal, and her incredible amount of wealth/property contained the Portuguese trading posts of Tangier and Bombay. Catherine was true tea drinker, and she brought this practice with her in her marriage. It is said that this custom of hers caught on almost immediately in the aristocracy.
  • Great Fire of London (Coffee)

    Great Fire of London (Coffee)
    The great fire of London was a tragic event occurring in 1666. Although fires were rather common at the time, this fire did far more damage than most. As the fire raged down streets and up buildings, people attempted to flee, most by boat. The fire caused an astronomical amount of damage, and during the event was absolute chaos. The fire also managed to wipe out many of London's eighty-three coffeehouses, which were growing with popularity at the time.
  • Establishment of the London Penny Post (Coffee)

    Establishment of the London Penny Post (Coffee)
    The establishment of the London Penny Post in 1680 cleared the way for what would become a new frequent practice. This coffeehouse, as did many others following, allowed citizens to use the coffeehouse as a mailing address. This meant any regular customers could check in every now and then, seeing if any mail addressed to them had arrived. This also allowed news, rumors, gossip and other conversation pass between coffeehouses and areas more rapidly than it had before.
  • Newton Publishes "Principia" (Coffee)

    Newton Publishes "Principia" (Coffee)
    Isaac Newton published a scientific work, generally known as, "Principia," in 1687. In this work, he explained how his law of universal gravitation could explain the motions of both earthly and celestial bodies/planets. Newton's work had finally provided a new beginning to physical sciences to replace the Greek's, making the universe believe in reason. His work sparked the start of more complex scientific knowledge in London coffeehouses, and is said to be one of the best scientists in history.
  • Sugar Act is Passed (Spirits)

    Sugar Act is Passed (Spirits)
    Following the Molasses Act came the Suagr act in 1764, the goal of this act being to tax shipped goods and raise revenues, rather than regulate trade. This act was obviously very unpopular in America, because American felt as though they shouldn't have to pay these taxes if they hadn't had to before. Some of New England's rum distillers led a revolt against the new rules by organizing a boycott against British goods. The chant, "no taxation without representation," became popular in these times.
  • Arkwright Establishes First Spinning Mill (Tea)

    Arkwright Establishes First Spinning Mill (Tea)
    In 1768, Richard Arkwright constructed a functioning prototype, establishing his first spinning mill. The mill was powered by horses, and two wealthy businessmen found this new invention rather appealing. These two men gave Arkwright funds to construct a mill much greater in size at Cromford in Derbyshire in 1771. Here, in Cromford, the mills would be powered by a water wheel as opposed to horses. This new method of manufacturing helped Britain turn into the world first industrialized nation.
  • Tea Act (Tea)

    Tea Act (Tea)
    Smuggling tea into Britain and their American colonies had climaxed in the early 1770's, smuggled tea being cheaper than legal tea. However, this rapid smuggling reduced sales of legal tea, and companies found themselves with abundant amounts of tea. Finally, a company decided to bring their case to the government, and finally, the tea act was the result in 1773. It's laws included a 1.4 million pound governmental loan of tea to help pay debts. In short terms, the act reduced the price of tea.
  • Boston Tea Party (Tea)

    Boston Tea Party (Tea)
    When the tea act came into effect, the company's ships arrived in America with all of the tea. However, the colonists did not allow the tea to be unloaded. On the night of December 16, 1773, a group of those protesting the tea act dressed up as Mohawk Indians, a d boarded all the company ships containing tea in the Boston Harbor. Some of the protesters were involved in the smuggling of tea before the act. That night, over a three period, all 342 chests of tea were dumped into the Boston harbor.
  • Revolutionary War (Spirits)

    Revolutionary War (Spirits)
    Rum played a very important role in the decades leading up to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. On the night hostilities broke out, Paul Revere made his midnight ride from Boston to Lexington shouting, "The British are coming!" This same evening, Revere stopped for a type of spirit known as a rum toddy. The fighting lasted six years, and rum was the American's preferred drink. The British surrendered in 1781, marking the end of the war, and the establishment of the United States of America.
  • Great Depression in the U.S. (Coca Cola)

    Great Depression in the U.S. (Coca Cola)
    The stock market crash of 1929, where millions of banks shut down, is one reason, but not the only reason that the U.S. fell into what is known as the Great Depression. During this time period, the deepest and longest downturn in the U.S. economy took place. Unemployment skyrocketed astronomically during these time periods, and not just in America. Countries that were trade dependent with the U.S. at the time were economically damaged as well. This brought a great challenge to Coca Cola.
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor (Coca Cola)

    Attack on Pearl Harbor (Coca Cola)
    Up until the attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had been trying to avoid foreign affairs, such as WWII. However, on the morning of December 7, 1941, Japan sent numerous fighter jets and ships equipped with explosives to attack the U.S. naval base located at Pearl Harbor. There were lots of U.S caualties. With this attack, Japan hoped to keep the U.S. naval fleet inactive for a while. Following this event, the U.S. would enter WWII, and Coca Cola would become even more popular.
  • U.S. Enters WWII (Coca Cola)

    U.S. Enters WWII (Coca Cola)
    Previous to Japan's attack on The U.S. Naval Base located in Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had been trying to avoid getting involved in foreign affairs. However, this tragic event marked the end of the isolation of the U.S. from foreign affairs, as well as their entry in WWII. America began to send armed forces out into the world, a total of more than 16 million service men and women. Along with these troops went Coca Cola. Troops could get a bottle of Coca Cola for 5 cents wherever, and whenever.
  • Establishment of N.A.T.O. (Coca Cola)

    Establishment of N.A.T.O. (Coca Cola)
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (N.A.T.O.) was established in 1949. The organization was an alliance between the United States as well as it's European allies. The purpose of this organization was to prevent a communist Soviet takeover in any of the nations included in the organization. Around the same time, however, the Soviet Union set up a rival organization known as the Warsaw Treaty Organization leading to the start of the cold war, and Coca Cola starting to symbolize western values.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall (Coca Cola)

    Fall of the Berlin Wall (Coca Cola)
    For years, the Berlin Wall separated eastern Germany from western Germany. It is said to be a symbol of the Cold War. This wall kept those in the east who wished to live in the west from doing so. The wall separated families, and those living in the east were missing opportunities such as those that there were in the west. When the wall fell in 1989, and east Germans seeped through it's crevices, they were greeted in West Berlin with Coca Cola.