The greatest and most cultured city in western Europe in 970 BCE was not Paris or Rome, it was Córdoba. Córdoba, located in present-day Spain, had 700 mosques, 300 baths, oil lamps, sewage systems, parks, and paved roads. Their most prized possession was their library. The library had over half a million books and was named the "jewel of the world" by a German chronicler. Córdoba's library was used as a learning center where many advances in technology were made, such as the creation of spirits.