A History of the World in 6 Glasses

  • 100,000 BCE

    The Earliest Civilizations

    The Earliest Civilizations
    The earliest civilizations appeared in 100,000 BCE. Civilizations are believed to have been started by hunter-gathers in the Fertile Crescent and Turkey so they could store large amounts of food. They need large amounts of grain to make gruel, something that they ate frequently. Gruel, when left out too long, made beer. Gruel and beer were the main part of their diet. They needed such a great quantity of grain they couldn't carry/store all of the grain they needed so they created civilizations.
  • 7000 BCE

    Farming Begins in the Fertile Crescent

    Farming Begins in the Fertile Crescent
    There are many theories about why farming began. Some people believe that farming began because the population grew so much that the animals they hunted were going extinct. They settled in Mesopotamia and Egypt, an area known as the Fertile Crescent. Leaving their nomadic lifestyle behind allowed people to begin domesticating animals, like sheep and goats, and growing more crops. One of the most important crops was grain. Grain was used to make beer. Beer was used both socially and ritually.
  • 3400 BCE

    Creation of Writing

    Creation of Writing
    Writing is believed to have first emerged in 3,400 BCE. The earliest written documents are Sumerian wage lists, tax receipts, and literature. The Sumerians used cuneiform to communicate with each other. The symbol for beer appears more than any other symbol in virtually all wage lists, tax receipts, and literature. One Egyptian tale even credits beer for saving humankind and even establishes a goddess of beer and brewing, Hathor.
  • 3000 BCE

    Religion and Rituals

    Religion and Rituals
    Beer was used for social and ritual gatherings. Beer was used in religious ceremonies, agriculture fertility rites, and funerals by the Sumerians and Egyptians. The Incas offered beer in a golden cup to the rising sun and would spit out their first mouthful as an offer to the Gods of the Earth. The Aztecs offered beer to the goddess of fertility. In China beer was made for funerals and other religious ceremonies. Beer wasn't used for just social gatherings it was used for religion.
  • 2500 BCE

    The Creation of the Pyramids of Giza

    The Creation of the Pyramids of Giza
    Construction of the Pyramids of Giza, in Eygpt, began in 2,500 BCE. People who worked on the pyramids were paid with 3/4 loaves of bread and 2 jugs containing 4 liters of beer. Graffiti was found on the pyramids in several locations. A piece of graffiti shows that a group of workers called themselves the "Drunkards of Menkaure". Records show the pyramids were built by state employees instead of previously to have thought to have been slaves. Architecture of the pyramids affected several regions.
  • 870 BCE

    A Great Feast

    A Great Feast
    One of the great feasts of history was held by King Ashurnaspiral II to celebrate his new capital Nimrud. Held at a palace in Nimrud it was built like a Mesopotamian palace with seven halls, ornate wood, bronze doors and a roof made of different woods. To present the King's wealth over the course of 10 days 93,500 foods were served to people from Eurasia. An equal amount of beer, a Mesopotamian drink,and wine was catered. Wine is symbolic of the King's wealth because wine was found in rare sums.
  • 323 BCE

    The Death of Alexander the Great

    The Death of Alexander the Great
    Alexander the Great passed away in 323 BCE due to a strange illness that is believed to have been an effect of heavy wine drinking. Alexander and his father Philip II were said to have been colossal drinkers. During Alexander's reign, he created Hellenistic culture that brought together Indians, Egyptians, Persians, and Greeks. After his death, Hellenistic culture disbanded. It is also believed that wine caused Alexander's friend Clitus' death. Clitus was slain by Alexander in a drunken battle.
  • 150 BCE

    Rome Versus Greece

    Rome Versus Greece
    In the second century BCE the Romans had replaced the Greeks as the leading power of the Mediterranean area. Even though the Romans had defeated the Greeks they adopted many aspects of Greek culture, gods, myths, and Greek architecture. Greek literature was studied and spoke by educated Romans. Cato the Elder regarded the Greeks as bad influences and that they had been conquered and not the Greeks. Wine was used to establish more Roman aspects of society while still having a Greek lifestyle.
  • 87 BCE

    The Murder of Marcus Antonius

    The Murder of Marcus Antonius
    Marcus Antonius was a Roman politician and a celebrated public speaker.Marcus supported Sulla who was Gaius Marius' rival. Gaius Marius had seized power of the area and was hunting down the supporters of Sulla. Marcus sought shelter in a poor mans house. Unfortunately he was given away when a servant was sent to get wine and disclosed his name. The vintner went to Gauis who sent soldiers to where Marcus was staying.Marcus was ultimately killed by the commanding officer who was sent to his house.
  • 395

    The Fall of the Western Empire of Rome

    The Fall of the Western Empire of Rome
    In 395, emporer Theodosius I split Rome into western and eastern halves to make sure that Rome would be easier to defend for his sons. The western empire was soon taken over by The Visigoths, a Germanic tribe, in 410, and later by the Vandals in 455. Greek and Roman prejudices believed that the arrival of the Germans would have replaced wine drinking with beer drinking, but the Germans had nothing against wine drinking. Many Roman aspects of life vanished and trade was deranged as a result.
  • 970

    Córdoba Library

    Córdoba Library
    The greatest and most cultured city in western Europe in 970 BCE was not Paris or Rome, it was Córdoba. Córdoba, located in present-day Spain, had 700 mosques, 300 baths, oil lamps, sewage systems, parks, and paved roads. Their most prized possession was their library. The library had over half a million books and was named the "jewel of the world" by a German chronicler. Córdoba's library was used as a learning center where many advances in technology were made, such as the creation of spirits.
  • 1191

    Minamoto Sanetomo Falls ill

    Minamoto Sanetomo Falls ill
    Japan's military leader, Minamoto Sanetomo, fell ill in 1191. A Buddist monk, who's name was Eisai, treated Minamoto with homegrown tea. After being cured Minamoto became a strong supporter of tea and its use. He even spread its use to his court and his country. Eisai even brought a book from China about growing, picking, the making, and drinking of tea. Tea was also seen to have religious roots in China. It was said to be seen as a bodily refreshment and a spiritual refreshment.
  • 1440

    African Slave Trade

    African Slave Trade
    The Portuguese began taking slaves from Africa in 1440. After stealing slaves the Portuguese started to buy slaves. Slavery was not seen in Europe for a long time because they believed that you could not enslave another Christian. This was quickly sidestepped by saying that "Black Africans" were not fully human. The African slave traders were paid in textiles, jugs and brandy. These Africans were used to transport sugar from the Atlantic islands of Madiera, Azores, and Canaries to the New World.
  • First Permanent Settlements in North America

    First Permanent Settlements in North America
    The first permanent settlement in North America was in the colony of Virginia. There were many complaints from the English colonists. They complained of no place of relief, no beer house, and no tavern. A Spanish observer even stated that the 300 colonists had only water to drink, which was unlike the English. The second colony also had a shortage of beer. The third colony had beer imported. The colonists resorted to making wine and brandy. Rum was then discovered and used for everyday life.
  • The Beginning of the Age of Reason

    The Beginning of the Age of Reason
    The Age of Reason started in 1620 when Francis Bacon, from England, published his book, The New Logic. Galileo Galilei, from Italy, and Francis Bacon went against blind faith. His idea of a new logic was starting from the bottom-most foundations to advance our knowledge unless we would rather advance at a slow rate. The wars of the Reformation paved the way for Bacon and the new rationalism. This movement was called the Enlightenment. It is often compared to the newest drink, coffee.
  • The English Arrive in Barbados

    The English Arrive in Barbados
    The English people arrived at Barbados in 1627 to find that it was uninhabited. The English attempted to grow tobacco, which had been making a large profit in the American colonies, but it did not taste as well as it did in America. English settlers brought in sugar cane and experts from Brazil instead. The experts from Brazil made sugar cane the island's most important crop because they had also shown the settlers how to ferment molasses making brandy. Brandy was drunk and sold on the island.
  • The Beginning of the Scientific Revolution

    The Beginning of the Scientific Revolution
    The Scientific Revolution began in 1660 when Christopher Wren, William Petty, and Robert Boyle founded Britain's first scientific institution, the Royal Society in London. After meetings, some of the members would go to coffeehouses to further their discussions. These discussions led to the publication of several books and even involved several merchants, traders, seamen, and carpenters from all over the world. These also lead to improvements in navigation, manufacturing, and mining.
  • The Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

    The Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza
    Charles II and Catherine of Braganza, the daughter of King John IV of Portugal, got married in 1662. What Catherine brought as a dowry to Charles was the right to trade with Portuguese overseas, a fortune in gold, possession of the Portuguese trading posts of Bombay and Tangier, and a chest of tea. Catherine ultimately brought tea to England with her. England ended up importing small amounts of tea from the Netherlands as a gift for the King from the British East India Company.
  • The Financial Revolution

    The Financial Revolution
    The Financial Revolution began in Britain in the 1690s when the stock market was raised from 15 to 150 companies. There was so much trading that an act was passed "to Restrain the Number and Practice of Brokers and Stockjobbers". Brokers who didn't pay were banned from entering Johnathens Coffee House, where the stock exchange was held. Their names were posted so they couldn't enter. A banished broker ended up creating a new coffee house, New Johnathens in London, later named The Stock Exchange.
  • The Launch of the Spinning Frame

    The Launch of the Spinning Frame
    The spinning frame was invented by Richard Arkwright, a British inventor. The spinning frame was a machine for spinning thread to prepare for weaving. The frame did not require a skilled operator to operate, anyone could operate it. With help of a clockmaker, named John Kay he established his first spinning mill, which was powered, not by people, but horses. Two wealthy businessmen gave Richard funds to build another frame in Cromford. Cottages were built around it and the new workers drank tea.
  • The Tea Act of 1773

    The Tea Act of 1773
    The Tea Act of 1773 was the result of Britians and Americans smuggling tea into their countries. So much tea was smuggled into Britan and America that there were about 10,000 tons of legal tea that was sitting in London warehouses. The Tea Act consisted of a government loan of 1.4 million pounds to pay debts and the right to ship tea directly to America from China. The company would no longer pay the British import but the American import tax. The overall effect was to reduce the price of tea.
  • The Boston Tea Party

    The Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was the result of the Tea Act. American protestors, most involved in illegal smuggling, dressed up as Mohawk Indians. Over three hours all 342 chests of tea on board three ships were dumped into the harbor. The British government responded by saying that the port in Boston was closed until the East India Company had been compensated. This was one of the first of a series of acts passed. These laws angered colonists and eventually lead to the Revolutionary War.
  • The Start of the French Revolution

    The Start of the French Revolution
    The French Revolution started when lawyer Camille Desmoulins gave a speech outside Café de Foy in France. Crowds gathered outside Café de Foy after the king fired his finance minister, Jacques Necker after a meeting with the Assembly of Notables in Versailles. The tension was rising because Necker was the only person in the government that the people trusted. Camille jumped up on a table and called the people to arms. Paris was chaos and Bastille was stormed days afterward. The revolution began.
  • The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794

    The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794
    The whiskey rebellion started in 1791 when Alexander Hamilton proposed a law that stated that distillers would have to pay either an annual levy or impose a 7 cent tax on every gallon of liquor made. The law was passed and the people believed that the American government was just like the one they tried to escape from. Many farmers refused to pay, shots were even fired at William Miller's party. For 2 days 6,000 people joined the "whiskey boys". In the end 20 men were taken back to Philadelphia.
  • The Opium War

    The Opium War
    The Opium War was fought between Britain and China over opium trade and the British won easily. The British had modern weapons while the Chinese had older weapons. After three short years British troops occupied Hong Kong, took control of river deltas, and occupied large cities in China. The Chinese were soon forced to sign a treaty that gave Hong Kong to British, opened ports for trade, and required payments of silver.The British used silver to pay for tea, which they earned from selling opium.
  • John Pemberton's Death

    John Pemberton's Death
    John Pemberton died of cancer in 1888. John's death led to Asa Chandler having control over Coca-Cola. Asa claimed that John was more than a druggist from Atlanta, he was a close friend. He even told shopkeepers that they should close their stores to go to John's funeral. He made sure that he made the public think that he was putting John's interests first. As the sales grew Asa sen people to go to neighboring states to sell Coca-Cola. The news even said that Asa made Coca-Cola a national drink.
  • The United States Versus Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola

    The United States Versus Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola
    Harvey Wiley put Coca-Cola on trial just as Kha'ir Beg had put coffee on trial in Mecca in 1511. Wiley claimed that Coca-Cola's caffeine content promoted sexual transgressions. Coca-Cola was experimented on frogs and rabbits, evidence proved that it was not harmful. The case of the United States against the effects of Coca-Cola was based on moral, not scientific judgment. In the end, it was proven that the company did not misinterpret its product because the name shows the presence of caffeine.
  • The Attack on Pearl Harbor

    The Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Amerca had been isolated before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Americans had wanted nothing to do with the rest of the world and their conflicts before Pearl Harbor was attacked. Once Pearl Harbor was attacked America had sent out over a total of sixteen million servicemen and Coca-Cola went with them all. The President of Coca-Cola stated that everyone in uniform would get a Coca-Cola for five cents no matter where they were and what it cost the company.
  • World War II

    World War II
    Coca-Cola was sold to the whole world by the end of World War II. Military bottling operations stayed in place for three years after the war before returning to civilian jobs. Coca-Cola even followed Allied troops into Europe after D-day. The password used by American troops to cross the Rhine was Coca-Cola. Advertisements often depicted a solider or a sailor next to a bottle of Coca-Cola with a saying above. Germany and Japan used Coca-Cola as an example of what's wrong with the United States.
  • The Iron Curtain

    The Iron Curtain
    In 1948 the Soviet Union confronted America by blocking West Berlin and creating the Iron Curtain. Western powers airlifted supplies for a year before the block was lifted. The Western people saw Coca-Cola as freedom and democracy a way away from the communism surrounding and the Iron Curtain that was surrounding them. Others thought that Coca-Cola stood for all the bad things with capitalism and satisfying consumers.