US History 4B Timeline

  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus sails to North America

    Christopher Columbus, an Italian native who sailed for Spain, convinced Queen Victoria to fund his expedition to find a new route to India. He ran into North America instead and mistakenly called its people Indians.
  • May 3, 1493

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    Pope Alexander VI issued the treaty, which created the bull of demarcation, dividing the newly discovered continent between Spain and Portugal, who were engaged in a conflict over land.
  • Oct 3, 1519

    Magellan circumnavigates the world

    Ferdinand Magellan began his voyage around the world in 1519. He was the first person to acheive this feat.
  • Spanish Armada defeated

    England defeated the Spanish Armada, which was a contributing factor in the end of Spain and England's relations.
  • The Mayflower

    102 people, half separatists who wanted to purify the Anglican Church, set sail on the Mayflower for the New World, arriving in Plymouth Bay.
  • Jamestown

    Three ships were sent out by the Virginia company in 1606 and when the people arrived in North America, they settled and founded Jamestown.
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    First Anglo-Powhatan War

    Relations between the settlers and Native Americans got worse and worse. Settlers raided Indian supplies and war broke out, the Indians led by Chief Powhatan.
  • First Thanksgiving

    After the harsh first winter which killed over half of the 102 newly arrived colonists, the first harvest was brought in and the colonists mingled with the Native Americans for a celebration.
  • Powhatan Uprising

    347 settlers were killed in the Powhatan Uprising.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony

    The Massachusetts Bay Colony recieved a rolyal charter in 1629, and were led by John Winthrop.
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    Second Anglo-Powhatan War

    Bad relations continued between the settlers and Native Americans; periodic attacks for twenty years culminated in the 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War
  • Toleration Act

    Passed in Maryland, the Toleration act granted religious freedom to those who believed in the Trinity.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Nathaniel Bacon led 1000 Virginians, mostly poor farmers, against the Virginia House of Burgesses, burning the capital and driving Governor Berkely from Jamestown. However, Bacon died of fever and Berkeley crushed the rebellion.
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    First Great Awakening

    This was a period of major religious revival and enlightenment for the American colonists.
  • Georgia

    The last of the 13 colonies to be established, Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe and provided a buffer between the Spanish-controlled Florida and the Carolinas.
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    French and Indian War

    Began with a dispute over the Ohio River Valley. Britain won but was in a lot of debt. This was the end of its salutary neglect towards America and the colonists grew resentful of Britain.
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    Organizing Principle

    The British attempted to reexert control over the colonists, who responded with organized, violent and successful resistance.
  • Sugar Act

    A tax imposed by Britain on the colonists' sugar and molasses. The colonists were outraged by this and began non importation agreements and other protests. They favored internal taxes, not taxes from Parliament.
  • Stamp Act

    Britain taxed documents and paper in the colonies. Violators were put on trial in British courts. This was another action by Britain, who was trying to raise money to pull itself out of debt, that infuriated the colonists.
  • Stamp Act Congress

    9 colonies were represented and decided not to vote for representation in Parliament; they wanted a complete break from Britain so that they were not being unfairly taxed from outside America. the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766.
  • Townshend Acts

    Basically replaced the Stamp Act, and allowed British to be in charge of colonial officials' paychecks. The colonists reacted with a lot of protest and non importation agreements. The Townshend acts were repealed, but the tea tax remained as a mark of Parliament's supremacy.
  • Boston Massacre

    Even though only a few people were killed, this event enraged the colonists, a reaction urged on by colonial politicians. The Boston Massacre was an important push to the Revolutionary war.
  • Gaspee Affair

    England was overzealous in enforcing the Trade and Navigation Acts in Rhode Island, and colonists boarded a British ship and burned it. The colonists were tried in Britain. This incident led to more Committees of Correspondence.
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    Revolutionary War

    Fought between the colonists and Britain, the American Revolution solidified American independence. The American colonists were supported by the French and led by General George Washington.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Written by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration of Independence declared independence from British rule. Discussed the ideas of Natural Law and the Social Contract inspired by John Locke and listed grievances against King George III.
  • Battle of Long Island

    During this battle, English soldiers gained control of New York city, something of a blow to the colonists because this meant Britain gained an important port for bringing in supplies.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    The Turning Point in the Revolutionary War: brought about the French alliance with America.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    The Battle of Saratoga acted as the turning point of the Revolutionary War and brought about the French Alliance. the French are a great asset to America; they provide, troops, a navy, supplies, money, and weapons.
  • Treaty of Paris

    The Treaty of Paris recognized America's independence, set the Mississippi River as its Western boundary, and stated that the British soldiers would leave Northwestern forts, something which they failed to do.
  • Jay's Treaty

    the United States were on the verge of war with Britain, who was still violating the Treaty of Paris, so the US sent Jay to go negotiate with Britain to get them out of Northwest forts in America. It was a very controversial act in the US; many people hated Jay for bargaining with Britain.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Poor farming citizens of Western Pennsylvania were angry about the excise task on whiskey, since whiskey was so common there as to be used as a form of payment. A number of people began a rebellion and George Washington sent 13,000 troops, a hugely unnecessary number, to quell the rebellion. This established the power of the federal government.
  • Pinckney's Treaty

    Pinckney was sent to Spain to to secure some friendship between the US and Spain. The Treaty was intended to establish Spanish boundaries with the US and secure Right of Deposit for the US.
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    John Adams' Presidency

    The second US president, John Adams was a Federalist and an unlikeable man. He scraped the election with just a few more electoral votes than his competition. He believed in 2 house legislature and a strong executive branch.
  • Alien and SEdition Acts

    Acts passed by Jefferson that made it harder to become a US citizen; instead of 5 years, you had to live in the US for 14 before becoming naturalized. This harmed Jefferson because he was a Republican and most incoming citizens became REpublican.
  • Convention of 1800

    Relations between France and America had dwindled since the Undeclared Naval War a,d the two countries decided to void the French Alliance. However, a commercial treaty was established, so they could trade with eachother.
  • Marbury v. Madison

    A court case ruled by John Marshall that established the precedent of judicial review: the Supreme Court has the power to declare presidential acts unconstitutional.
  • Barbary Pirates Cease Fighting US

    Barbary Pirates had been harrassing US ships; they declared an unoffic\ial war on the US in 1801. When they give up fighting, it is the US's first foreign victory.
  • Orders of Council

    Britain passed an act that said all trade in Europe must go through Britain first.
  • Continental System

    France's response to Britain's Orders of Council. Said that it is illegal for anyone to trade with Britain.
  • Embargo of 1807

    Thomas Jefferson implemented the Embargo of 1807 to hurt Britain; it said that America couldn't trade with anyone else. However, it backfired and hurt THe US worse than Britain.
  • Madison elected President

    James Madison was Jefferon's Secretary of State.
  • Nonintercourse Act

    This softened the Embargo of 1807 by banning tradr only with Britain and France. It reinvigorated the American economy.
  • Macon's Bill Number 2

    Whichever Britain or France opened trade with the US first, the US would put an embargo on the other. It favored Britain because it gave them a chance to get its biggest trading partner back.
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    War of 1812

    Reasons for the war were impressment by the British, violation of neutrality, blockades by the British on several AMerican ports, and the Orders in Council. Also, the war hawks, the growing political power of the West, and Indian troubles played a part.
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    Offensive Phase of the War of 1812

    The US, who were ill-prepared for the war, suffered several defeats at Fort Michilimackinack, Fort Dearborn, and Niagara in Canada. Several wins followed.
  • Battle of Lake Eerie

    Oliver Hazard Perry lost 80 percent of his troops, but it was a US victory. it set up the US to maintain control of the Northwest.
  • Battle of the Thames

    Tecumseh was killed and the Indian Confederation broken up. The US gained more control of the Northwest.
  • Battle of Horshoe Bend

    Fought in Alabama, this battle, led by Andrew Jackson, broke up Indian resistance.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    both sides were tired of fighting; this ended the War of 1812.