The Battle of Vimy RidgeWho: Canadians vs Germans
What: Canadian soldiers fought to claim Vimy Ridge, a strategic point in France currently held by Germans. Both the French and British had failed to capture this point previously.
Where: Vimy Ridge, Northern France
When: 9 - 11 Apr 1917
Why: The point was a highly useful strategic ground that would gain the Allies a lot of land on the Germans.
How: Canadian soldiers were prepared with training, maps and other knowledge to ensure that they would triumph.
The Signing of the Treaty of VersaillesWho: All Allied countries and Germany
What: A peace treaty between the Allies and Germany.
Where: Versailles, France
When: Following the end of WWI on November 11, 1918
Why: To prevent hostilities from continuing and to force Germany to atone for its actions.
How: Signing the Treaty meant that Germans had to sacrifice much of their military forces and all overseas colonies, as well as make reparations for wartime damages in several countries
Canada becomes the US's greatest trading partnerWho: Canada and the US
What: The two countries became trading partners; Canada began to distance its ties from Britain and make stronger ones with the US.
Where: Canada and the US
When: The 1920's
Why: The United States had a large demand for raw materials that Canada had in abundance; Canada seized the trading opportunity
How: American countries set up branch plants in Canada; raw materials were shipped to American factories for processing
The Stock Market CrashWho: Canada, the US, countries heavily invested in stocks
What: Stock market prices plummeted on October 29, 1928
Where: Canada, the US, countries heavily invested in stocks
When: October 29, 1929
Why: Nervous investors began to sell their stocks in an attempt to cut their losses, causing a panic
How: Everyone wanted to sell their stocks, but nobody wanted to buy; a huge amount of profit was lost
NATOWho: Countries of Western Europe and North America
What: The forming of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Where: All NATO countries
Why: To protect member countries from an attack by the Soviet Union
How: All countries agreed that an attack on one would be an attack on the other
The Suez CrisisWho: Canada & other UN countries, Egypt; proposed by Lester B. Pearson
What: Canada's first peacekeeping mission
Where: Suez, Egypt
Why: Forces were needed to keep the peace in Suez while politicians worked out an agreement
How: Forces from Canada and other countries were sent to keep peace
The Charter of Rights and FreedomsWho: Pierre Trudeau & Canadians
What: A new Canadian controlled Constitution was created
Why: Trudeau wanted the Constitution to be under the control of Canadians and to focus more on the rights of citizens
How: Trudeau drew up many charters for countries to vote on; eventually, all countries but Quebec agreed on the Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the new Constitution was formed
The 1980 Quebec ReferendumWho: Quebec, Parti-Quebecois
What: The 1980 sovereignty referendum was held; 60% of Canadians voted "non"
Where: Quebec, Canada
Why: The Parti-Quebecois, who were highly pro-separation, wanted the province to vote to separate from Canada
How: The referendum was held in 1980.