50's & 60's

  • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    United States Supreme Court case that held that race-based segregation of children into 'separate but equal' public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and is unconstitutional.
  • Plessy vs Feguson

    The Supreme Court case, since overturned by Brown v. Board of Education , which upheld the constitutionality of “separate, but equal facilities” based on race.
  • 13th amendment

    abolished slavery in the United States and provides that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States
  • 14th amendment

    The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves who had just been freed after the Civil War.
  • 15th amendment

    granted African American men the right to vote.
  • Mendez vs. Westminster School District of Orange County

    was a 1947 federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools.