19th CENTURY SPAIN

  • The absolutist phase

    The absolutist phase
    -Spain returned to absolutism.
    -Liberals, who had hoped for a constitutional monarchy, were persecuted.
    -Groups of liberals organised pronouncements, demanding the reinstatement of the Constitution, but they were not successful.
    -Many liberals were forced into exile and others were executed.
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    THE REIGN OF FERNANDO VII

    Fernando VII annulled all the decisions adopted in the Cortes de Cádiz and restored absolutism.
  • The liberal phase

    The liberal phase
    -A period of political instability followed, as some liberals organised military coups designed to overthrow absolutism.
    -In 1820, a coup led by Riego and Quiroga succeeded.
    -Fernando VII was forced to reinstate the Constitution of 1812 and to guarantee the freedoms that had been suppressed during the previous phase.
  • The ominous decade

    The ominous decade
    -The return to absolutism during the last ten years of the reign of Fernando VII annulled all the legislation of the Liberal Triennium.
    -Political and economic problems in Spain led to the final crisis of the absolute monarchy.
    -Ferdinand VII asked the Holy Alliance for help, which sent the '100 000 Hijos de San Luis', which defeated the Liberals.
    -Fernando VII reestablished the absolute monarchy and persecuted the liberals.
    -There were more liberal revolts, were not successful.
  • 1st Carlist war

    1st Carlist war
    -The first Carlist War (1833-1839) took place because Fernando VII's brother Carlos claimed the throne, and did not accept either the Pragmatic Sanction or Isabel II as queen.
    -He was supported in the war by the absolutists and by those who supported the fueros: the church, Navarra, Vascongadas, Aragón and Cataluña.
    -The liberals supported Isabel Il in exchange for the government becoming more liberal.
    -In 1839, the Convention of Vergara was signed and Isabel was recognised as Queen of Spain.
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    THE REGENCY OF MARIA CRISTINA

    -Isabel was still a minor, for this, two regents governed in her name: her mother, María Cristina Bourbon, and General Espartero.
    -During this period the first Carlist War took place, and the monarchy changed from absolute to liberal.
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    THE REGENCY OF ESPARTERO

    -In 1837, moderate liberals took control of the government.
    -Maria Christina was forced to step down and the progressive General Espartero was appointed regent.
    -Espartero's authoritarian ideas and his introduction of free trade measures created strong opposition.
    -Isabella Il was then declared of age in 1843, at 13 years of age, and she was proclaimed queen.
  • Alternation of power between moderates and progressists

    Alternation of power between moderates and progressists
    -These governments were usually led by a military figure, such as Generals Espartero, Narvaez and O'Donnell.
    -Moderate is always somebody who stakes out a midway position.
    -Progressive is highly dependent on time and place.
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    THE REIGN OF ISABEL II

    -A liberal constitutional monarchy was established.
    -Shared sovereignity, supported by liberal political parties, constitutions, military participation.
  • Expropiations

    Expropiations
    -The expropriation is the state confiscation of land belonging to the church, the nobility and the municipalities.
    -For this reason, the expropriations sought to solve the economic problems of Spain by paying the State debt and the fragmentation of large estates belonging to the church, the nobility and the municipalities that were unproductive and did not pay taxes.
    -At the same time, the crown hoped that this policy would create a new class of landowners who would support the liberal regime.
  • Social instability

    Social instability
    -Social instability caused by discontent among the peasants over poor working conditions.
    -There was also tension between workers and factory owners over increasing unemployment and low wages.
  • 2nd Carlist war

    2nd Carlist war
    (1846-1849)
    -The war was caused by Isabel Il's refusal to marry Carlos Luis Bourbon, the Carlist claimant.
    If they had married, the succession dispute would have ended.
    -The war ended with the defeat of the Carlists.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    -Refers to the events in which King James II of England was deposed and succeeded by one of his daughters and her husband.
    -It arose from religious and political conflicts.
    -William and Mary were crowned joint rulers.
    -Parliament was permanently established as the ruling power of England, representing a change from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.
    -William III and Mary II swore to rule according to the laws of Parliament, not the laws of the monarchy.
  • Provisional government (1860-1870)

    Provisional government (1860-1870)
    -General Serrano, who was regent, and General Prim, who was the head of government, sought a new king for Spain who was not Bourbon.
    -They also summoned the Constituent Cortes to draft a new constitution.
    -The Constitution of 1869 was the most democratic constitution of Spain in the 19th century. He introduced universal male suffrage, freedom of religion and guaranteed a series of rights and freedoms. He also established a constitutional monarchy.
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    SIX YEARS OF DEMOCRACY

    Period of the contemporary history of Spain elapsed from the triumph of the Revolution of September 1868 to the pronouncement of December 1874, which marked the beginning of the stage known as the Bourbon Restoration.
  • Amadeo I of Savoy

    Amadeo I of Savoy
    -He came from a liberal monarchy that had contributed to the unification of Italy, he was chosen to occupy the throne.
    -A few days before his arrival his main supporter, General Prim, was assassinated.
    -The government introduced new measures to help economic recovery and the democratization process in Spain.
    -A new war began when the Carlists proclaimed King Charles VII and the Republicans aspired to establish a republic.
    -Due to numerous problems he was forced to abdicate and leave the country.
  • The First Republic

    The First Republic
    -The Third Carlist War and Alfonso's republic continued. There were revolts in Andalusia, Levante and Murcia that demanded the creation of a federal republic.
    -The main problem facing the republic was the divisions among the republicans. There were several alternatives: a federal republic or a centralized or unitary republic.
    -There were four different presidents in one year.
    -In 1874 there was another military revolt that sought to bring back the Bourbons, and the First Republic ended.