19th Century Germany

  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    From September 1814 to June 1815, the Congress of Vienna met and conservatively reorganised the borders of Europe, under the presidency of Austria.
  • Period: to

    Germany in the 19th CENTURY

  • The Zollverein is established

    The Zollverein is established
    In 1834, 18 states joined together in a Zollverein under Prussia's leadership. This trade/customs union effectively removed the customs borders of these states, such that trade and commerce could take place. This economic unity allowed later political bonds to form.
  • German Revolution of 1848

    German Revolution of 1848
    Revolutions in France and Vienna motivated German middle and working classes to demand reforms; poor harvests caused food shortages and a downturn in the economy caused unemployment. Under these circumstances, the German Revolution temporarily succeeded and in May 1848 the Frankfurt Assembly was formed to reflect the needs of the people. Sadly, this liberalist organisation neither agreed upon nor changed much and failed in the end.
  • Bismarck's appointment

    Bismarck's appointment
    Otto von Bismarck is appointed as chancellor to King William I of Prussia. On 23 September, his positions were of Minister-President and Foreign Minister.
  • The Danish (Schleswig-Holstein) War

    The Danish (Schleswig-Holstein) War
    Over a dispute on who should succeed the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, Bismarck declared a Prussian invasion of Danish territory. Austria and Prussia emerged victorious and jointly managed the territories following the conflict.
  • Austro-Prussian (Seven Week) War

    Austro-Prussian (Seven Week) War
    The administration of Schleswig and Holstein was a matter of contention for both Prussia and Austria - this was resolved in the Seven Week War following the major battle of Sadowa (Koniggratz). Prussia replaced Austria as the leading power among the German States, and Austria was excluded from German affairs.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    Franco-Prussian War
    In the Franco-Prussian War, the south German states joined the Prussians in a war against the French - the battle of Sedan and the seiging of Metz and Paris showed the Prussians were victorious. This outcome allowed the proclamation of the German Empire (and solidified the leadership of Prussia in this Empire).
  • Kulturkampf (the culture struggle)

    Kulturkampf (the culture struggle)
    Bismarck was a Prussian Protestant and feared the influence of the Pope on German Catholics. As a result, the restrictive Falk Laws were introduced and efforts made for the state to control the Catholic Church in Germany. The dispute with the church ended in 1878 (with the coming of a new diplomatic Pope, Leo XIII).
  • Bismarck's Dismissal

    Bismarck's Dismissal
    Bismarck was dismissed under King Wilhelm II (who came to power in June 1888), marking the end of his significant involvement in Germany's unification. He was succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi.