Ho Chi Minh spoke to get support form the US to get vietnam's independence from France. This is similiar to what the US did to get indepedence from Britian. In the end, the US support Vietnam.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
The family of an African American girl sued the school that their daughter wanted to go to because they wouldn't le her atttend school based on the fact that she was African American. The Supreme court ruled seperate but equal is a violation of the constitution's guarentee of equal protection of law.
Representatives from countrries around the world gathered to work out a peace agreement and arrange for IndoChina's future. The US wanted to make sure Vietnam didnt fall under China's communist control.
Woman arrested for refusing to give up seat
Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white man. This event led to the Montgomary Bus Boycott.
Hoover takes Action
J. Edgar Hoover was the FBI director at the time and created a secret program of spies to keep an eye on civil rights activists. Hoover believe many of these leaders were communists and sometimes recieved false information from his spies.
Little Rock Crisis
Nine African American students were escorted by the national guard to school at Little Rock Central High school because Govenor Orval Faubas would not permit desegregation of that school.
The US government believed that an air strike was necessary to get the citezens of Cuba to rise up against Castro. Kenanedy approved this plan but it was unsuccessful because Castro was prepared.
Freedom Riders attacked
The freedom riders were a group of people who traved on buses and challenged segregation in bus terminals in the south. They were harasses, fire bombed, and beaten.
Kennedy swears to congress that the US will continue to invest in space exploration to become the leading world power. Kennedy says that space exploration in necessary to accomplish this and he wants a man on the moon within the next decade.
Mapp vs Ohio
This supreme court case established that the search warrants required by the 4th amendment apply to state and local police too. This meant that searches could be conducted by authorities other than federal agents.
Berlin Wall rises
Khruschchev set up a barbed wire fence that sepeprated East and West Berlin in response to the United State's troops being sent to Berlin.The wall seperated families and added tension to problems with the US
Cubans flee to America
After Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba, many Cubans fled to the US to avoid communist control. By 1962 over 78,000 Cubans emigrated before Castro banned emigration. However, many Cubans still moved to the US despite the ban.
The 24th amendment banned states for requiring poll tax. This applied only to elections for president and congress and it allowed more African Americans to vote.
Trouble at the University of Mississippi
James Meredith's application to the University of Mississippi was rejected based on the fact that he was African American. He was guared by 500 federal marshals to face the protesters. Two people were killed and hundreds injured.
War on Poverty
In Johnson's first State of the Union address he declares a "war on poverty", in which he askes congress to pass the Economic opportunity Act. This act created new programs like the job corps and VISTA.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Johnsons signed the Civil rights act of 1964 which banned discrimination in employment and in public accomodaations. It also outlawed unequal voting requirements and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
President Johnson announce that the USS Maddox navy destroyer was hit by a north Vietnamese torpedo boat. Congress then passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolutiong that granted power to the President to start war.
More University violence
Jack Weinberg ste up a table to collect donations for CORE but police arrested him for trespasssing. Many students surrounded the police car so they could not leave with Weinberg. It lasted 32 hours until the University dropped the charges.
Kennedy was shot in the back of the head by suspected Lee Harvey Oswald. The president was riding in an open car next to his wife, Jackie, in Texas while campagining when he was shot. This changed the way future presidents would be protected and led to the VP, Lyndon Johnson was swarn into oarth on board air force one.
The Selma march
600 African Americans marched 54 miles from Selma to Montgomery. The first attempt police blocked their path just outside of Selma. The march finally concluded on March 25 with the aide of federal protection.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Johnson ordered a bombing campaign over north Vietnam to weaken th enemy and their will to fight. The US also wanted to make south Vietnam realize that we were committed to fight for their independence and also wanted to gain more south Vietnamese troops.
The SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) voiced their opinion to end the war. They sent a petition to congress demanding law makers to "act immediately to end war". They also protested at Universities and in front of the White House.
The Great Grape Boycott
A strike broke out against grape gowers in Delano, California. Over 5,000 workers walked off the job demanding a 15 cent increase in their hourly wages. The strike even spread to Europe.
Congress Passes medicaid
Medicaid is a program that provides free health care for poor people. This program also created medicare, a health care program for people over 65.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
President Johnson addressed congress saying that they needed to pass a voting rights law. The law was passed and it gave African Americans the right to vote. Within weeks many blacks in the south were registered to vote.
NOW fights for women
NOW (national organization of women) was a feminist group that fought against the discrimination of women in the workplace. They also worked to end violence against woment and to achieve abortion rights.
Black Power Movement
Many African Americans began fustrated by the lack of progress of the civil rights movement. They believed they needed to depend on themselves to solve problems, this was known as black power.
The Black Panthers were created in Oakland, California, they rejected nonviolence and often carried guns and other weapons. They called for a violent revolution to achieve African American liberation.
Treaty with Soviet Union Signed
The first direct treaty between the US and the Soviet Union since 1917 took effect. The treaty protected each country's diplomats from harassment by authorities in the other country.
Johnson is Stumped
President Johnson gave a televised speech saying that he agreed with his advisors that the US needed to negotiate with north Vietnam to end the war. During this speech he also told America that he was not running for another term,
Summer of love
The height of the hippie movement peaked in San Francisco. With the nation being terrorized by war, racism, and sexism, the hippies focused on peace, love, and harmony. Unfortunately, many hippies fell victim to drug addictions.
Tijerina Gun Battle
Tijerina and his followers charged into the Rio Arrita County Courthouse to demand justice. A gun battle broke out and 2 police officers were left wounded. This event brought America's attention to the unfair seizure of Mexican American land.
During the vietnam New Year, no one was suspecting an attack. However, 84,000 communist soliders attacked 12 US military bases and 100 cities in south Vietnam.
The Election of 1968
The canidates for this election were Richard Nixon for the Republican party, Hubert Humphrey for the Democratic party, and George Wallace as an American independent. Nixon won with a comfortable majority in the electoral college, leaving him very confident at the start of his term.
The Assassination of the King
Martin Luther King Jr. was shot by James Earl Ray while standing on the balcony of his motel in Memphis, Tennessee. Within hours riots broke outin 120 cities leaving 46 dead, 2600 injured, and 21000 arrested.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
This act banned the descrimination in the sale or rental of housing. This act was signed by President Johnson, however, it took decades for this to become effective and many schools remained segregated.
AIM helps Native Americans
AIM (American Indian movement) was started by Clyde Bellecourt and grew to become the major force behind the Red Power movement. They saught to renew the traditional cultures, economic dependence and better education for Indian Children.
Poor People's campaign
Martin Luther King Jr.'s successor, Ralph Abernathy, was in charge of this important phase of the civil rights movement. This was a disaster because of bad weather and negative media relations.
Death toll Rises
16,000 Americans had been killed in combat. Americans began to question the US's involvement in Vietnam.
400,000 people attended this music festival in upstate New York. The festival included performances by Jimi Hendrix and the Grateful Dead. Although the festival was plagued with rain and food shortages, it was a celebration of the era and a high point of the countercultural movement.
At protest erupted at Kent State University and it began to become out of hand with protesters thowing rocks at US soliders. The soliders then fired at the crowd killing 4 and injuring 9 students. Many were estonished that US soliders killed American students.
26th amendant passed
The 26th amendment changed the voting age from 21 to 18. The thinking behind changing this amendment was that if boys at age 18 were being drafted and fighting for their country, they should be old enough to vote.
War Powers Act
The Vietname war greatly reduced the American peoples' trust in the government. To prevent this, this act was signed restricted the president's power in war affairs, as well as to reaffirm congress's pwoer to declare war.
NOW marches for ERA
Memebers of NOW organized a march in support of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which would promise equal treatment for men and women in all spheres. Many conservatives and traditionalists opposed this idea because it treatened the traditional family lifestyle.