1954-1975 Timeline APUSH by smanders

  • Period: to

    1953-1975

  • Dwight D. Eisenhower takes office

    Dwight D. Eisenhower takes office
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>Eisenhower had been an excellent commander and leader, so he seemed to be a perfect leader for Americans weary from two decades of depression, war, and nuclear standoff.
    <a href='http://http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/Eisenhower-Dwight-D.html#b)
  • Dienbienphu

    Dienbienphu
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.vietnamese-culture.com/the-battle-of-dien-bien-phu/)When the French became trapped at Dienbienphu in March of 1954, Eisenhower's aides wanted to bomb the Viet Minh guerilla forces, but, fearing plunging the U.S. into another Asian war so soon after Korea, Ike held back. The Vietnamese won at Dienbienphu, and Vietnam was split at the 17th parallel. Ho Chi Minh was supposed to allow free elections, but soon Vietnam became clearly split between a Communist North and a pro-Western South. Dienbienphu marks the start of American interest in Vietnam.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html)In May of 1954 the Warren Court made a unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. This ruling reversed the Court's earlier declaration in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 by ruling that segregation in the public schools was unconstitutional.
  • Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on the bus

    Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on the bus
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://http://www.biography.com/people/rosa-parks-9433715)In December of 1955, a college-educated African American Seamstress named Rosa Parks was traveling home on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama. When she was told to give up her seat to a white male passenger, she refused, and was arrested for violating the Jim Crow statutes of the city. Her arrest helped lead to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    [[Source2]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://http://www.history.com/photos/martin-luther-king-jr/photo3)[[Source]](http://http://www.history.com/topics/montgomery-bus-boycott)Sparked by the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Montgomery Bus Boycott started on the day of Rosa Park's court hearing and lasted until December 20, 1956. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was 381-day black boycott of city buses that ended when the U.S. Supreme Court ordered the integration of the Montgomery Bus System. This Boycott also helped Martin Luther King Jr. emerge as a prominent leader of the American Civil Rights movement.
  • Interstate Highway Act

    Interstate Highway Act
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/96summer/p96su10.cfm)The Interstate Highway Act, the larget public works project in American History through that time, was backed by Eisenhower in 1956. This plan to build forty-two thousand miles of motorways helped speed up the suburbanization of America as well as create countless construction jobs, and totaled to about $27 billion. However, this act robbed the railroads of business and had disastrous consequences for cities while shopping malls flourished in the suburbs.
  • The Suez Crisis

    The Suez Crisis
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2006/jul/10/pressandpublishing.egypt)President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt needed money to build a dam in the upper Nile and flirted openly with the U.S. and Britain as well as the Soviets. Secretary of State Dulles withdrew his offer after seeing this blatant communist association, thus forcing Nasser to nationalize the dam. Britain, France, and Israel suddenly attacked Egypt late in October 1956, thinking that the U.S. would supply them with needed oil. However, Eisenhower refused, and the attackers had to withdraw.
  • Integration at Little Rock

    Integration at Little Rock
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14563865)[[Source]](http://www.ushistory.org/us/54c.asp)On September 3, 1957, 3 years after the Supreme Court Ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, 9 African American students attempted to attend the all-white Central High School of Little Rock, Arkansas. The governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, prevented the nine black students from enrolling in the High School by moblilizing the National Guard.
  • Eisenhower sends troops to Little Rock

    Eisenhower sends troops to Little Rock
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.pbs.org/wnet/tavissmiley/tsr/new-orleans-been-in-the-storm-too-long/school-integration-ruby-bridges-in-context/)[[Source]](http://www.ushistory.org/us/54c.asp)After Orval Faubus mobilized the National Guard in order to prevent the integration of Little Rock Central High School, Eisenhower ordered the troops of the 101st Airborne Division into Little Rock and federalized the Arkansas National Guard. The African American students were then escorted to their classes by troops for the next couple of months.
  • The sit-in movement begins

    The sit-in movement begins
    [[Source]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.sitinmovement.org/history/)In Greensboro, North Carolina, a group of black college freshman suddenly went to a whites-only Woolworth's lunch counter and demanded service. Even though the black waitress refused to serve them, they kept their seats, and returned with nineteen classmates the next day. Pretty soon, a sit-in movement rolled across the South, and helped to form the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee (SNCC) to help give more focus and force to these efforts.
  • John F. Kennedy Elected President

    John F. Kennedy Elected President
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Campaign-of-1960.aspx)The youngest person and first Roman Catholic to be elected, Kennedy received 303 electoral votes and 49.7% of the popular vote. Television might have helped Kennedy to win the election, because in the four nationally televised debates between him and Nixon, Kennedy held his own and looked more charismatic..
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/eikenberryinvasion.html)John F. Kennedy had inherited from the Eisenhower administration a CIA-backed scheme to invade Cuba with anticommunist exiles in order to topple Fidel Castro from power. On April 17, 1961, some twelve hundred exiles landed at Cuba's Bay of Pigs. However, Kennedy did not bring in the air support, and the invasion was a disaster, and the revolt failed. John F. Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-10-18/lifestyle/35499541_1_brugioni-cuban-missile-crisis-arthur-c-lundahl)In 1962, U.S. spy planes recorded missile installations in Cuba, and it was later revealed that these missiles were in fact nuclear missiles aimed at America. The Cuban Missile Crisis lasted for 13 days and put the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and the world at the brink of nuclear war. In the end Khrushchev backed off of a U.S. naval blockade, and the Soviets agreed to remove their missles if the U.S. vowed to never invade Cuba again.
  • Birmingham Campaign

    Birmingham Campaign
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.amistadresource.org/civil_rights_era/birmingham_desegregation_campaign.html)Martin Luther King Jr. launched a peaceful campaign against discrimination in Birmingham, Alabama, in the Spring of 1963. However, authorities and police responded viciously, using high pressure fire hoses and police dogs against the protestors. These horrifying scenes were played on television screens across America, causing President Kennedy to deliver a spreech to the nation on June 11, 1963 about the "moral issue."
  • The Assassination of John F. Kennedy

    The Assassination of John F. Kennedy
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://unduecoercion.blogspot.com/2013/04/the-cia-mind-control-and-judicial-system.html)In downtown Dallas, Texas, a concealed rifleman shot President Kennedy in the brain while he was riding in an open limousine. John F. Kennedy died within seconds. The nation was steeped in sorrow for several days.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President

    Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.classroomhelp.com/lessons/Presidents/johnson.html)After the assassination of President Kennedy, Vice President Johnson was sworn in as president on a waiting airplane. He was then flown back to Washington along with Kennedy's body. Johnson kept most of Kennedy's team and pledged to continue with JFK's policies.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.core-online.org/History/voting_rights.htm)Congress at last finally passed the Civil Rights Bill Kennedy had been fighting for under President Johnson in 1964. This act banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public, as well as strengthened the power of the federal government to end segregation in schools and other public places.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson is elected President

    Lyndon B. Johnson is elected President
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_B._Johnson)Lyndon B. Johnson won the Presidential Election of 1954 with 486 Electoral votes and 61.1% of the popular vote. Fear of Goldwater, faith in Johnson's Great Society promises, and fondness for the Kennedy legacy all helped to herd the voters into Johnson's column.
  • Antiwar Demonstrations

    Antiwar Demonstrations
    [Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href=')[Picture]Campus "tech-ins" began small scale antiwar demonstrations, but gradually these protests became larger and larger. Resistance stiffened as more and more young men were dragged off to the Southeast Asian slaughter pen thanks to the military draft. While some draft registrants fled to Canada, others burned their draft cards publicly.
  • Johnson's Medicare and Medicaid

    Johnson's Medicare and Medicaid
    [Picture]As part of Johnson's Great Society programs aimed at medical care for the elderly, President Johnson signed into effect Medicare for the elderly, along with Medicaid for the poor. These two deals conferred rights on certain catergories of Americans. Although eventually undermining the federal government's financial health, these programs materially improved the lives of millions of Americans.
  • The Voting Rights Act of 1965

    The Voting Rights Act of 1965
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.core-online.org/History/voting_rights.htm)The Voting Rights Act outlawed discriminatory voting practices (such as literacy tests) and sent federal voter registrars into several southern states.
  • The Black Panther Party emerges

    The Black Panther Party emerges
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/68134/Black-Panther-Party)In 1966 in Oakland, California, African American militants founded the Black Panther Party for self-defense. They told America that the fight for civil rights would never be the same. Members of the Black Panther Party were willing to fight back with anyone who attacked them. The call from militant leaders for "total revolution" was heard in many of the nation's impoverished cities, leading to violence and urban riots.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.onthisdeity.com/31st-january-1968-–-the-tet-offensive/)During Tet, the Vietnamese New Year, the Viet Cong suprised the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces when the suddenly launched savage attacks on Saigon and 26 other key South Vietnamese Cities. Though they were eventually beaten off with heavy loses, the Viet Cong won a political victory, as the American Public opinion demanded a speedy end to the war with an increasingly insistant voice.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Lai_Massacre)On March 16, 1968, the United States Army soldiers of the "Charlie" Company under Second Lieutenant William Calley killed hundreds of unarmed villagers in South Vietnam. This incident gained global outrage when it was revealed in 1969, and deepened U.S. disgust for the war.
  • LBJ doesn't run for re-election

    LBJ doesn't run for re-election
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.history.com/photos/lyndon-b-johnson/photo17)On nationwide television on March 31, 1968, President Johnson announced that he would scale back the bombing in Vietnam and freeze American troop levels. Then, Johnson firmly declared that he would not be a candidate for the presidency in 1968, startling his vast audience.
  • Richard Nixon is elected President

    Richard Nixon is elected President
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/campaign68/b1.html)With 301 electoral votes and 43.4% of the popular vote, Nixon won the 1968 presidential election with fewer popular votes than he received when he lost the election to Kennedy in 1960. Nixon didn't carry a single major city, and had received no clear mandate to do anything. A minority President, Nixon owed his election to the divisions over the war in Vietnam.
  • Vietnamization

    Vietnamization
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH-V2/AMH V2/chapter11.htm)In response to the public uproar over Vietnam, President Nixon announced his policy of "Vietnamization" to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops stationed in South Vietnam gradually over an extended period of time. During this period, American money, weapons, training, and advice would allow the South Vietnamese to gradually take over the burden of fighting their own war.
  • Nixon's Détente with Beijing and Moscow

    Nixon's Détente with Beijing and Moscow
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Nixon_visit_to_China)Seeing an opportunity to pit the Chinese and the Soviets against eachother, as well as pressuring North Vietnam into peace, Nixon's national security adviser, Dr. Henry A. Kissinger, prepared the president's path to Beijing and Moscow. Nixon first made a historic journey to China in February of 1972 and the two nations agreed to "normalize" their relationship. Next, Nixon traveled to Moscow in May of 1972 and made agreements with the Soviets to sell at least $750 million worth of wheat, etc.
  • The Watergate Scandal

    The Watergate Scandal
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://technorati.com/politics/article/37th-anniversary-of-the-impeachment-of/)On June 17, 1972, a group of firve men were arrested for breaking into the Watergate apartment-office complex after an effort to plant electronic "bugs" in the party's headquarters. They were soon revealed to be working for Nixon's reelection campaign. During an investigation of the scandal, it was revealed that there was a secret White House taping system that could offer important evidence. After refusing to hand over most of the tapes, Nixon announced his resignation on August 8, 1974.
  • Gerald Rudolph Ford takes over the Presidency

    Gerald Rudolph Ford takes over the Presidency
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1974/Ford-Becomes-President/12305808208934-2/)The first man to be made president soley by a vote of Congress, Gerald Rudolph Ford entered the White House in August 1974. He soon granted a complete pardon to Nixon, an action that angered many Democrats, and created lingering suspicions that would have a negative effect on Ford's prospects of being elected president in 1976.
  • Defeat in Vietnam

    Defeat in Vietnam
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4625940)The North Vietnamese gave full throttle on their drive southward early in 1975, and, without massive American aid, the South Vietnamese quickly fell. The remaining Americans had to be evacuated by helicopter, along with about 140,000 South Vietnamese. The last of these people were evacuated on April 29, 1975.
  • The Helsinki Conference

    The Helsinki Conference
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.ford.utexas.edu/avproj/helsinki.htm)In order to enhance the détente Nixon had created with the Soviet Union, President Ford joined leaders from 34 other nations in Helsinki, Finland in July of 1975. At this conference several sets of historic accords were signed, including a group of agreements that officially wrote an end to World War II. The Soviets signed a "third-basket" of agreements in return, but failed to carry out what they had promised.
  • Ford loses the election

    Ford loses the election
    [[Picture]](' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a><a href='http://www.authentichistory.com/1974-1992/1-ford/4-1976election/)Although he carried a majority of states, Ford's pardon of Nixon cast a dark shadow over his chances of being elected, and he was narrowly beaten by Jimmy Carter in the election of 1976. Ford received 240 electoral votes compared to Carter's 297, and 48% of the popular vote compared to Carters 51%.