18th Century Europe

Timeline created by merytthaney
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    The Agricultural Revolution lasted the entirety of this century and contained many components. It began in Holland and spread throughout the rest of Europe. The innovation included new crops were created such as the turnip under Charles Townsend. In addition, new technology like the seed drill from Tethro Tull. This was a display in the economic change as the government supported funding for these projects to better increase the life of its citizens.
  • Irish Famine

    Irish Famine
    The Irish famine was a prime example of the need for the Agricultural Revolution. It was due to the extreme weather which lead to extreme famine in Ireland, killing almost 20% of the Irish population. One of the major impacts was that Ireland implemented many of the Agricultural advancements such as the turnip. Furthermore, the church as the center was strengthened as it was used to employ many locals. This social movement changed the way the Agricultural economy would be viewed in the future.
  • Enclosure Movement

    Enclosure Movement
    The Enclosure Movement was heavily encouraged by the British government as Acts were even passed to further the process. Essentially it focused on taking the common land help by villages or people of lower status and giving it to an elite class. This was a huge economic shift because off over 2000 years land had been publicly owned under the open-filed system, but now it was privately owned. This shift was more efficient for the growing of food and livestock.
  • Seven Years’ War

    Seven Years’ War
    The Seven Years’ War was a global conflict primarily between France and Great Britain. It began in the Americas as France began to expand creating a lot of conflict between the British colonies and the French army. With a lot of battles the war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. It established England as the primary figure in the colonies contributing to their wealth. This is an example of the continued hostility between European nations as they fought over land in the Americas.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution started in the mid-18th century primarily in England. It was the effect of the government’s movement to industrialize. It promoted the role of women in society while also hurting the status of children in the labor force. In addition, the environmental impacts included a lot of smog and depletion of resources. It changed the society as it raised the standards of living and increased the overall economy.
  • Growth of Cottage Manufacturing

    Growth of Cottage Manufacturing
    As part of the economic reform the European governments began to encourage the growth of cottage manufacturing. It primarily took place in the Great nation of England. In addition, it consumed the life of rural textile workers as they were the ones who owned the small, in home businesses. The major disadvantage that people found with this system is that the small businesses could not compete with the large factories. This was a shift from small family owned practices to larger industries.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts passed by Oliver Cromwell of Britain had a heavy influence on the economy. The colonists were force to sell certain goods such as sugar and indigo to solely Britain. It continued the trend of growing competition in the Age of Exploration as the pose Acts were directly targeted against the Dutch. In addition, it encouraged the British economy to shift toward manufacturing.
  • The Wealth of Nations

    The Wealth of Nations
    Adam Smith, a Scottish economist, published “The Wealth of Nations” which re-evaluated the functions of government on the economy. He advocated for a laissez faire approach which meant the government should remain hands off. This pushed the fundamental ideas of capitalism which many Europeans agreed with and began to adopt. As a result the economy changed began to change to more of a free market system.
  • Mozart

    Mozart
    This was the height of Mozart’s career. He was traveling across the continent and performing in many shows for both the nobles and in theaters. He displayed the shift in society toward more leisure activities as the work life changed. In addition, it increased the spending on more extravagant gifts and a materialistic nature which a change in the economy.
  • Smallpox Vaccine

    Smallpox Vaccine
    Edward Jenner, an affluent scientist, discovered the vaccine for smallpox after his experiment with a milkmaid and a young boy. This discovery would impact society in a multitude of ways. First, it would lengthen the lifespans for many people. In addition, it would contribute to the field of science being created as its own industry. But, most importantly it continued the idea of the importance of scientific discovery.
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    18th Century Europe

    Social and Economic Events