Civil war

1800-1876

By pmccraw
  • Library of Congress is Established

    Library of Congress is Established
    As different governmental organizations were moved to D.C., Congress decided there was a need to establish a library as well. Because of this, a new piece of legislation was made and approved by President John Adams. This piece set aside $5,000 to purchase books for the library. Today, it is one of the largest libraries in the world.
  • Washington D.C. is Named the Capital

    Washington D.C. is Named the Capital
    During the 1780s, it was determined that the U.S. would need a new city to host the capital of the country. The city selected to be this new site for the capital was Washington D.C.; John Adams and his wife later took up residence in the city at the White House.
  • Thomas Jefferson is President (1801-1805)

    Thomas Jefferson is President (1801-1805)
    Jefferson, the writer of the Declaration of Independence, ran for and was elected the third president of the United States. He greatly supported democracy and strived to strengthen it as much as possible.
  • Louisiana Purchase Doubles the Size of America

    Louisiana Purchase Doubles the Size of America
    Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, the Louisiana Territory was purchased by America for 15 million dollars. The original purchase was going to be the port of New Orleans, near the mouth of the Mississippi River; however, this port was controlled by the French. After much negotiation, France agreed to sell both their territory and the port to the U.S.. Today, the 15 million dollars originally paid amounts to about 342 million dollars!
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition Begins (1804 - September 23, 1806)

    The Lewis and Clark Expedition Begins (1804 - September 23, 1806)
    To attain a better understanding of what land the U.S. had purchased, President Thomas Jefferson made the decision to send an expedition to explore the new lands. This expedition became known as the Lewis and Clark Expedition, named after its leaders, Captain Meriwether Lewis and Lieutenant William Clark.
  • Jefferson Serves His Second Term (1805-1809)

    Jefferson Serves His Second Term (1805-1809)
    Running against Charles C. Pinckney, Jefferson was re-elected President of the United States in 1804. He was inaugurated in 1805. Jeferson carried 15 of the states, with Pinckney only receiving 2 of such.
  • Louisiana Becomes the 18th State of America

    Louisiana Becomes the 18th State of America
    As people began to settle on the land of the Louisiana Purchase, the population of the area grew rapidly, and it was determined that a new state should be made in the area. This new state became known as the state of Louisiana, the first state to be established west of the Mississippi.
  • The War of 1812 Begins (1812- February 18, 1815)

    The War of 1812 Begins (1812- February 18, 1815)
    Because of their conflict and fighting with France, Great Britain cut off all of France's trade with other countries. This included America. In addition to this, the British Royal Navy took a number of American vessels and men. They were then forced to fight on Britain's behalf against France. Because of this, America declared war on Britain in 1812. There was also a hope by members of Congress that America would gain some Canadian territories as part of the war; however, this effort failed.
  • James Madison is President (1809-1813)

    James Madison is President (1809-1813)
    James Madison outvoted his opponent, DeWitt Clinton, in the Presidential Election of 1812. Receiving 128 electoral votes, Madison, along with his running-mate Elbridge Gerry, won the election against Clinton, with Clinton receiving 89 votes.
  • Battle of Thames is Fought

    Battle of Thames is Fought
    Part of the War of 1812, the Battle of Thames occurred in Chatham, Ontario between American troops and a combination of British and Native forces. Native tribes were led by the famous Native American leader, Tecumseh. The American forces proved victorious in the battle, and Tecumseh was killed.
  • The Treaty of Ghent is Signed

    The Treaty of Ghent is Signed
    By this time, the conflict between France and Britain had ended; however, the War of 1812 still continued between America and Great Britain. Eventually, both sides realized there was no point in continuing to fight, so negotiations began and a peace treaty was later signed. This treaty , known as the Treaty of Ghent, ended the war. It stated that both sides would resolve to own the land they had owned before the war, moving off of the areas they occupied during the war.
  • The Beginning of the Era of Good Feelings (1815-1825)

    The Beginning of the Era of Good Feelings (1815-1825)
    During James Monroe's first term of Presidency, he sought national unity by combining different political factions (go James!). This era also saw the end of European wars, allowing America to create new trade with different European countries. Peace and prosperity were enjoyed during this time, and a sense of national unity was present.
  • The Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans
    Despite the Treaty of Ghent being signed in December of 1814, its place of signing, the Netherlands, caused the news of its signing to not reach the United States in January of 1815. Because of this, American and British forces continued to fight. The Battle of New Orleans saw Major General Andrew Jackson, who later became an American President, lead American troops to success over the British. There was heavy loss on Great Britain's side.
  • Indiana Becomes the 19th State of America

    Indiana Becomes the 19th State of America
    As American settlers began to settle onto what is now Indiana, Native American tribes became angered and conflict between the two groups began. After many battles, American forces won, and white settlers were affirmed in their ownership of Indiana lands. This led to the later establishment of the state of Indiana in 1816.
  • James Monroe is President (1817-1821)

    James Monroe is President (1817-1821)
    At the 1816 Presidential Election, James Monroe and his running-mate, Daniel D. Tompkins, were elected into Presidential office. Monroe received 183 electoral college votes, while his opponent, Rufus King, only received 34.
  • Economic Crisis - 'Panic of 1819' Occurs (1819-1824)

    Economic Crisis - 'Panic of 1819' Occurs (1819-1824)
    During previous years leading up to this crisis, many Americans had traveled West, settled, and built homesteads and businesses. As loans were taken from state banks, many were unable to pay these loans off. This, along with other factors, led to the Panic of 1819. This crisis continued until 1821, even though the economy didn't really recover until 1824.
  • Missouri Compromise is Reached

    Missouri Compromise is Reached
    At this point in time, the United States of America had 22 states. These states were split evenly between slave and non-slave states. Because of this divide, there was a severe rivalry in Congress between the two sides. As Missouri made an effort to become a state in 1819, there were issues with its being a slave state. To remedy this, the Missouri Compromise was created. In this, Missouri was admitted into the United States as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free state.
  • James Monroe Serves His Second Term (1821-1825)

    James Monroe Serves His Second Term (1821-1825)
    During the election of 1820, Monroe, once again, won the votes of the electoral college and states. He kept the same running-mate, Daniel Tompkins, and served until 1825. He was inaugurated into office in 1821.
  • The Monroe Doctrine is Enacted

    The Monroe Doctrine is Enacted
    President James Monroe announced his new policy, the Monroe Doctrine, in 1823. In this, European colonial powers would be barred from colonizing any part of the American continent. It aimed to put an end to European ambitions in Central and Latin America, as many Latin countries were fighting for independence from Spain during that time. This doctrine became the basis for American intervention in different parts of Central and Latin America against European powers.
  • John Quincy Adams is President (1825-1829)

    John Quincy Adams is President (1825-1829)
    John Quincy Adams and his running-mate, John C. Calhoun, were elected into Presidency and Vice-Presidency after the contingent election of 1825. At the original Election of 1824, the results were inconclusive, as none of the presidential candidates received the required electoral vote majority. John Quincy Adams beat William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson (good for John!). He was inaugurated on
  • Andrew Jackson is President (1829-1833)

    Andrew Jackson is President (1829-1833)
    Andrew Jackson, with his running-mate, John C. Calhoun, won 178 electoral college votes in the 1828 United States Presidential Election, becoming the President of the United States of America. Sadly, he won over John Quincy Adams, who only received 83 electoral college votes.
  • The Oregon Trail Begins

    The Oregon Trail Begins
    In 1830, American settlers started to travel along to get to the territory of Oregon. Unlike the fun video game of the same name, the Oregon Trail was a very long and debilitating journey for settlers who decided to embark upon it. It ran about 2,000 miles long, starting in Missouri and ending in Oregon.
  • The Indian Removal Act is Passed

    The Indian Removal Act is Passed
    1830 marks the moment when Native Americans' lives took the biggest turn for the worst. With the passing of the Indian Removal Act by President Andrew "Trash" Jackson, Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi were forced to relocate to western territories. Despite the law specifying that relocation would be arranged through negotiation, many tribes were forcibly removed and marched to new territories. Thousands of Native people died.
  • Black Hawk War Occurs (April 6 - August 27 1832)

    Black Hawk War Occurs (April 6 - August 27 1832)
    As a large number of settlers arrived in Illinois, Natives who lived in the area resented the settlers because they unfairly took over the lands of Native Americans. Sauk Native Americans, under the leadership of Black Hawk, attacked the settlers. In 1832 a portion of the United States army arrived, leading to a war between the two groups. Lasting for 15 weeks, the war resulted in the defeat of the Sauk warriors and the imprisonment of Black Hawk.
  • Andrew Jackson Serves His Second Term (1833-1837)

    Andrew Jackson Serves His Second Term (1833-1837)
    In the Presidential Election of 1832, Andrew Jackson was elected president of the United States, receiving 219 electoral college votes. His opponents, Henry Clay, John Floyd, and William Wirt, received 49, 11, and 7 electoral college votes respectively. Jackson was inaugurated in 1833.
  • Texas Revolution Begins (October 1835 - April 21, 1836)

    Texas Revolution Begins (October 1835 - April 21, 1836)
    As Texas was still a part of Mexico, the settlers of Texas began to dislike Mexico's dictator, General Lopez de Santa Anna. Santa Anna's growing control of the region caused the great dislike to build, enough so that it led to a conflict. In '35, 100 Mexican soldiers marched to Texas to retrieve a cannon that had previously been sent to Texas a few years before. When Texans refused to give it back, a battle ensued, marking the beginning of the Texas Revolution.
  • The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 - March 6, 1836)

    The Battle of the Alamo (February 23 - March 6, 1836)
    The Battle of the Alamo is one of the most famed battles during the Texas Revolution. It was fought in February of 1836, as Texas volunteer soldiers took control of the fort of Alamo, which was previously in control of Mexican forces. As thousands of Mexican soldiers laid siege to re-take the fort, only 200 Texas defenders held their control and inflicted many casualties upon the Mexican army. In the end, the Mexican army gained control over the fort and killed most of the soldiers inside.
  • The Republic of Texas is Created

    The Republic of Texas is Created
    After the Battle of the Alamo, Texans determined they could no longer live under the control of General Santa Anna, so after meeting at a convention in March of 1836, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. The Republic of Texas was established at this same time. The Republic lasted until 1846, when Texas was inducted into the United States of America.
  • The Battle of San Jacinto

    The Battle of San Jacinto
    Part of the Texas Revolution, the Battle of San Jacinto was fought between the Texas militia and a large Mexican army under the leadership of General Santa Anna. The latter army was defeated and General Santa Anna was taken prisoner. He was later released after he signed a treaty recognizing the independence of Texas.
  • The Panic of 1837 (1837-1843)

    The Panic of 1837 (1837-1843)
    The policies created by President Andrew Jackson in the 1830s drew America's economy into crisis (surprise, surprise). This economic crisis became known as the Panic of 1837. Unemployment rates increased, while profits became low and prices went up. It lasted until 1843.
  • Martin Van Buren is President (1837-1841)

    Martin Van Buren is President (1837-1841)
    Martin Van Buren successfully ran for United States Presidency in 1836. He was inaugurated on March 4, 1837. His opponents were William Henry Harrison, Hugh L. White, Daniel Webster, and Willie P. Mangum. Van Buren received 170 electoral votes, while Harrison received 73, White 26, Webster 14, and Mangum 11.
  • William Henry Harrison is President (March - April 4, 1841)

    William Henry Harrison is President (March - April 4, 1841)
    William Henry Harrison won the United States Presidential Election of 1840 against Martin Van Buren. Sadly, Harrison died from pneumonia just 31 days after his inauguration, having the shortest presidency in U.S. history.
  • John Tyler Takes Over as President (1841-1845)

    John Tyler Takes Over as President (1841-1845)
    When William Henry Harrison died of pneumonia early in his presidency, John Tyler, Harrison's vice president, assumed Harrison's duties as president. Tyler became the tenth president of the United States.
  • James K. Polk Serves His Second Term (1845-1849)

    James K. Polk Serves His Second Term (1845-1849)
    James K. Polk, after taking over for Harrison as president, received 170 electoral votes during the United States Presidential Election of 1844. Trumping Henry Clay of the Whig Party, Polk was inaugurated as President on March 4th, 1845.
  • Mexican-American War Begins (April 1846 - February 2, 1848)

    Mexican-American War Begins (April 1846 - February 2, 1848)
    During this time, most of the western portions of the U.S. were still controlled by Mexico. America's president at the time, James K. Polk, wanted to make this region a part of the United States. As a result, he moved American soldiers to the border area of Mexico. To this, Mexico responded by attacking these Americans. America then declared war upon Mexico and defeated the Mexican army in numerous battles, occupying one-third of Mexico. By 1847, American forces had captured Mexico City.
  • California Gold Rush Begins (1848-1852)

    California Gold Rush Begins (1848-1852)
    At the time gold was discovered in California, very few people lived there. After the news of the discovery spread, nearly 100,000 people arrived in the area from different parts of the U.S.. Th eGold Rush lasted for many year, and nearly 2 billion dollars-worth of gold was taken from the region during the period.
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is Signed

    The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is Signed
    This treaty marked the end of the Mexican-American War. From this treaty, Mexico gave up all land possessions north of the Rio Grande River, greatly increasing the size of the United States. This new land later became known as the states of Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, California, Arizona, and Colorado.
  • Zachary Taylor is President (1849 - July 9,1850)

    Zachary Taylor is President (1849 - July 9,1850)
    Zachary Taylor of Louisiana ran for and was successfully elected as United States President in 1848. He was inaugurated in 1849. Lewis Cass and Martin Van Buren were beat by Zachary Taylor, with Taylor receiving 163 electoral college votes. Sadly, Zachary Taylor passed away in July of 1850 five days after attending ceremonies to celebrate the Fourth of July at the Washington Monument on a hot day.
  • Millard Fillmore Takes Over as President (1850-1853)

    Millard Fillmore Takes Over as President (1850-1853)
    After the death of Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Taylor's vice president, took over as president of the United States. Fillmore represented the Whig Party during his presidency.
  • Franklin Pierce is President (1853-1857)

    Franklin Pierce is President (1853-1857)
    Franklin Pierce, representing the Democratic party, was elected president in the United States Presidential Election of 1852. Running against Winfield Scott, Pierce received 254 electoral votes. He was inaugurated in 1853.
  • The Gadsden Purchase

    The Gadsden Purchase
    The U.S.A. signed a treaty with Mexico, allowing America to purchase 29,670 square miles in the southwest. This purchased land comprises what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. In exchange for the land, America paid the Mexican government ten million dollars.
  • James Buchanan is President (1857-1861)

    James Buchanan is President (1857-1861)
    James Buchanan of the Democratic Party successfully ran for presidency in 1856. Against John C. Fremont and Millard Fillmore, Buchanan received 174 electoral votes, while Fremont and Fillmore received 114 and 8 votes respectively.
  • Confederate States of America Break Away From the Union

    Confederate States of America Break Away From the Union
    By 1861, numerous states had broken away from the Union. The first of these being South Carolina. The seceded states then joined together and became the Confederate States of America. Originally, this group comprised of seven states; later that same year, four more states joined. The original seven were Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The Later four states were North Carolina, Arkansas, Virginia, and Tennessee.
  • Abraham Lincoln is President (1861-1865)

    Abraham Lincoln is President (1861-1865)
    Abraham Lincoln represented the Republican Party in the 1860 election of president of the United States. Running against John C. Breckenridge, John Bell, and Stephen A. Douglas, Lincoln and his running-mate, Hannibal Hamlin, received 180 electoral votes.
  • The Civil War Begins (1861-1865)

    The Civil War Begins (1861-1865)
    As tension built between the Union and the Confederate States of America, there came a point where war began. On April 12, 1861, one of the bloodiest wars of America began.
  • The First Battle of Bull Run Occurs

    The First Battle of Bull Run Occurs
    This battle was the first major one of the Civil War. Fought in July of 1861, the Battle of Bull Run saw nearly 35,000 Union troops fight with 20,000 Confederate soldiers. The Confederates defeated the Union at this battle. The latter retreated to Washington, D.C.. A small river near the battle, called Bull Run, gave the conflict its name.
  • The Homestead Act is Passed

    The Homestead Act is Passed
    The Homestead Act declared that any American citizen could go into the western territories and claim up to 160 acres of land if they could settle on the land and farm it for at least five years. From this act, 15,000 people settled in the west and established claims for this act.
  • The Battle of Gettysburg

    The Battle of Gettysburg
    As the war continued on, the Confederate army, under the control of General Robert E. Lee, had just secured a major victory. Then they ran into the Union's Army, stationed by the Potomac, on their way to Pennsylvania. This meeting turned into the Battle of Gettysburg. At this, both sides suffered great losses, with the Union suffering 23,000 casualties and the Confederates around 25,000. The Confederates lost this battle and were forced to retreat after having been unable to break enemy lines.
  • Lincoln Delivers the Gettysburg Address

    Lincoln Delivers the Gettysburg Address
    A few months after the Battle of Gettysburg, a ceremony was held in honor of the fallen soldiers of Gettysburg. At the ceremony, President Lincoln delivered the famed Gettysburg Address.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea (November - December 21, 1864)

    Sherman's March to the Sea (November - December 21, 1864)
    The Confederate stronghold of Atlanta was captured by the Union under the leadership of General Sherman. He then led the Union army on a march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. This 285 mile march saw Union troops burn any crops, fields, barns, and factories they encountered. The purpose was to devastate the South's economy and force them to end the war.
  • Abraham Lincoln Serves His Second Term (March 1865 - April 15, 1865)

    Abraham Lincoln Serves His Second Term (March 1865 - April 15, 1865)
    Abraham Lincoln was again successful in being elected president in the 1864 election. He was inaugurated on March fourth of 1865. Only 42 days later was Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C..
  • Civil War Ends

    Civil War Ends
    By this point in time, most Confederate armies had been defeated, and General E. Lee still commanded one of the last of the Confederate armies. on April 9th, 1865, Lee's army ended up surrounded with no choice but surrender. This finally brought the Civil War to a close, with a victory for the Union.
  • President Abraham Lincoln is Assassinated

    President Abraham Lincoln is Assassinated
    Only five days after the surrender of the last Confederate army, President Abe Lincoln attended a theatre production at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.. It was at this performance that John Wilkes Booth, a Confederacy sympathizer, assassinated the President. Booth fled the scene, but he was later found in a barn and shot by a Union soldier.
  • Andrew Johnson Takes Over as President (1865-1869)

    Andrew Johnson Takes Over as President (1865-1869)
    After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson took over as acting President of the United States.
  • Slavery is Outlawed in the U.S.

    Slavery is Outlawed in the U.S.
    The thirteenth amendment was ratified on December 6th, 1865. This amendment to the Constitution made slavery illegal in all territories belonging to the United States. A direct quote from the text says, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
  • Alaska is Purchased from Russia

    Alaska is Purchased from Russia
    In the first half of the 19th century, Russia found an interest in the small region of Alaska. Russian explorers and settlers arrived; although they found natural resources, Russia couldn't expand the settlement. At his time, America also found an interest in the region, so in 1867 the two sides made a deal. The United States of America would pay Russia 2.7 million dollars in exchange for the region.
  • Ulysses S. Grant is President (1869-1873)

    Ulysses S. Grant is President (1869-1873)
    Ulysses S. Grant, a republican from the state of Illinois, ran for and was elected president of the United States of America in 1868. He was inaugurated on March fourth, 1869. He was the 18th president of the United States.