American History Technology Project 3: American History from 1600-1876

  • Jamestown founded

    Jamestown was founded by British-crown funded sailors and gold miners who were looking for gold in mysterious North America. Gold was not found, but tobacco was.
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    Smallpox Kills

    Smallpox wipes out 90% of Natives in the Massachusetts Bay area.
  • First African Slaves brought to America

    A Dutch ship (or English privateer?) brought kidnapped slaves to Jamestown
  • First Representative Assembly in America

    The House of Burgesses in Jamestown had the first elected body of leaders.
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    Slavery in America

    The worst evil in American history was the purposeful lowering of a group of people to sub-human slaves. Slaves were mistreated, abused, raped and beaten daily. Slavery reached its peak in the later antebellum years with the rise of cotton but slaves were harvesting rice and tobacco before then. Slavery was legally outlawed with the Emancipation Proclamation, but racism, the core of slavery, has outlived its legal form to this day.
  • Plymouth Colony founded

    Puritans, wishing to escape from the oppressive Church of England, embarked on a journey to North America to establish a colony of God-fearing men. They were able to survive harsh conditions and befriended Natives, at great cost to their lives.
  • First College in North America

    Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass.
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    Pequot War

    The tribe fought against the colonies of the Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies. The war devastated the tribe. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Hartford.
  • First Bible Printed in America

    John Eliot’s Algonquin translation of the Bible, the “Eliot Indian Bible,” was the first Bible to be published in the Western Hemisphere.
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    King Phillip's War

    Metacom Indian forces attacked colonial settlements because of colonial encroachment on their land. Native's had great success in the start of the fighting, but the colonists eventually prevailed when the tribes union dissolved.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Nathanial Bacon led a rebellion with a group of farmers against Virginia Governor Berkeley. The unsuccessful insurgence resulted in Nathanial and 23 others being hanged for crimes against the Crown.
  • Santa Fe razed

    Members of the Pueblo tribe attack and kill most of the Spanish population in the largest town in the modern southwest.
  • First Paper Money in Western Hemisphere

    Printed in Massachusetts
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    The First Great Awakening

    A time of self-reliance and humanism was followed by a period of rebirth in the religious sphere as preachers began preaching the Gospel in a way that resonated with the listeners emotions and clearly communicated the Truth.
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    The Seven Years War

    Although the main conflict was across the ocean, fighting still occurred in the northeast between French colonists and their Native allies and British soldiers and colonists.
  • Royal Proclamation of 1763

    This proclamation prevented Americans from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, helping Britain to consolidate its power over its humongous empire.
  • The Sugar Act

    The first of many taxation acts against imported goods, this one decreased the fee for the importation and selling of sugar. However, it radically increased the enforcement of the law, which until that point had been being avoided.
  • The Stamp Act

    This act charged the puchase and use of stamps.
  • The Boston Massacre

    A rowdy crowd of protesters in Boston were fired upon by British troops after snow, ice and insults were hurled at them from the crowd. This heightened tensions between British troops and American people.
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    American Revolutionary War

    The war for Independence had many reasons for happening but among them was taxation without representation and harsh taxes and tariffs. The British implemented multiple ridiculous "acts" that severely limited the freedom Americans could live in. The Old Whigs spread the thought that the colonies should be equal with mainland Britain. The war started with the "shot heard round the world" and ended with the defeat of Lord Cornwallis' defeat.
  • Declaration of Independence written

    The document condemning the evils of the British Empire and a call to Liberty. Signed by most of the Founding Fathers.
  • Articles of Confederation approved by Congress

    The first edition of the Constitution passed. Didn't give the government enough power and gave it no ability to tax or raise taxes on its people.
  • Constitution approved by Philadelphia convention

    The Constitution still in effect today. Has been amended, but besides that, no change. The core principals of our nation.
  • George Washington Elected the First President of the United States

    George Washington almost unanimously elected 1st President.
  • Bill of Rights Ratified by States

    Important changes to the Constitution, ensuring freedom could not be taken away easily.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    A rebellion broke out in Pennsylvania due to a government tax on alcohol, with troops having to be called in to stop it.
  • Eli Whitney Invents the cotton gin

    This machine allowed for the quick and effective harvest of cotton.
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    Second Great Awakening

    The denominations of the Church that we know today mostly came from this time. It followed the Enlightenment in Europe, a time when humanism and self-centered thought reigned supreme. Camp meetings were common with preachers boldly proclaiming the Gospel to the masses gathered. The Baptist and Methodist denominations were founded and grew enormously in this time. The Awakening kick-started the Reforms in the US and brought about a higher moral standard even among non-Christians.
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    Thomas Jefferson's Presidency

    The election of republican Thomas Jefferson was seen as a "bloodless revolution" as his ideals were quite different than those of his federalist predecessors, Washington and Adams. Jefferson was much more conservative, and viewed Americanism as owning a farm and raising your own food and goods. This was the opposite of men like Alexander Hamilton, who wanted an industry-driven country. Jefferson cut taxes and the number of men in the army.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Thomas Jefferson purchased this massive tract of land from the suffering French government for $15 million then, or $250 million today.
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    The Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Explorers Lewis and Clark set out to explore the Louisiana Purchase, a massive tract of land purchased by Jefferson. They actually journeyed a bit too far, actually reaching the Pacific Ocean after a year of rough weather. They did find a guide in Native woman Sacagawea, who greatly helped them in traversing the modern northwest.
  • Embargo of 1807

    This was an attempt at a blow at Britain for impressing so many US sailors. The embargo just ended up backfiring on the US, costing the economy thousands of dollars. The embargo was repealed soon after. One of the failures of Jefferson's presidency.
  • Slave Trade ended

    The United States ends the legal importation of people from Africa to be sold as property.
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    War of 1812

    Britain's harsh treatment of American sailors by impressment and seizing of American ships (over 900) led to America's declaration of war against Britain. The War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.
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    Antebellum Period

    During this time the old ways of subsistence faded out of American thought and was replaced by more commercialism. The issues of slavery, women's suffrage, and Manifest Destiny were prevalent and being discussed all over America. The middle class was created and hourly wages were introduced.
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    Benevolent Empire

    The Middle class sought to be honorable and create a respectable culture. Women were elevated and expected to run the house and raise the children to be good citizens and Christians.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri wanted to join the US as a slave state, but the northern states were against that, as it would throw off the balance between slave and free states in the Senate and Missouri was further north than any of the other slave states. A deal was brokered by Henry Clay that allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state and Maine as a free state and all future states above Missouri's southern border would be free states and vice versa. This fueled the sectional crisis and further divided Americans.
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    Fist wave of Immigration peaks.

    Immigrants from all over the world came to America to escape bad countries or bad families or to pursue better economics. Everyone entered the country on a clean slate, however, there was a group that formed called the nativists who pushed for the outlawing of immigration. They severely discouraged other to come to the US which accounts for why it dropped off in the 1850s.
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    Manifest Destiny

    The idea, given a name by John O'Sullivan in 1845, was the thought that Americans deserved everything west of the Mississippi and that they should do everything in their power to secure that land for themselves. The victory in the Mexican-American War, the Oregon Treaty and the purchase of lands west of Missouri were all fulfillments of Manifest Destiny. Some Americans wanted to spread the Word of God to the far corners of the continent, others just wanted some land.
  • Monroe Doctrine introduced

    The Monroe doctrine introduced by President James Monroe brought about the idea that America would not interfere with European struggles and Europe would no longer colonize the Western Hemisphere.
  • The Tightest Presidential Race

    The presidential race of 1824 was too close to call between Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and William H. Crawford. Henry lent his support to Adams in the Senate, leading to his victory and the fury of Jackson supporters.
  • Erie Canal Completed

    This canal would transform the old northwest into the hub of industrialization. It connected the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean, allowing trade into the heart of America.
  • B&O Railroad Completed

    Like the canal, the railroad allowed much faster, cheaper travel from the coastal ports to the Midwest. It cheapened the shipment of goods, allowing America to grow at a incredible level.
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    Andrew Jackson's Presidency

    Andrew Jackson's presidency had many important events, among them the removal of tariffs that had been limiting the South's economical growth and helping the North. He also was responsible for the removal of many Native tribes from their homelands in the southeast. He hated banks, and vetoed a Federal charter for a bank.
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830

    This Act, brought into effect by President Jackson, gave the US government the "right" to remove Native's from their ancestral homes . The act was designed to give the US citizens land to live and farm and it ended up hurting the thousands of Natives who had lived on these millions of acres for hundreds of years.
  • Boston Founded

    The town of Boston would have a great effect on the events in the nest 75 years or so as it would be where the Sons of Liberty met and our country's values were thought of
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    Cotton Kingdom

    The south's embracement of cotton allowed them to increase their yearly income by tenfold. The southern farmers abandoned their traditional practices and adopted new methods. Slavery also took a turn for the worse as the only way for southern farmers to make their profits and fit the quotas northern textile mills were setting, had to work their slaves harder than ever before.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner and a group a of slaves cracked one day and killed their enslavers and went on to kill 57 men women and children before they were arrested and hanged. The story was suppressed as enslavers didn't want word getting out that a group of slaves led a semi-successful rebellion.
  • Black Hawk War

    This was one of the only Native conflicts to take place in the northern Midwest. US v Black Hawk tribe.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society asks Congress to remove Slavery

    One of many abolitionist groups in the Reform era, this group flooded Congress with thousands of letters asking for the removal of slavery as an institution. Their request was not met with much favor.
  • Texas Rebels against Mexico

    Texas rebels against Mexico, prompting a war that resulted in Texas' freedom. Mexico had banned slavery, and the enslavers in Texas wouldn't have it.
  • Social Groups Petition for reasonable work hours

    Groups petitioned for a ridiculous 10 hour maximum, people usually worked 12 to 14 hours a day.
  • Panic of 1837

    A bust in the rapidly growing boom bust economical cycle as part of the Market Revolution. This one was particularly rough. The economy crashed hard, and many Americans were thrown out of a job. Land prices fell, banks closed, national outrage.
  • Trail of Tears

    The harsh journey endured by the Cherokee tribe as they were marched from the central southeast to Oklahoma. A deadly winter combined with little protection caused the death of many tribespeople.
  • First Cherokee School

    The opening of this school prompted a wave of schools opening across native territory.
  • Child Labor Protested

    Some provisions were provided, but children really didn't stop working till public schools became common.
  • Prigg v Pennsylvania

    A Federal slave law was used here over Pennsylvania's law. Questions about the states right to govern.
  • The Telegraph Invented

    The telegraph revolutionized the way people talked to each other, it allowed messages to cross the nation in a matter of days instead of weeks and it would be the original message, not a slightly changed message. The communication revolution started here.
  • Frederick Douglass publishes his biography.

    Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave, wrote his story of slavery in a biography that sold like wildfire in the North and ignited Abolitionist thought in cities across northern America.
  • The Gag Rule

    This rule prevented speaking of Abolitionism in Congress was one of the many pro-slavery rules that promoted institutional slavery.
  • Florida Becomes a State

    Long controlled by Spain, the peninsular land mass had been in the sights for statehood for some time, and when the US purchased the land, statehood was inevitable.
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    The Mexican-American War

    A border dispute over the Nueces Strip led to Mexican forces attacking U.S. troops, causing President Polk to call up an army of 50,000 volunteers to squash Mexican resistance. The war was often called "Mr. Polk's War" because of it's perceived pointlessness. The war ended with the signing of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in Mexico City. It was celebrated as an end to conflict and a fulfillment of Manifest Destiny.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    This convention was all about women's rights. They also paired women's suffrage with abolitionism.
  • Gold Rush

    Starting with the discovery of gold in California, the Gold Rush prompted thousands of young adventurers to make the journey from eastern cities to the western frontier.
  • 1850s Violence

    Violence in the 1850s was mostly centered around slavery and Abolitionists turned the conversations to be about the battle for the "heart of America"
  • The Compromise of 1850

    This Compromise brokered a deal that allowed California to join the Union as a free state and allowed the Fugitive Slave Act into practice. Runaway slaves in free states could be turned in by anyone . Much corruption.
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    Internal Slave Trade

    While the importation of slaves from Africa was outlawed, the trading of slaves in the US from state to state in the south skyrocketed in the 1850s as the cotton kingdom grew. Often couples and families were split up and sent to opposite ends of he country. It was a terrible practice.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin Published

    The children's book with a surprisingly deep narrative about the evils of slavery sold exceptionally well for its time.
  • Stephen Douglas Proposes a solution to the Nebraska Issue.

    Stephen Douglas proposed that the people of the would-be state Kansas could vote for themselves whether they wanted to be a slave state of a free one in local elections. Immediately people from all over the nation flocked to Kansas to put in their vote, with chaos and violence erupting.
  • The Republican Party formed

    The newest in a slew of anti-slavery parties, the Republican party had some rough elections initially, but picked up steam, eventually getting Abraham Lincoln elected president in 1860.
  • The Dred Scott Decision

    The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott, a black man living in a free state, didn't have the right to be free, and that black people could never be citizens of the United States. Also overruled the Missouri Compromise. Fueled sectional crisis and slavery issue.
  • John Brown

    John Brown was a fanatic who led violent riots against pro-slavery institutions. Ignited more and more tensions.
  • Lincoln Wins the Presidency

    In the presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln won the popular vote at 40% with not a single southern vote, he wasn't even on their ballots. The southern states starting with South Carolina, all started seceding from the Union. War was brewing.
  • Southern States form the Confederate States of America

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    American Civil War

    The war started in 1861 with the defeat of Fort Sumter by South Carolina and effectively ended in 1865 with the treaty signed by Confederate General Robert E. Lee in the Appomattox courthouse. The War was predicated on the North and South's disagreement on the issue of slavery. The War claimed more lives than every other war in American History combined.
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    Reconstruction of the Southern States

    The South was broken after the war. The fourteenth amendment was passed allowing blacks to be citizens. Multiple groups were formed to help return the South to normalcy, but the racism toward blacks endured.