1301 Timeline Project

Timeline created by Fobatea
In History
  • 14,500 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    The last global ice age froze much of Earth's oceans into ice and glaciers. Sea levels decreased significantly, revealing land connecting Northeast Russia and Canada that would otherwise be underwater. The first Natives from Asia would cross the bridge as they hunted game animals. Evidence shows that some settled on the bridge, while others continued down south of the Americas. As Earth warms up, the glaciers would melt and sea levels would rise, submerging the bridge and trapping the natives.
  • -753 BCE

    Rome

    Rome
    Rome started out as a small town next to the Tiber River in Italy. It grew into a Republic, where it had a Senate. The Republic fell due to peasant/slave revolts which were caused by the Julius Caesar stabbing incident by the Senate. This lead to Senate granting Agustus power to become Rome's first Emperor and the beginning of the Roman Empire. The empire was one the most advanced civilization of its time, with it having a complex society. At its peak encompassed the entire Meditteranean Basin.
  • 476

    Dark Ages

    Dark Ages
    After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Western Europe was in shambles. Eastern Europe was still unified under the new Byzantine Empire. Barbic tribes such as the Germanics would form individual kingdoms in Western Europe. This made the West of Europe very divided, a feudalistic region. Roman Catholicism was still being practiced and the Church/Pope had most of the power at the time. Society seemed to have reverted: lack of higher education, economy plummeted, and mainly relied on the army.
  • 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    A series of religious wars/massacres initiated by Pope Urban II in an attempt to regain back the holy land: Jerusalem from Islam. There were 9 crusades, 4 main ones. The only successful Crusade was the first one where the Christians surprised the Turks. An unofficial Crusade: An unofficial crusade the Children's Crusade was when Thousands of children marched to claim back Jerusalem. The Crusades ended with numerous deaths (children included), but they gained knowledge and military improved.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, it was an era of change especially from the Dark Ages. Society deviates from Catholicism and believed in the potential of human beings, humanism. Realistic art bloomed: artists primarily focussed on realism and detail a huge contrast to past art. 4 notable artists include Michelangelo, DaVinci, Raphael, and Donatello. There were also technology advancements. Gutenburg's printing press was created. Science also thrived, inspired by Greek philosophers.
  • 1517

    Reformation: Martin Luther

    Reformation: Martin Luther
    He was a monk who was against the Catholic Church's ideals. He is famously known for nailing the 95 Theses which were complaints about the Pope's corruption of indulgences and credibility for the Christian faith. Luther believed that the bible is the way to salvation, and would initiate the Protestant Reformation. This caused a Schism in Christianity is now Roman Catholics and Protestant Faiths. Luther would use Gutenberg's Printing Press to make copies of the Bible in a variety of languages.
  • English Colonization: Late-comer

    English Colonization: Late-comer
    England was one of the later European nations to colonize the New World. Due to problems from the schism of Christianity, it halted them from venturing out across the Atlantic. Another reason was the Spanish had dominance over the Atlantic and the English had difficulty traversing. Also, English privateers would raid Spanish ships so they didn't need to gather resources from new lands. After the defeating Spanish Armada and Elizabeth I took thrown, they finally developed a strategy to colonize.
  • Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    Sugar was almost a necessity for Europeans. They would use it in nearly everything. Which is why the Caribbeans, known for its tropical climate, was sugarcane farmland. Sugar was the colonies' main economic factor. Slaves were needed to cultivate the number of canes and so African slavery in America began in these islands. Because of this, slaves outnumbered whites in the Caribbeans but still had no political power. The main European nations claimed parts of the Caribbeans for sugar production.
  • Navigation Acts

    Navigation Acts
    Parliament passed these acts to make the Colonies trade with the British rather than foreign imported goods. These acts especially targeted the Dutch. Most colonies goods such as sugar, tobacco, wool, etc, had to trade between the Colonies and English territories. Affected heavily on southern states such as North Carolina who heavily exported tobacco. As a result, they relied on smuggling to get money, and the Anglo-Dutch war in 1652. Later the Culpeper's Rebellion would arise.
  • Nathaniel Bacon (1647-1676)

    Nathaniel Bacon (1647-1676)
    Bacon heavily disliked Indians and had an interest in expansion. And when Virginia's governor, William Berkeley refused to remove Natives who were attacking frontier settlements, Bacon and many others were very upset. Bacon would lead armed Bacon's Rebellion towards Berkeley and the Natives. The rebellion ended unsuccessful in driving away Virginian Indians away, however, England removed Berkeley from governing and was called back. Bacon later died suddenly from a fever.
  • Quakers

    Quakers
    Quaker started out as a society of friends. They were Protestant Christians and mainly came to escape from religious persecution and to spread their beliefs, hence the name Quakers: "tremble at the word of the lord." Most notable Quaker, William Penn, established Pennsylvania under a charter granted by King Charles II. Penn's colony was a safe place for persecuted Quakers. Quakers had a policy of not owning slaves: promoted equal rights for everybody even women and peace in general.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    In Salem, Massachusetts, many women were being accused of being a witch. This started when a doctor diagnosed 2 ill young girls as being witches. Later, more women exhibit the same symptoms of the 2 women and the public went into hysteria, resulting in falsely accusing women of being witches. These "witches" would be trialed and prosecuted. These women would be hanged, stoned, or sent in jail. Contrary to popular beliefs, burning at stake never an actual punishment.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    After 3 unsuccessful attempts, English and Scottish Parliaments finally passed this act to unify England and Scotland. This created the United Kingdom of Great Britain. This led to the new Britain to become an Empire, with Parliament being the head of the Empire. Fortunately, the colonies still had local control over their regions. Colonies would develop a Federal system that consisted of central authority with local governments. This system paved way for modern U.S. system of government.
  • Northern Slavery

    Northern Slavery
    The Northern Colonies did heavily rely on slave or at all and generally disliked slavery. Since slaves were mainly used for farming and plantations, the north did not have a need for them since they mainly manufacture. The few slaves the north had were field hands, domestic servants, and metal workers. Even then, slaves could bargain for their freedom, unlike the south where they were static. Also, there were free slave communities in the North. There were still racial prejudice but was laxer.
  • Southern Slavery

    Southern Slavery
    Southern economy primarily based on mass agriculture. Majority of slaves were treated harsher than the north, but not as harsh as future slavery. Slaves were used to working in plantations, growing crops like tobacco, rice, and indigo. African slaves replaced previous servants due to their knowledge of cultivating crops and had better immunity than natives. Task systems were implemented and it was like a reward system for slaves. Once they're done with work they can have free time.
  • Salutary Neglect

    Salutary Neglect
    Salutary neglect was when Parliament refrained from passing strict policy and laws against the colonies. Parliament believed by doing so, the colonies would not rebel and stay obedient. It is like a mother letting her teenager do whatever they please. However, if the mother, Parliament, were to ask for something, or ask for a tax, the colonies may not comply, at least not peacefully. So Parliament would eventually pass some taxation and conflict would arise between the colonies and Britain.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    A time when the colonies essentially revived religion, mainly Christianity. It came with the creation of many new Christian/Protestant religions: Baptist, Methodist, etc. It heavily affected Protestantism. Jonathan Edwards was a preacher and one of the main thinker of the Great Awakening. Another leading thinker was George Whitefield and he preached that everybody can have salvation by repenting. The awakening also questioned Parliament if they should be the one governing.
  • Atlantic Slave Trade

    Atlantic Slave Trade
    The slave trade brought Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas. They were a new source of labor for Europeans territories, especially for the Southern Colonies. Slave trade increases in the late 1600s with Spain, Portugal, and Holland leading it. Britain then took lead in being the largest slave trader in the 1700s. Millions of Africans were being shipped and millions would die along the way of the Middle Passage. Conditions on the ships were very harsh with slaves being jam-packed.
  • Enlightenment: John Locke

    Enlightenment: John Locke
    He was one of the Enlightenment main figureheads and the philosopher that came up with the famous line "All mankind... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions". Essentially, he is saying that the people should choose who governs them. These ideas will take root and is one of the main causes of the American Revolution. Many Enlightenment thinkers would take inspiration from him. He is also famous for being The Father of Liberalism.
  • Seven-Years War: Great Britain

    Seven-Years War: Great Britain
    Britain and colonies wanted more western land, however, France (who occupied Canada) wanted more land South. Conflict arises between the British & Colonies and French and Indians, and Britain's initial plan was to send army and militia to control Ohio Territory. This turns bad for the British and was setback. Their new plan was to capture Quebec and Montreal. The Treaty of Paris (1763) was signed after capturing the 2 provinces which ended the French and Indian. They gained control over Canada.
  • Britain's Financial Situation after the 7 Years War

    Britain's Financial Situation after the 7 Years War
    Wars are very expensive even for Britain who's military is topnotch. Britain was near bankruptcy from the French and Indian War. During the war, they resorted to borrowing money from the Dutch and banks. So they imposed new taxes on the Colonies. But the previously mentioned Salutary Neglect, the Colonies were very upset from the new taxes. At first, the Colonies were fine with it, but after the Stamp Act of 1765, they were getting more and more rebellious each time a new Act was passed.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    Began with a crowd of Bostonians harassing British soldiers. They would throw rock covered in snow at the soldiers. A soldier would fire into the crow which would lead to the other soldiers shooting. As a result, 4 colonists would die. However, thanks to Paul Revere's painting of the "massacre" which was just American propaganda, Colonists across the 13 colonies were riled up and were outraged. In an attempt to calm down the Colonists, Parliament repeals Townshend Acts. Colonists still upset.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The East India Company monopolized the tea trade in 1773 which lowered the price of tea for the colonies but it still had a tax. Despite the lower price of tea, the Colonists were upset that Parliament is taxing them without representation. As a result, drunk Bostonians would dress themselves up as Indians and snuck into British ships and threw crates of tea overboard into the Atlantic. 340 chests of tea were lost and Britain lost a lot of money due to the party since tea was very expensive.
  • Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)

    Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
    These acts were a response to the Tea Party and it was the act that finally pushed the colonists to/over the edge. It closed the Port of Boston so Colonists couldn't trade across the Atlantic. The Acts also revoked Massachusetts colonial charter which meant Parliament does not recognize MA's government and restricted or eliminated its political institutions. It imposed the quartering of troops and British soldiers do not have to be trialed within the colonies which meant exploitation.
  • Lexington and Concord

    Lexington and Concord
    After Paul Revere's Midnight Riders warning Lexington that "the British are coming," militias, or minuteman, geared up and prepared to cease British forces from advancing. It was the first battle to start the War and "Shot Heard Around the World." British forces won Battle of Lexington and Colonists retreat to Concord. As British Forces marches towards Concord, Colonist surprised the British Forces by using Guerilla tactics. Battle of Concord was the Colonists' first victory.
  • Common Sense

    Common Sense
    Common Sense was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine who was an immigrant from Britain. It was saying how its "common sense" for the Colonies to separate from Britain, and it argued for independence from British rule. It heavily criticized the monarchy. Due to it being widely popular and cheap for colonists, many would buy it. American colonial views of monarchy changed. Instead of a monarch, they wanted a government based on voting and representation: a Democratic Representative government.
  • Declaration of Indepence

    Declaration of Indepence
    Colonist believed Independence was not an option anymore, it was the only way to go. Colonies would declare themselves United and Independent States. Founding Father, Thomas Jefferson, wrote the draft for the document. He finished on July 2nd, however, Congress approved it on the 4th. It was a document/list of grievances against British rule--Anti-monarchal views. Surprisingly many of the other founding fathers (Washington, Jay, Hamilton, and Madison) did not sign it.
  • Battle of Saratoga

    Battle of Saratoga
    The Battle of Saratoga was known as the turning point of the American Revolution for the Colonists. British planned to carry out the strategy of merging armies (from North and South). However, Colonists were able to pick out some of British General Burgoyne's troops. At first Burgoyne managed to fend off the Patriots at Saratoga, bur more and more Patriot's reinforcement came and eventually Burgoyne surrendered. France now supports American and commited them troops and navy.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    It was the Government before the Constitution and it gave most of the power to the states. Due to the lack of a strong central government/authority, the states were not very united. The Articles also could not force taxation which was bad especially after the revolution. They accumulated The AOC had pensions which were extra money for services but the military did not get them. This resulted in revolts against the United States government. It could not stop the Shay's rebellion.
  • Treaty of Paris (1783)

    Treaty of Paris (1783)
    This treaty ended the American Revolutionary War. The Union, United States, is now recognized as an independent and sovereign nation. It established the northern border between Canada which belonged to the British, currently, not yet the Oregon territory. Treaty also restored loyalist properties, but the former-colonists did not hold up to the deal so loyalists did not receive all of their property/lands back. The frontier lands British gained from 7 Years War now belonged to the United States.
  • American Virtue (late 18th Century)

    American Virtue (late 18th Century)
    A new type of democratic government ideals started to spread: Republicanism. It was to vote for Representatives that would vote for us. Culture was changing. Americans saw themselves similar to Greece and Rome so most of their architectural and furniture styles were inspired by the 2 society. This was for Democratic symbolism and shows how much the Americans disliked the British. Rid of monarchy and on with democracy. They even considered having Greek be their language instead of English.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    After the American Revolution, the Union needed money so they passed high taxes that some states would refuse to pay due to the AOC giving states most of the power. This left for farmers to pay high taxes--some would give up their land. Daniel Shays then led a revolt full of outraged farmers. The revolt showed how weak the Articles of Confederation was and privately-funded militias had to stop the rebellion. As a result, the Union needed a better gov't with a strong central authority.
  • Issues: Slavery

    Issues: Slavery
    Before the views on slavery between North and South were light. But now, their views and stances are getting more and more divided. The Southern states were pro-slavery whereas the Northern states were anti-slavery. An issue arises was the representation of slaves. The South wanted slaves to be counted as votes for more power, but the North, who has fewer people, saw that it would be unfair. The issue was solved in the 3/5 compromise. So out of 5 slaves, only 3 of them would be counted.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    This was a system for the requirements for Northwest territories to be admitted to the Union. There are around 3 steps in becoming a state include 1) Settlers are coming to the territory and a Governor governing the place 2) Legislatures can be elected once the territory reaches 5,000 (white men) 3) It can finally become a state once the area reaches a population of 60,000. Another requirement was to reject slavery. Northwest Ordinance will be used for future state admissions.
  • Great Compromise

    Great Compromise
    There were 2 plans for Government Reform: Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan. The Virginia Plan favored more towards larger states, proposing 2 House Legislature and a single Executive & Judiciary. It wanted representation based on population rather than equal. The New Jersey Plan favored small states/equal representation. It wanted 1 vote per state. Then the Connecticut Plan came along (Great Compromise) it was a mixture of both plans: states would have a Bi-Cameral Legislature equal in power.
  • Federalists

    Federalists
    They was one of the 2 political parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Federalists were in favor of a powerful central government, supported the Constitution, and opposed the Bill of Rights. The leader of the party was Alexander Hamilton. He with James Madison and John Jay wrote 85 essays known as the Federalist papers. The papers were written to defend the New U.S. Constitution. The Constitution would be the same one as the one U.S. have today which meant they defended it successfully.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    This was the United States' first-ever presidential election. George Washington was obviously elected as the first President. He was the General who won us the Revolution. Many saw him as a god-like figure and nearly everybody chose him during the election. As for Vice President, no one was running mates for the position. Vice President was the person who placed second in the Presidential Election. John Adams was the first Vice President. These type of elections continues for a few more times.
  • Alexander Hamilton

    Alexander Hamilton
    He was the leader and creator of the Federalist political party against the Anti-Federalist. Hamilton was for a strong central government. He was one of the few Founding Fathers who did become President due to his birth in the Caribbeans. He was George Washington's right-hand man and greatly influenced him. He was in favor of the rich and catered to him. The First National Bank was created by Hamilton to pay off the War's debt. Heavily disliked Thomas Jefferson from Anti-Federalists.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson was the founder who purchased Louisianna from France. He wanted the United States to be a nation of farmers since his heritage is in Virginia. He with James Madison founded the Democratic-Republican Party. They are different from today's Republicans. This party was essentially the Anti-Federalist Party in that they wanted a decentralized government. Which meant they wanted a loose government: more power to the states. Also wanted a strict interpretation of the Consitution.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    This machine was created in 1793 by Eli Whitney. It used for
    efficiently separating seeds from the cotton plant. Just 2 people operating the gin could replace 100 people per day picking out seeds from cotton manually. It exponentially boosted the South's economy, and they produced 75% of the world's cotton in the early 19th Century. Unfortunately, with faster processing of cotton required more field workers for picking the crop. Slavery increased significantly because of the gin.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    After Hamilton passed a tax on distilled spirits to pay the national debt, whiskey-growing farmers from Pennsylvania & Kentucky were outraged. Those farmers earn huge profits from making whiskey and with the tax, consumers would not buy it as often anymore. 6,000 farmers marched/threatened to attack Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. When Washington leads an army with 12K troops, the rebellion stopped instantly and bloodless. The rebellion showed that the Constitution was powerful, unlike the AOC.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    This was President Washington's last speech/address towards the people before he leaves office. Washington does not seek a third term; he only served 2 terms (4 years per term) and he wants future Presidents to do the same. He also warns them to avoid conflicts internationally by not forming permanent alliances with other nations. Instead, they should only have temporary alliances. By the time for the Election of 1796, another President would take his place in office.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    This is the election that will elect the second President that would succeed George Washington. It was John Adams versus Thomas Jefferson. Washington did not want political parties however, Adams was a Federalist, on the other hand, Jefferson was a Republican. John Adams will win the election and becomes the 2nd President of the United States and, once again, second place would become Vice President which was Thomas Jefferson who lost to Adams. This was the first election with opposing parties.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    The Jay's Treaty caused problems that limited French trade and French seizes trade altogether. Union sends American diplomats to France. They meet 3 unknown French Diplomats and they wanted concessions. Each diplomat wanted $250K each, a 10 million dollar loan to France from the U.S., and they wanted a public apology letter from John Adams. Word got out that the French tried to ask for bribery and Americans were outraged. There was an undeclared Naval "Quasi" War between U.S. and France.
  • Election of 1800

    Election of 1800
    After the naval war, the Federalist party was divided and weakened and Republicans took over as the leading party. This Election was John Adams vs. Thomas Jefferson once again, but this time against Aaron Burr as well. Due to the weakened Federalist party, John Adams was quickly defeated. Jefferson and Burr were tied in Senate votes and was left with the House of Representatives to decide. Hamilton made a deal so parties would vote for Jefferson and Jefferson became the 3rd President (Burr VP).
  • Jefferson Administration

    Jefferson Administration
    Thomas Jefferson wanted a reduction in Government power wanted states to have the power (defenders of liberty). He encouraged an agriculture-based nation. As a result, he was mocked by Federalists not just because he wanted a reduction in Government but his personal life as well. Despite him boasting about liberty and freedom, he owned and married a slave named Sally Hemings. He was personally attacked because he had children with his slave wife. He doubles Union land from Louisiana purchase.
  • Changes In Transportation

    Changes In Transportation
    Modern roads were being implemented across cities and towns. There would be turnpikes where toll money was used for road maintenance also for future roads. Across the waters had boats, steamboats which were highly efficient for transportation. They were used in canals such as the famous Erie Canal which promoted trade. Another transportation were railroads and trains. They were used for long distances that would have taken months on wagon and horsebacks in a couple of weeks or even days.
  • Hamilton vs. Burr Duel

    Hamilton vs. Burr Duel
    Duels were illegal but would be turned a blind eye, especially in Jersey. It was the gentlemen's way of settling things. Vice President Aaron Burr believed that Hamilton was trying to sabotage Burr's candidacy in the Election of 1800. Hamilton disliked Jefferson but hated Burr much, much more. Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel. Burr ended up shooting Hamilton and Hamilton supposedly purposefully missed. Federalist main leader dies and Burr political life is ruined.
  • Technological Benefits of the War of 1812

    Technological Benefits of the War of 1812
    During the War, there was the Embargo Act which America cut off their own ports. The States cannot buy stuff from other nations any more, so they were forced to make their stuff. With the U.S. innovating stuff, they would inevitably run into technological breakthroughs. Firearms, steam engines, agriculture, and mass production were created or improved upon. The Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney helped mass produced clothes for the people. This was the start of the Industrial Revolution.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    There were problems with Britain. Many Americans wanted War with the British and America declares war on Britain. The American strategy was a land-based on and they attack York, the capital of Canada. British beat back Americans from Canada, blockades American ports, and takes Washington D.C. and burns the President's Mansion. At Fort McHenry, Star Spangled was written American defended it. Then they defeat the British on the Great Lakes. War ended in a draw and did not solve diplomatic issues.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    This was the unofficial last battle of the War of 1812. This Battle was fought in New Orleans. It was unofficial because the war already over when the battle fought but news did not get around fast enough. Regardless, this made Andrew Jackson a National War Hero despite it being a battle should not have happened. He defeated the British Army with a bi-racial ragtag army. Thanks to this the name "Andrew" and "Jackson" became a common household name.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland: Major Supreme Court Case

    McCulloch v. Maryland: Major Supreme Court Case
    This was the first and major court case for the Supreme Court when Maryland tried to tax the Second Bank of the United States. This case showed that Maryland, and states in general, does not have the power over the Federal Government. The Federal Government is supreme over the states. Despite it not being directly stated in the Constitution, this case showed that the Government/Congress had implied powers. This led to the south to have more radical views of State's Rights.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    These were mills that operated in Lowell, Massachusetts. The mills implemented a manufacturing system called the Waltham System. The Waltham System centered around factories/mills and essentially workers of the mills live in there or close by. This resulted in a larger work force due to its accessibility. However, it also resulted in long hours of working and bad working conditions. Lowell Mills were mills mainly for women and they earned more there. But still had long hours and bad conditions.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    As the Spanish Empire of the New World is crumbling, the United States wants influence over Spanish's territory and new areas. President James Monroe wrote the doctrine which declared that they, the U.S., would not interfere with European affairs. Also, warned them to no settle in Latin America or the Western Hemisphere. Latin America "belonged" to the States and the Western Hemisphere was "their" influence zone. The United States would reject further European colonization.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    There was no one up in line to be President (no successor), so it could have been for any of the 4 candidates, most notably Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and John Quincy Adams. Jackson won the popular vote from the people, but not electoral college votes. House of Representatives decided on John Adams. Supposedly, Henry Clay had a deal with Adams and he persuaded the House of Representative to vote for Adams. Jackson was angry and bitter and called it the corrupt bargain.
  • Adams Presidency: American System

    Adams Presidency: American System
    John Quincy Adams defeated Andrew Jackson in the Election of 1824. During his Presidency, he, with Henry Clay, implemented the American System to unite and strengthen the nation. The System had 3 parts: A high tariff on foreign goods to product American goods and to improve federal revenue, preserve the 2nd National Bank of the United States, and have internal improvements (roads and canals). This economic system was successful in some aspects and not so much in other.
  • Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney

    Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney
    Charles Grandison Finney was known as the "Father of Modern Revivalism." He was a Presbyterian, Congregationalist, and then minister who was a prime leader of the Second Great Awakening. He grew up not religious as he did not experience anything religious growing up. But then he experienced a religious revival which changed his life. He promoted social reforms such as the ending of slavery, and women and African American's rights. He led his revivals mainly in New York.
  • Growing Cities: Temperance

    Growing Cities: Temperance
    Young men (teenagers 15 years or older) and older men were drinking and abusing alcohol substances. This was the age where men ruled the house and with them being drunk and the frequently going to bars damaged lives, especially women who had little voice at the time. Abolitionist saw alcohol was as equal as slavery--that it was a sin. The movement actually began with 2 ministers who formed the American Temperance Society (ATS) in Boston. Later years women will lead the movement.
  • Age of the Common Man

    Age of the Common Man
    This era began when Andrew Jackson took office. He, who was the ideal "Common Man", showed that anyone (men) can be a significant figure. Age of the Common Man influenced the view that people are powerful. It also influenced the notion of Equalitarian This gave the people the sense of being an American. It gave universal suffrage... for white males. Along with Andrew Jackson, David "Davy" Crockett was considered to be a hero of the common man. Gave men government jobs.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    Once again, it was John Quincy Adams vs. Andrew Jackson. This time, Jackson has a new strategy. His strategy was to please the people using his humble origins, military career, and emit Democratic values. Another part of his strategy was to politically attack Adams. This election turned violent like no election was ever before. Both candidates would personally attack one another: attack each other as womanizers. Adams attacked Jackson's wife Rachel: illegal divorce. Jackson wins this election.
  • Jackson's Administration

    Jackson's Administration
    Andrew Jackson was known as "The People's President" for he was for the common men. During his presidency, he implemented the Spoils System which replaced bureaucrats, people who worked in Office, with common men. Jackson had scandals during his early first term. It forced most of the cabinet to resign and made room for commoners. Jackson heavily disliked the (2nd) Bank of the United States because it gave the federal government power. He was the only President to pay off the National debt.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    The Second Great Awakening
    Due to the separation of church and state, many Christian revivals were appearing throughout the United States. Protestant religions such as Evangelical Methodism and Baptists were becoming wildly popular. Unlike the First Great Awakening, the second one focused on how the human's ability to better themselves and how all human beings can obtain salvation. It also had Educational Reforms where people wanted education to be public and how children of all race should be able to attend.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    More and more people were for abstinence of the consumption of alcohol. Many people, especially religious people, were telling people to stop drinking these beverages and even had people sign "pledges" to abstain. Women were heavily against it for it wasted money and were tired of their husbands coming home drunk. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Prohibition Party were formed to promote temperance. The Union influenced women to reform society and gave them a voice.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism
    Transcendentalism was an American Philosophy that focused on how humans were good and have the knowledge to go beyond their senses. However, they believed that due to society, humans are corrupted and are purified by being self-reliant and independent. It all started from the Transcendental Club with most notably Ralph Waldo. Then other noteworthy transcendentalists came along such as Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorn, Thomas Cole, and more. It would influence Mental Sciences movements.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
    This was the last battle of the Texas Revolution. Sam Houston and his men were on the retreat from Santa Ana's advancement. After a month, Santa Ana made a fatal military mistake which was to split his army into 2. Houston's army hid in trees at San Jacinto studying Santa Ana. Santa Ana's army took a siesta and Houston's army noticed that and he led the charge that would get Texas' independence. The battle lasted for 18 minutes with the Texans killing 630 Mexicans, and only lost 9 of themselves.
  • Election of 1836

    Election of 1836
    After Jackson's second term, it was time for a new President. Martin "Old Kinderhook (OK)" Van Buren succeeded Jackson by barely defeating the Whigs in the Election. Unfortunately, he became the President during a time of economic decline for America. This caused the panic of 1837. Unemployment across the nation went up all-the-while profits and incomes went down. Martin Van Buren was blamed for the financial crisis and was considered a failure as President. He was called "Martin Van Ruin".
  • Southern Society

    Southern Society
    There were 3 tiers of society in the South: Planters, Yeoman Farmers, and Tenant Farmers. They were heavily influenced by class and honor in which they would engage in duels, which were still "illegal", to restore/retain their honor. They were the ruling class of the South/ Yeoman Farmers were below Planters. 78% of these farmers did not own slaves. Surprisingly, in 1860, 76% of the total southern whites did not own slaves. Tenant Farmers was the lowest class and they were farmers renting land.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    Just like the Bank of the United States, Jackson hated Native Americans. Despite Natives assimilating to white culture (converted to Christianity), Jackson still wanted them out and relocated. In Cherokee territories, gold was founded which started the Indian Removal Act of 1830 so that Americans can obtain the gold. Then, comes the Trail of Tears. Started by Jackson, he relocated Cherokee Indians to Indian Territories (Oklahoma) during the winter and thousands died along the way.
  • Great Migration of the 1840s

    Great Migration of the 1840s
    The Oregon Territory was seen as a land of opportunities and dreams for many Americans who wanted a new life. The Territory had plentiful of land diversity such as mountains for mining, fertile farmland for farming, and loads of trees for lumber. Half of a million people headed towards Oregon on the Oregon Trail would take around 5-6 months to arrive and was difficult traversing due to the mountain ranges and dysentery. Mormons especially migrated due to discrimination and violence.
  • Western Frontier: Removal of Natives

    Western Frontier: Removal of Natives
    As more Americans traversed the Central Plains via the Oregon Trail, Native American tribes were forced to relocate/pushed further west and eventually into reservations. Some tribes, like the Cherokees, even tried to assimilate/adopt Anglo-American culture to prevent from being removed and it worked for a while. Unfortunately, when travelers discovered gold, more Native Americans, including the Cherokees, were forced westward. America lost most of their Natives' culture due to this.
  • Millennialism

    Millennialism
    This was the belief by religious/social groups that the world was going to end. They believed that the second coming of Jesus Christ. A preacher named William Miller who predicted when the Second Coming/Advent was going to occur. During which he gained a lot of Millerites, who were followers of the preacher. Obviously, the Second Coming did not occur as Miller predicted and the Great Disappointment came along. Many Millerite leaders and followers stopped believing and became Quakers.
  • Architecture

    Architecture
    Many of America's major buildings (White House, Second Bank of the United States, Supreme Court Building, and more) have a Greek influence with them. This can be seen with the pillars/columns and staircase of the buildings. Homes were also influenced with their furniture having a Greek influence. Even cities were being "Greekenized" cities being named after places in Greece: Ithaca, New York, named after Ithaca Island. This assimilation of Greek culture was called the Greek Revival.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    This term was created by John O'Sullivan. It was the American belief that God destined them to acquire the land between the Atlantic and Pacific. Due to this belief, they acquired most of the land of what is now the United States of America (excluding Hawaii & Alaska). Some Americans even believed that North America belonged to them. They would not let anything inhibit them from fulfilling their destiny. Manifest Destiny justified some of the acts they did especially towards Natives.
  • James K. Polk

    James K. Polk
    After winning the election of 1844, he became the 11th President of the United States. James K. Polk had 3 main goals for coming into office: Annex Texas into the Union, settle Oregon border with Britain, and settle border with Mexico. Essentially, expansion of the U.S. was his goal. Texas was already annexed before Polk's inauguration. Regardless, he promised the people that he would only run for 1 term because he believed if he did not succeed, then he did not deserve to be President.
  • Mexican American War

    Mexican American War
    After the Annexation of newly acquired Texas, there were disputes over Texas' border between Mexicans and Texans. The United States believed the Rio Grande was the border of Texas, but Mexico believed it was the Nueces River (50 miles north of Rio Grande). This lead to Mexican dispatch attacking General Zachery Taylor which the U.S. declares war with Mexico. The war lasted for 2 years and Mexico was overwhelmed. California secedes from Mexican rule. Treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war.
  • Slavery (After Mexican-American War)

    Slavery (After Mexican-American War)
    Many Americans foresaw slavery growing in the new territories of the Mexican Cession. So a Democratic of the House of Representative, David Wilmot, proposed the Wilmot Proviso. It proposed a prohibition of the expansion of slavery in the new territories. Despite it passing the House of Representatives, the Senate declined/defeated it. A new way of determining slave or free state: Popular Sovereignty. It gave states the power to choose whether they want to be a slave state or not.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    After the news of there being gold in California, thousands of Americans migrated to the territory. So much in fact that it became a state after just 2 years (1848-1850). Gold was easy to find on the surface level until 1852 where they had to began mining for the metal. It was not only miners who made money, but also the supporting industries. They would set up shops to sell to the miners such as a place to stay, food, and other necessities. The Chinese also found opportunities and came over.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    This was the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. It also accomplished one of James K. Polk's goals of setting the border dispute between the United States and Mexico. The treaty gave the Union over half of Mexico's territory in which is called the Mexican Cession which included modern-day California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona, half of New Mexico, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Since most of these territories are in the South, there were disputes about slavery and the 36 30 line.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    Women's suffrage/rights have not been a huge deal until recently, especially after the American Revolution and Industrial Revolution, where women have seen a rise in leadership. Then the first women's rights convention, the Seneca Falls Convention, was held in Seneca Falls, New York. Obviously, this convention discussed about women's rights, especially women's right to vote. They had a manifesto called "Declaration of Sentiments" which demanded equal rights. The convention lasted for 2 days.
  • Industrialization vs. Agriculture

    Industrialization vs. Agriculture
    The North was the more advanced of the 2, with more industrialization/manufacturing. The steam engines and rails established the large railway system that the South had, but on a smaller scale. Immigrants provided cheap labor and the North witnessed greater population growth than the South. The South was primarily agriculture-based due to the use of slavery. Cotton was known as the King in the South. They also had industrialized areas but were very small and could not catch up to the North.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    This was a compromise to solve the issue that was slavery between the North and the South. It included Henry Clay's Compromise, mainly making California a free state and newer, stronger fugitive slave laws. The Compromise consisted of 5 separate bills: California enters as a free state, New Mexico and Utah decide on slavery, Texas gives up some land to the government and the government will take care of Texas' debt, slave trade banned in Washington D.C., and enforced Fugitive Slave Act.
  • Literature

    Literature
    As issues of slavery between the North and South became tenser, both side would invoke politics into daily life. Abolitionist and author of the North, Harriet B. Stowe, wrote the famous Uncle Tom's Cabin. It was a pamphlet that was about the cruelty of slavery and the life of a slave. This enraged many Abolitionists, but also the South. They countered it by with a novel titled Aunt Phillis's Cabin; or, Southern Life As It Is. It showed how slaves were happy being slaves and it was a propaganda.
  • Election of 1852

    Election of 1852
    This election was between the Democratic and Whig parties. Franklin Pierce (Democrat) defeated Winfield Scott (Whig) who was his former commander during the Mexican-American war. This was the last election where the Whig ran head to toe with the Democratic party. As a result, the Whig Party rapidly declined. Despite being a Northerner, he openly advocated for slave states. He saw the abolitionist movement was a fundamental threat to the Union's unity. He signed the Kansa-Nebraska Act.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    Southerners were afraid of the growing numbers of free states. They wanted to abolish the Missouri Compromise (36 30) so they can grow in slave states. Also wanted the transcontinental railroad to run through the South and less of the North. The act was passed and it repealed the 36 30 parallel (Missouri Compromise). Instead, they wanted Popular Sovereignty which was letting the state choose whether it wanted to be a slave state or not. Because of this, North and South are heavily polarized.
  • Border/Neutral States

    Border/Neutral States
    They were states (typically right above the 36 30 line) that remained neutral. They include Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware. Both sides, North and South, tried to gain the states on their side. The South wanted their assistance due to half of the South's White population were in the Border States. Also, 80% of Southern industry was in there. The North wanted them to deprive the South of troops and supplies. The Union/North allowed these states to keep their slaves so they won't turn.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The majority of the South were Democrats in contrast to the North who were Republicans. For this election, the South was split between John Breckinridge (official candidate) and John Bell (unofficial). This was the main reason why they lost to the Republicans who elected Abraham Lincoln, who had a moderate approach to slavery. The South was outraged of the election of Lincoln, and thoughts of secession took fruit with South Carolina the first state to leave, later other southern states followed.
  • Advantages: North

    Advantages: North
    The North had a population around 22 million people which was more than 5 times as much as the South. Their Industrialization outpowered the South's, with 110K factories that had a value of 1.5 Billion dollars. It generated 97%, 94%, and 90% of the Nation's weapons, clothing, and shoes and boots respectively. The main factor of the North during the War was the 30,000 miles of railroad tracks. This made it easy for them to ship resources and troops to the battlefield.
  • Advantages: South

    Advantages: South
    The South did not much going in terms of winning the war. Unlike the North, their population was around 9 million with 3.5-4 million of them being slaves. Their industrialization was small compared to the North with only 18,000 factories, a 155 million dollar industry, and only manufactured 3% of the Nation's firearms. Also, they only had 9,000 miles of tracks. They often compared themselves to Patriots. However, the crucial advantage they had was better Military Leadership than the North.
  • Union Blockade

    Union Blockade
    The South wanted to gain European allies (Britain) to compensate for their shortage of men compared to the North. However, the North knew that if the South were to ally with Britain, winning the war would be difficult. So, they initiated a Naval blockade to the South. This cut off the South's connection with the outside and this significantly the Southern's source of income for most of their income came from trading cotton with Europe. The South would then have a difficult time getting supplies.
  • Women at Work

    Women at Work
    The war gave women new in roles that were traditionally male positions. Since men were off fighting the war, the women took over and obtained jobs. They became teachers, civil service jobs, store managers, farmers, and planters all of which were seen as men jobs were now being done by the opposite sex. They even went to the battlefield as nurses to tend soldiers wounds. Clara Barton starts the American Red Cross to help wounded soldiers in the battlefield. Women became more mobilized.
  • Slaves During the War

    Slaves During the War
    Slaves would flee to the North during the War for liberation. Northerners would take slaves as contraband. Lincoln first started the war to preserve, but then it became about freeing people in bondage. He even allowed the newly freed slaves to fight as soldiers and said they were one of his best soldiers. The Emancipation Proclamation was issued which Lincoln declares slaves from rebelling states are now free. Border states were allowed to keep their slaves.
  • Plans

    Plans
    There were 2 plans for the South: Lincoln and Wade-Davis'. Lincoln's 10% Plan (Amnesty and Reconstruction Plan) was to pardon all Southerners besides officers and officials. However, since the South seceded, they needed to be readmitted into the Union. To do som Lincoln required 10% of the state's population to take an oath of loyalty which give them a new state government. Wade-Davis Bull was radical-Republicanism which would punish Confederate leaders and give equal rights to blacks.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    Sherman's March to the Sea
    General William Sherman captures Atlanta, Georgia from the South. He marches to the Savannah, Georgia which would cut off the Confederacy into thirds. He burned farmlands, houses, fields, and anything that would be of use to the rebels. Issue Special Field Order #15: burned 400,000 planters' lands, divided land into 40 acres for slaves, and promised them to give them a mule along with the 40 acres. Sherman's purpose for the march was to entice fear in the people to abandon the federacy.
  • Former Slaves

    Former Slaves
    Former slaves were called Freedmen. Since Freedmen had nowhere else to go, the Freedmen's Bureau was created. It was a relief agency which gave the Freedmen the bare necessities: food, schools, emergency services (police agency). Many of them would flock to cities where they work for low paying, labor intensive jobs. Sherman's promise to give them 40 acres and a mule was broken for the land would eventually be given back to original owners. Freedmen saw the 40 acres as independence and freedom.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Just five days after General Robert E. Lee surrendered at the Appomattox Court House, Virginia, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Lincoln was watching a play called Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater when he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Booth infiltrated the President's seat/box due to lax security and shot Lincoln in the back of the head. Booth would jump off onto the theater and limp away. Booth was later shot dead. Lincoln's body would be embalmed/preserved.
  • Andrew Johnson Administration

    Andrew Johnson Administration
    After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, his Vice President, Andrew Johnson took office as the 17th President. He hated farmers and African Americans and does not hide it--blatant racist. He promoted the lenient readmission policy. If the South would take the oath all of their property and the states had to ratify the 13th Amendment. He pardoned many high ranking Confederates. The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Johnson. He was the first president to be impeached.
  • Freedom Amendments

    Freedom Amendments
    The Emancipation Proclamation freed most of the slaves, but to officially free all slavery, the 13th Amendment was implemented. It states that slavery nor involuntary services will not be allowed within the United States. Now that slaves are free, the next step for them is to be citizens. The 14th Amendment defines citizens as being born in the U.S. and is entitled to equal protection of the law. Finally, the 15th Amendment gave all men the right to vote regardless of color.
  • Grant Administration

    Grant Administration
    In the Election of 1868, Ulysses S. Grant defeated Horatio Seymour and became the 18th President. His administration was seen as scandalous. Grant did not have control over the Cabinet, however, he tried to interfere in state affairs in the South. He tried to stop suppression of Freedman with the Enforcement Act which was not successful. He used the military which backfired. During the Panic of 1873, Grant reduced his efforts in policing South because he was afraid of further political losses.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    This election was Democrat vs. Republicans: Samuel Tilden vs. Rutherford Hayes. The issues to be dealt with was corruption, reconstruction, and the economy. The popular vote went to Tilden, but the electoral votes were unclear. The Compromise of 1877 gave Hayes all the electoral votes, secretly. Hayes would agree to end Reconstruction and removed federal troops from the South. This was the beginning of the total suppression for Southern blacks.
  • The New South

    The New South
    Industrialization was the key to fixing Southern economic problems because they cannot rely on slavery for cotton-picking anymore. Inspired average people to start investing and opening businesses to boost the economy. More railroads were built. They believed they lost the Civil War was because they were a Lost Cause. They were saying how they were brave and virtuous, and how the Union had unfair advantages. They engaged in propaganda that made people think that Confederates were heroes.
  • Period:
    15,000 BCE
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    Beginning to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War/Era

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    The Constitution

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    The New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Age of Jackson (Jacksonian Era)

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    Cultural Changes

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    Westward Expansion

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    Sectionalism (Crisis)

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    The Civil War

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    Reconstruction