1301 project

Timeline created by aderamirez
In History
  • 2,500 BCE

    The Bering Land Bridge

    The Bering Land Bridge
    At one point America was part of the new world to Natives. The Bering Land Bridge was over 1,000 miles and is believed to have connected Asia and America. The Bering Land Bridge is believed to have appeared during the last global ice age due to the formation of glaciers. There were 3 major waves; the first one happened over 50,000 years ago, the second one occurred 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, the third happed 5,000 years ago. It is hard to determine the exact date due to the lack of evidence.
  • 1,200 BCE

    Olmecs

    Olmecs
    The Olmecs were the first advanced civilization created in Mesoamerica (present-day Veracruz and Tabasco, Mexico) from 1200 BC to 400 BC. They practiced bloodletting in which they would offer a human sacrifice to their gods. They are also known for the building of pyramids some are still standing today in La Venta Tabasco, Mexico. The Olmec Culture had a great influence on other civilizations that followed after such as the Aztecs and Maya.
  • 476

    Dark Ages

    Dark Ages
    This era occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire, making the quality of life in Western Europe chaotic. It resulted in no central government, a weak economy and no higher learning. Since there was no Roman emperor or central government at the time, the Catholic church gained controlled over Western Europe. The Catholic church controlled the culture and education of the people and used the bible to justify their reasoning which struck fear in some people.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement in Europe in the 14th- 17th century where classical ideas were reborned. Artistry became relevant, classical realism sculptures and paintings from artist such as Leonardo DaVinci and Michelangelo became popular. Leonardo DaVinci did not only contributed to art but to science and medicinal advancements as well. The Printing press was also invented in this era by Johan Gutenberg which improved literacy rates.and helped transformed europe and the world.
  • 1346

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The Black Death was an epidemic that affected medieval Europe's population. The disease was carried by fleas on rats that would travel on merchant ships which spread the disease. Killing over 40-50% of Europe's population. Since most of the population died there was a limited amount of workers making peasants more valuable. It allowed peasants to move up the social structure and created a new merchant society. The formation of a merchant society created a new economy.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was the exchange of goods between the old world and the new world. The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases transformed both Natives and Europeans life. It began after Columbus discovered America in 1492. The exchange mainly benefitted the Old World, they were introduced to new crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, and corn they were able to sustained and grow their population. However, the new world was introduced to diseases and suffered a decline in their population.
  • 1500

    Middle Passage

    Middle Passage
    The Middle passage was in use from the early 1500s to 1850, it was a series of routes in which slave ships would transport slaves from Africa to America. Over 11 million slaves would be transported to the new world. More than 10% of all slaves died on the voyage. The demand for slaves increased in the 1700s because of a growing demand for raw materials and it increased the demand for a source of labor. Slaves were preferred over indentured servants since they didn't have to pay for their labor.
  • 1517

    Reformation

    Reformation
    The Reformation was a religious movement in Europe led by reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin that questioned Catholic authority. It began with the events of Martin Luther writing the 95 theses that challenged the church practices since he did not agree with Indulges and the creation of the Church of England created by Henry the VIII. These events were the based of Reformation and soon other branches broke off the Catholic Church making it lose political power.
  • Virginia Colony

    Virginia Colony
    The Colony of Virginia was started as a private charter from the English Crown (Virginia Company of London) in 1606. It was established with 105 settlers and only 32 survived the first winter. Only wealthy people were able to afford to pay a passage to come over to the new world. This group of settlers isolated themselves from natives but it didn't work for their favor since they didn't know how to farm the land. However, John Smith negotiated with local natives and traded with them.
  • Headright System

    Headright System
    The Headright System was created in Jamestown to attract new settlers since their population was in decline.50 acres of land would be granted to whoever would come to Virginia. It was a way to get more people to live in the colonies and since the tabacco economy was growing so was the need for more labor. Most poeple in the Headright System were indentured servants would work for years pay off their debt and then live on their own. It was a successful system in making the colonies grow.
  • The Mayflower Compact

    The Mayflower Compact
    The Mayflower Compact was the first agreement about self-government in American history and was the foundation of Plymouth's government. It was signed on November 21st, 1620, and it was signed by most of the adult male passengers on board the Mayflower. It established laws which included adult males, not including servants had the right to vote on things for the colony this is important because it was an early example of democracy in colonies.
  • The Navigation Acts

    The Navigation Acts
    The Navigation Acts were laws passed by the British parliament that were primarily targeted towards the Dutch. These laws regulated trade to American colonies by requiring all trade between England and the colonies to be carried in English or colonial ships. Its purpose was to ensure that England benefitted from colonial trade. This prevented colonies from trading with other nations and it limits their profit which slowly pushed the colonist to rebel against the British government.
  • English Bill of Rights

    English Bill of Rights
    The English Bill of Rights was an act passed by parliament and signed by William and Mary of Orange once the crown was passed down to them, it ensured parliament had a superiority over the monarchy. It included such as excluding Catholics from monarchy, it protected basic rights of the people, no excesive bail,no cruel or unusual punishments and arms suitable for defense. It was a huge impact on colonial government and later helped established the U.S. Bill of Rights.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trials began in the Spring of 1692 in Massachusettes over 200 people were convicted of practicing witchcraft and working with the devil, 20 of them were executed. It all began when a group of girls were acting odd and began to accused several local women of witchcraft. Women would be thrown into a river and if they floated they would be guilty but if they drown they will be proven innocent. This showed the negative effects that can be caused by combining religion and government.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    The Act of Union is an agreement between England and Scotland. Both countries came together and formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Parliament is the head of this empire but colonies still had local control. The Act of Union Created a Federal System with the central authority and local governments which paved the way for modern U.S. system of government.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade was a trade route between America, Europe, and Africa that followed a triangular path. America would export raw materials such as sugar, cotton, and tobacco to be manufactured in Europe. Those manufactured products will then be transported to Africa. Africa would then send slaves to America and the Caribbean colonies to work on plantations to cultivate more raw materials. It was a repeated cycle between these nations that went on for years.
  • Virtual Representation

    Virtual Representation
    Virtual Representation was the idea that members of parliament would speak represent Britain rather than the district that elected them. This was a major problem for colonist because they did not elect a member of parliament which meant they weren't represented equally or fairly compared to Britain. Whenever parliament would pass new tax laws that were against colonist, the colonist did not have a voice to go against it. This soon led to growing tensions that lead to the revolution.
  • The Enlightment

    The Enlightment
    The Enlightenment was a cultural movement where people were focused on reason intellect and science not on superstition.It affected colonies because now they were questioning all pre-conceived notions because of the suggestion of reason over faith and relegion.The Enlightenment made people think as individuals and not as a group many ideas were explored during this time. Important documents such as the constitution were written during this movement and concepts such as natural rights blossomed.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious revival that was a reaction of the Enlightenment Secularism. It focused on gaining a closer relationship with God and it was a more personal approach than simply following the church. Some Elite universities were founded because of this movement such as College of New Jersey (Princeton), Rhode Island College(Brown) and Dartmouth.It also created a separation of church and state because of how people dealt with religion and the difference its opinions it led to.
  • Slave Codes

    Slave Codes
    Slave Codes were established as laws to determine a slaves status and the rights of their owners that were placed in each state. These laws placed harsher restrictions on slaves rights which were already limited. They were placed in fear that slave rebellions, which is why slaves were prohibited from owning weapons. there were also laws that prohibited slaves from gaining an education like reading and writing. The Slave Codes made it easier to have control over slaves.
  • French and Indian War (Seven-Years War)

    French and Indian War (Seven-Years War)
    The French and Indian war was a war fought between France, England, and Spain between the years of 1754-1763 for territory in the new world. The colonies and Britain fought together because they desire more western land, France, However, desired more land towards the south and fought alongside Native Americans. At the end, Britain won and gained more land but the war created tension between the frontier natives and colonist. The colonist had to for war expenses which gave them motives to rebel.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The treaty of Paries of 1763 ended the French and Indian War(Seven Years War) between France and Britain. It was signed by Britain, France, and Spain on February 10, 1763. France lost all of their territory in North America and its territories east of the Mississippi to Britain. It also effectively ended all military threats to the British Colonies.
  • Revenue Act/Sugar Act

    Revenue Act/Sugar Act
    The Sugar Act also is known as The Revenue Act were new regulations and taxes imposed by parliament on colonist to pay for the debt they had after the French and Indian War (Seven Years War). This act is a modified version of the Molasses act. The Sugar Act was taxes imposed on sugar, molasses, and most shipped goods. This angered colonist because it affected their economy because it lessened what they could sell and the amount they could sell.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was passed by the British parliament in 1765, it was an act that imposed taxes on all printed papers. This act was directly imposed on all colonies but it mainly affected lawyers and printers because they were the ones who used the most paper during this time. The act required the colonist to pay taxes on every British stamp they received. This angered the colonist and it was a reason for the revolution.
  • Boston Massacre

    Boston Massacre
    The Boston Massacre occurred on March 5, 1770, when a group of Bostonians harassed a group of British soldiers. In response to the harassment, the soldiers opened fire into the crowd of colonist killing five men. The Boston Massacre was not an actual massacre but a fictitious account from Paul Revere, which was a first example of American propaganda. A lot of other colonies were upset and would soon start to rebel.
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    The Boston Tea Party was a form of protest against the British. A group of drunk Bostonians dressed as Native Americans and boarded British ships and dumb out about 370 chests of tea into the sea. The Boston Tea Party occurred as a form of protest against the acts the British parliament passed earlier (The Tea Act). The colonist wanted to voice the fact that they were being taxed without representation.
  • The Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was not seen as an option but as their only chance by the colonies. The Colonies declared themselves as United and Independent States. Thomas Jefferson drafted the declaration of independence. The colonies were smart and avoided anti-monarchal sentiments in order to find European allies to help them fight against Britain. The Declaration of Independence was completed on July 2nd, 1776 but it was not signed until July 4th, 1776.
  • Common Sense (Thomas Paine)

    Common Sense (Thomas Paine)
    Thomas Paine was a founding father and author who wrote the Common Sense pamphlet. It was written to argue the need for independence from Britain. It attacked the monarchy and it stated the importance of a democratic representative government (republic). It was widely popular and cheap which made it accessible to many colonists. Common Sense made many American colonies change their views towards monarchy.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    The Articles of Confederation were written in 1777 but were ratified in 1779. The Articles of Confederation were a very weak form of government, it had no central government authority and gave individual states power which made it hard for states to agree on a single decision. It couldn't force taxations, it relied on requesitions and states wouldnt comply since they had power. The document was weak and it would soon be replaced but one more stronger.
  • Massachusetts Constitution

    Massachusetts Constitution
    The Constitution of Massachusettes was drafted in 1780 by John Adams and ratified on June 1780. Checks and Balances and separation of branches were written into the Constitution of Massachusetts which was later adopted into the Constitution. Unlike other states, this document was not made as a list rather as an organized book.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris from 1783 ended the revolutionary war. It recognized the U.S. as an independent and sovereign nation and British rule would no longer exist in America. This is important because now they were able to established their own government. It established a northern border between British North/Canada. It also stated that Loyalist property would be restored. The Mississippi River gave access to both nations but the U.S got the frontier land to the Mississipi River.
  • American Virtue (Late 18th Century)

    American Virtue (Late 18th Century)
    In post-war America, things have changed and America has now developed their own identity. Colonist began to build Greek style architecture and was trying to stay away from British styles to show that they did not want to have anything to do with Britain. Republican ideals were now being spread and people were beginning to belive in having a democratic government. There was also a bigger voting population since the only requirement was to own land.
  • Shay's Rebellion

    Shay's Rebellion
    Shay's Rebellion was a conflict in western Massachusetts. It started when the government in Massachusetts decided to raise taxes on land to pay off war debt. These taxes were particularly hard on farmers because they had trouble paying off debts, they had more land and didn't have a good source of income. Daniel Shay led a group of revolutionary war veterans during the post-war recession. Shay's rebellion tested Articles of Confederation and it showed it how weak it was and the need for change.
  • Constitutional Convention

    Constitutional Convention
    The Constitutional Convention was a meeting held in Philadelphia where delegates came together to revise the Articles of Confederation to produced the new U.S Constitution. There were three plans for reformation the Virginia Plan which benefited larger states, the New Jersey Plan that benefitted smaller states and the Connecticut Plan that was a compromise of both. They imposed three branches which were judicial, legislature and executive to help ensure neither had too much power over the other.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was passed by Confederation Congress in 1787. It set rules as to how territories should be settled and the procedure as to how territories could become states. When a territory had over 60,000 people then they could apply to Congress to become a state. The Northwest Ordinance was important because it set rules that made all territories go through the same process of becoming a state, it ensured that settlement towards the west was orderly.
  • Three Branches

    Three Branches
    The Three Branches were established in the constitution to create a separation of power in the U.S. government. The government was divided into three branches the executive, legislative, and judicial. The Judicial Branch overview court cases and was left purposely incomplete. The Legislative branch was divided between the Senate and the house of representatives. The Executive branch is headed by the President. Checks and Balances were created to keep any other branch from having too much power.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    The election of 1788 is important because it was the first election in the U.S. George Washington and John Adams were both running for presidentship. George Washington won and became president he unanimously by getting 69 votes out of 69 votes. He was seen as a god-like figure since he led the revolutionary army into battle to gain independence from britain. George Washington had no running mates, John Adams was elected as vice president since he got second place.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights is the 10 first amendments in the Constitution, written by James Madison in response for the request of many states asking for protection of one's individual rights and liberties. The Virginia Declaration of Rights written by George Mason greatly influenced Madison. These rights includes the freedom of speech, right to bear arms which is simalar to the English Bill of Rights.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    The Whiskey Rebellion was a protest and rebellion against a tax Washington imposed on whiskey to pay off war debt, that soon turned violent from 1791-1794 in the western frontier regions. America was in debt so they decided to put a tax on Whiskey which made farmers who grew grain to make whiskey angry because they couldn't afford to pay the taxes. The Whiskey Rebellion showed the strength and stability the new government had.
  • Bank of the United States

    Bank of the United States
    The Bank of the United States was proposed by Alexander Hamilton who at the time was Secretary of the Treasurer in 1790. It wasn't chartered by Congress until February 25, 1791. The purpose for the bank was to handle all financial needs the newly formed government of the United States may require. This was significant at the time because each state at the time had their own banks and currencies set in place.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin was an important invention in agricultural change it was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It was important in agricultural because it made the process of pulling out seeds from cotton faster meaning that people were now able to start mass production. But it also brought an increase in slavery, even though it was starting to decline because of the increase in cotton production.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Jay's Treaty was made by John Jay the first supreme court chief of justice. It was a negotiation between Britain and America. It stated that Britain had to pay for American ships that were seized in 179 and that America had to pay British merchants debts owed before the revolution. The Republicans were outraged because they now saw federalist as pro-British and it made an even deeper separation between the already politically divided government.
  • Election of 1796

    Election of 1796
    In the election of 1796, John Adams was nominated to run for the presidential election by the federalist and Thomas Jefferson was nominated by the Republicans. John Adams won the Election and became president and Thomas Jefferson became vice president. Adams did not go into the office until 1797. 10 states out of 16 had legislatures voting for the electors and the other 6 had the citizens voting directly which led to intense campaigning.
  • XYZ Affair

    XYZ Affair
    The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic scandal that lasts from 1979 to 1800. Jay's Treaty caused problems since it limited French trade, in response the French seized ships. Adams sends American envoys to France to negotiate with French agents that are referred to as X, Y, and Z. The agents demanded major concessions that include 250,000 for diplomats and a $10,000,000 loan from the U.S. to France and an apology from John Adams for all the problems he caused.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    The Temperance Movement began in the early 1800's it was a movement that fought to ban alcohol in the united states. The moment promoted a moderation or complete abstinence from alcohol. The movement spread rapidly under the influence of the churches. This movement led to the 18th Amendment in 1920 which prohibited the intoxicating liquors in the United States which declared the production, transportation and sale of liquors.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground railroad was a network between abolitionists that secretly helped free slaves by helping them escape to freedom. Safe houses and secret routes were set up throughout the united states and would be used to help slaves escape to free states or to Canada. Harriet Tubman made 19 trips to the south to and led over 300 slaves to freedom but helped over 100,000 slaves escape in 30 years.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival that began in 1801 it was based on Methodism and Baptism. It picked up and spread quicker in 1820. The ideas of salvation through good deeds and tolerance towards other was highly stressed. These revivals attracted minorities such as women, blacks and Native Americans. The Second Great Awakening also had an effect on other movements like the temperance movement and it gave a resoning as to why people should be against slavery.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Lousiana Purchase was a deal between France and the United States. The United States acquired the Lousiana territory which was approximately 827,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River from France in 1803 for $15 million. The land purchase secured American control over the mississipi river and it doubled the size of the country.
  • Louisiana Purchase - Lewis and Clark

    Louisiana Purchase - Lewis and Clark
    The Lewis and Clark expedition was made from 1804-1806 under the request of Thomas Jefferson. It was an overland expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to the west of the Mississippi River also known as the Louisiana territory that was purchased from France. Jefferson sent out the expeditioners to explore and map out the newly purchased land and to established an American Presence before other European nations could.
  • Embargo Act of 1807

    Embargo Act of 1807
    The Embargo Act of 1807 was a law passed by Congress that prohibited exportation of American goods to Britain and France. The Act was a reaction to the continuous harassment from Britain and France, they would seize U.S. ships and men. The U.S wasn't prepared to fight in the war so Jefferson was hoping that depriving the nations of American goods that it will weaken them, but the Embargo Act ended up hurting the U.S economy more than it affected them.
  • Steamboats

    Steamboats
    The first successful steamboat model was invented by Robert Fulton in 1807. He created the first steamboat that was able to carry cargo and passengers. Fulton first purchases a steam engine which allowed him to power a 133-foot steamboat. He transforms transportation because it now allowed people to travel at a more quicker pace and his invention promoted trade aswell. Steamboats would travel in canals and otger navigable waterways.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    During the War of 1812, America declared war with Britain for various reasons which include Britains seizure of Americans ships and impressment of sailors. At the time the British had the strongest navy. On 1813 the British blocked American ports, the British burnt down the white house and America defeated the British at the battle at Great Lakes. The war ended with the Treaty of Ghent, peace negotiations began in Ghent, Belgium in August 1824 but the treaty wasn't signed until December 1814.
  • Technological Benefits of the War of 1812

    Technological Benefits of the War of 1812
    The War of 1812 gave the United States many technological Advancements. The embargo the British placed on the United States caused them to create new innovations to be able to do things for themselves. Some of those innovations include the cotton gin created by Eli Whitney and new firearms that had a more accurate shot and steam engines that helped the production of manufactured goods and transportation to evolved.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was destined by God to expand and own all land between the Atlantic and Pacific ocean. The rapid gain of land in the 1800s led to many negative outcomes which includes a war with Mexico, the mistreatment, and dislocation of Native Americans and other domestic groups. The ecxpansion also led to further debate, whether new states would allow slavery or not, this debate later lead to the Civil War.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was the last major battle of the War of 1812. American Forces, under the command of Andrew Jackson successfully repelled the invasion from the British Army. Despite being outnumbered the American army won against the British. The news of the Treaty of Ghent did not reach America until after the battle of New Orleans which is why many believe it is the battle that won the war. It is important victory for Andrew Jackson because he was recognize as a war hero.
  • Roads

    Roads
    Before the industrial revolution, there were a few roads which were in bad conditions, they would flood easily and were filled with boulders this made traveling dangerous and difficult. In 1817 Congress authorized the construction of the National Road which extended from Maryland to Virginia. These roads were made out of crushed stone which made traveling much easier and safer since the roads would not get flooded nor muddy. Roads made traveling by wagon much faster.
  • Canals

    Canals
    Canals were man-made waterways. In 1817 the Erie Canal was made it was a 363-mile canal that connected cities by water and it made transportation quicker and easier. When the Erie Canal was completed it instantly became popular. It was an inexpensive route from the Northwest to New York. It allowed goods to be transported at a much faster speed and at a lower cost. The Erie canal also connected farms in the west to the east which led to a growth in agriculture.
  • Adams-Onis Treaty

    Adams-Onis Treaty
    The Adams-Onis Treaty also known as the Transcontinental Treaty and it was ratified in 1821. The treaty was an agreement between Spain and the United States. Spain agreed to sell Florida to the United States. It established western boundaries for the United States and it prevented Native Americans(Seminoles) from invading Georgia. The treaty was signed by John Adams (secretary of state) on February 22, 1819 at Washington dc and by Luis de Onis(Spanish minister).
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    The Lowell Mills were mills that hired Young women and girl to come work at textile factories. They were offered housing and supervise dormitories or boarding houses and were offered educational opportunities. Mostly females worked in the mills adn would get paid only about three or four dollars per week. Women would work in mills to feel independent or to help take care of their families and sacrifice seeing their own families. Women would have to endure working in harsh conditions.
  • Election of 1824

    Election of 1824
    During the Election of 1824 there were 4 nominees, Andre Jackson, Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and William Crawford.Despite winning by popular vote Andrew Jackson did not assume office. The election went to the House of Representatives where Henry Clay helps influence officials to vote for John Adams. Henry Clay who was the Speaker of the House at the time helped John Adams become president in return he would become secretary of state. The Election of 1824 is also known as the Corrupt Bargain.
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    The Election of 1828 was seen as a rematch between the candidates, Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. There were two major political parties in this election, the National Republicans whose candidate was John Quincy Adams and the Democrats and their canditate was, Andrew Jackson. Andrew Jackson won by the majority of popular votes and electoral votes. This election was important because it paved the way for political campaigns. Both sides would also slander each other to gain votes.
  • Spoil System

    Spoil System
    After Andrew Jackson won the election of 1828 he introduced a new system of employing and promoting civil servants. He hired them based on their connections, people who helped him win the presidential election and people who were friends and supporters were prime candidates. It didn't matter if they had an education or the right experience for the job. Jackson giving his political party supporters a job in the office meant that the governmental office would become very corrupt.
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830

    Indian Removal Act of 1830
    The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by Andrew Jackson who was president at the time. He strongly supported the south and the idea of gaining access to the land inhabited by the Native Americans. The Act granted unsettled lands west of the Mississippi River in exchange for Native American land.The Act was intended to be a voluntary removal some tribes left peacefully but others resisted the reloccation policy.
  • Mormons

    Mormons
    Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Later-Day Saints are called Mormons, the church was founded on April 1830 in Fayette New York by Joseph Smith during the Second Great Awakening. The group emphasized saving, hard work and risk-taking. Members would be persecuted which is why they moved to Mexican Territory. Joseph Smith founded the religion with the guidance of an angel and found a golden tablet that only he was able to translate in 1823.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism
    Transcendentalism was a philosophy created by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830s. The philosophy shared the idea that each person has direct communication with God, the importance of natured and there's no need for an organized church. The philosophy promoted the idea of individualism, self-reliance, freedom. Many followers degraded the idea of materialism and believed in the importance of nature. Transcedentalism influenced much of modern literature in america.
  • Abolitionist

    Abolitionist
    An abolitionist was a person who favors the idea of abolishing slavery. During the 1800s abolitionist either favored the idea of gradualism or immediatism. Gradualism was the idea of gradually freeing slaves to Liberia this idea was never popular with African Americans because they had spent the majority of their life in America and did not want to leave. Immediatism was the idea of immediatly ending slavery which was the most popular idea amongs abolitionist.
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    Nat Turner's Rebellion
    Nat Turner's rebellion took place in 1831 in Virginia, Nat Turner had a vision and led a group of slaves to attack whites in Southampton County. Turner alongside to 70 other slaves were killed as well as 60 white people. Nat Turner was executed and hundreds of other slaves were punished. This slave rebellion frightened the south into thinking another rebellion could occur. Slave codes became even harsher than before and freedom for all black in the south was restricted.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

    Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
    In 1831 the Cherokee filed a court case and fought for defense against the Indian Removal Act and against the nullification of Cherokee laws. Chief of Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had a right to their land but that they were not a foreign nation in the constitution but a domestic nation and they could not sue in a united states court. Although it did not work in the favor of the Cherokee it cast doubt on the constitutionality of the Indian Removal Act.
  • Tariff Act of 1832

    Tariff Act of 1832
    The Tariff Act of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the united states. The act was passed as a reduced tariff to fix the conflict that was created by the Tariff Act of 1828. It was seen as unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups that were hurt by such high tariff rates. Southern groups opposed to this tariff act caused the Nullification Crissis that involved Southern Carolina. To satisfy those against the act the tariff would be lowered.
  • American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS)

    American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS)
    The American Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other Abolitionist. Garrison Advocated for the immediate abolition of slavery. By 1840 AASS had over 150,000 members who would have meetings, would adopt resolutions, would sign antislavery petitions to be sent to Congress and would spread anti-slavery propaganda. Many of members of this society were drawn in from religious circles. The Society split into two in 1839 due to oppositions the AASS ended in 1870.
  • Battle of San Jacinto

    Battle of San Jacinto
    The Battle of San Jacinto was a surprise attack made by Texas militia against Santa Ana's forces on April 21, 1836.Santa Ana's men were taken by surprise and were overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana and many of his men were taken as prisoners.In exchange for his freedom, Santa Ana had to sign a treaty that would recognize Texas as its own independent country.Over 1,500 men died and over 1,000 were captured as prisoners in this battle.The battle was important because Texas gain its independence.
  • Sam Houston

    Sam Houston
    Sam Houston was a United Staes politician and military general who led a group of men into battle to gain independence for Texas from Mexico. He trained the Texas militia led them to defeat and captured Santa Anna at the battle of San Jacinto where Texas gained their independence from mexico.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1836. It declared all slaves in Confederate territory free. Many slaves weren't freed because many territories were still under Confederate control. Emancipation arrived in states that weren't in rebellion until after the ratification of the 13th amendment that made slavery illegal everywhere in the united states.
  • Trail of Tears

    Trail of Tears
    As part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee were forced to give up their land east of the Mississippi River. The Cherokee were forced to travel from North Carolina and Georgia to territory in Ohio, They were forced to travel more than 800 miles. The Cherokee refer to this as the Trail of Tears for the effects, over 4,000 of their people died due to fatigue, hunger, and diseases.
  • Oregon Trail

    Oregon Trail
    The Oregon Trail that people took to travel west during the westward expansion. It was over two hundred miles a passed through to modern-day Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The trail ended in Oregon City, Oregon and it began in Independence, Missouri. People would travel all the way to Oregon since there was free land.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    The annexation of Texas occurred in 1845, the united states annexed Texas. Texas joined the union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845, after declaring their independence from Mexico. Both houses of Congress supported the annexation, President Pol signed the bill and accepted Texas as a state.
  • Bear Flag Revolt

    Bear Flag Revolt
    The Bear Flag revolt took place from June to July 1846. It was a small group of American Settlers in California that rebelled against the Mexican government and stated that California was an independent republic. The Bear Flag Revolt is a cause for the Mexican War. After the war California joined the United States as a state.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls convention was held on July 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mills.It was the first women rights convention in the U.S. 300 women of all ages and some men attended to discuss the rights of women. The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was written which secured the right in economics and voting for women and it listed resolutions. The media was mainly negative in coverage but this convention paved the way for future suffrage.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was a peace treaty that officially ended the U.S-Mexican War and gave 500,000 square miles of land to the United States from Mexico. To acquire the land the United States agree to pay $15,000,000 to Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe of Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848. The treaty satisfied the idea of Manifest destiny by allowing the united states to owe land from the pacific to the atlantic ocean.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    During the California Gold Rush thousands of miner travel to Northern California after hearing the news of the discovery of Gold at Sutter's Mill that was discovered by James W. Marshall. Over 300,000 men, women, and children arrived in California from all over the United States and from abroad. This early group of gold seakers were called "forty-niners". A government and law system were created which lead to California applying for statehood.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the Compromise of 1850 it was a law that state that any fugitive or runaway slave was to be found and returned to their owner. The Act also made a law that anyone caught helping could face time in prison or be fined. Slaves would not have a right to trial. Commissioners would be paid to capture runaway slaves whether they were the right or wrong ones. This Act gave a push towards the civil war because abolitionism grew in the north.
  • Uncle's Tom Cabin

    Uncle's Tom Cabin
    Uncle's Tom Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and was published in 1852. It was an influencing novel that showed the horrorid condition of slavery in the south, it made the North go against slavery. Uncle's Tom Cabin is important because it led to the civil war because of the Norths opposition of Slavery.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas Nebraska Act was introduced by Stephen A. Douglas because and was passed by Congress on May 30, 1854. This Act sets up Kansas and Nebraska as two states, each state was to use popular sovereignty to decide whether they were a free or slave state. The Act was highly opposed and it led to fights against pro-slavery forces and anti-slavery forces. The Act repel the teh 36 30 line which probihited slavery north of the line which made abolitionist unhappy.
  • Dred Scott v. Sandford

    Dred Scott v. Sandford
    After the death of Dred Scott owner, he sues his past owner's wife for his freedom. All seven justices of the supreme court denied his claim stating that all Blacks at the time aren't citizens of the united states, therefore, he wasn't allowed to sue. The case also rules that congress can't regulate slavery in territories whether it is in the north or south. The case was highly publicized which made northerners and abolitionist want him to be free.
  • Lincoln Douglas Debates

    Lincoln Douglas Debates
    The Lincoln Douglas Debates were a series of debates that argued over important topics at the time like the Dred Scott case, and popular sovereignty. Douglas was part of the democrat party and lincoln was part of the republican party. After the debate Lincoln had becomed a star in the new Republic party and his popularity helped him win the presidential election of 1860.
  • North

    North
    During the civil war era, the north had a population of 22 million. The North had 110,000 factories it produced 97% of weapons, 94% of clothing and 90% of shoes and boots in the united states. The north also had the most railroads, it had 30,000 miles of railroad tracks. The North was fighting in the civil war to uphold the Constitution.
  • South

    South
    During the Civil War Era, the South had a population of 9 million, 3.5 to 4 million were slaves. The south only had 18,000 factories compared to the North it was a small amount. The south only produced 3% of weapons, 6% of clothing, and 10% of shoes and boots. The south had the least railroads, it only had 9,000 miles of railroad tracks. The south did have good military leadership and were hoping to gain britain as an ally.
  • 1st Bull Run

    1st Bull Run
    The Bull Run was the first major battle of the civil war it was fought on July 1861. 30,000 union troop (army of the Potomac) marched from D.C to the south to attack Confederate Forces. The Bull run was a humiliating defeat for the union because General Stonewall Jackson sent out inexperienced union troop into battle. The battle was a short war, the union troop fleed back to D.C.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    After the confederate won at the first battle of Bull Run, Lee led his troop across the Potomac into enemy territory. McClellan was back in command of the Union army and he had an advantage in this battle because he knew Lee's battle plan because a copy was dropped by a Confederate officer. The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single day war. The battle was a draw, Lincoln used this battle to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Lincolns 10% Plan

    Lincolns 10% Plan
    Lincolns 10% plan was the reconstruction plan of 1863. where he pardoned all southerners but not officers nor officials. The plan would allow a southern state to reenter the union if the people took an oath of loyalty and the territory would have to reapply for federal recognition. Once the 10% of the population takes the oath the state would be reamiitted.
  • Sharecroppers

    Sharecroppers
    Sharecropping was an agriculture system where a landowner would allow its tenants to use the land in return for a portion of the crops produced on the land. After the civil war and during reconstruction sharecropping was increasing and becoming popular. Sharecropper duties would include the planting and harvesting of all crops. Emancipated slaves and poor whites were the majority in the sharecropping system.
  • Abraham Lincolns Assassination

    Abraham Lincolns Assassination
    Abraham Lincolns Assassination occurred during the performance of "Our American Cousin" at the Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C on April 14, 1865. Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth and passed away the following morning. The assassination occurred a few days after the surrender of the Confederacy by General Robert E. Lee at the Appomattox Court House.
  • Appomattox Courthouse

    Appomattox Courthouse
    Confederate leader General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse.Union sieged Confederate troops at richmond and starved General Lee's troops and forced him to retreat. After fighting the war for four years the Union won and helped free slaves. Over 650,000 Americans died in the war.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified by Congress on December 6, 1865. The Thirteenth Amendment abolishes slavery and Congress has the power to enforce this with the legislature. Lincoln and the Radical Republicans passed this Amendment before the end of the civil war.
  • Black Codes

    Black Codes
    The Black Codes were put into place after the Civil War, there were laws passed by southern states. The Black codes limited African Americans human rights and civil liberties. The laws were passed intending to force African Americans back to plantations. The Black codes controlled labor, migration, the codes varied from state to state but it continue to belittle freed slaves.
  • Carpetbaggers and Scalawags

    Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
    Carpetbagger was a term used to refer to Northerners who moved to the south after the civil war. Many moved to the south for their own personal financial gain or political power. Many were former Union soldiers who were attracted to the souths cheap land.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    The Freedman's Bureau was established by Congress in 1865 to help former black slaves and poor whites in the south after the civil war. It provide food, clothing, medical care and education to freedman and poor whites in the south affected by the civil war . It was the first to establish a school for African Americans to learn how to read and write. The Freedmans Bureau was a system to help former slaves transition from slavery to freedom.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The fourteenth amendment is passed on July 9, 1868. It defines citizens as anyone born in the united states, it entitles everyone to equal protection of the law. Southern representation in Congress would be denied if freedman's rights were taken away.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The fifteenth amendment was passed on February 3, 1870. It was a right giving unversal male suffarage to African Americans. It was necessary to protect the black vote but later on there will be new laws making it harder for African Americans to vote due to the new requirements which include the literacy test. Soon after women will want suffarege as well.
  • Jim Crow

    Jim Crow
    The Jim Crow laws were created to enforce the segregation of blacks from whites. These laws were both state and local level that were passed in 1877 and existed until the mid-1950s. Southerners regained their dominance over African Americans by denying them basic civil rights. African Americans were segregated by many public places such as schools, parks, public transportation, and benches. During this time bathrooms and water fountains were segregated as well.
  • Period:
    3,000 BCE
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    Beginning to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America

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    The Revolutionary War

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    The Constitution

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    New Republic

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    The Age of Jefferson

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    Westward Expansion

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    The American Industrial Revolution

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    Cultural Changes

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    Age of Jackson

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    Sectionalism

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    The Civil War

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    Reconstruction