Effects of Urbanization: Demographic Changes

  • Young Marriage

    After 1750 more people got married younger, therefore the population increased because couples had more time together to have children. This was important because it was seen as unacceptable for people to have children outside of marriage at this time. There was a large improvement for pregnant women which led to more children that were mentally stable and grew up to have more children.
  • U.S. population reaches 5 million

  • Working Children

    After 1800 there was a lot more factories, and they started to employ young children, Parents had their children work in factories. As a result couples had more children so that the kids would earn them money. This was important because couples couldn't usually afford children back in 1750, but when the children got a older they helped their parents have money.
  • Outbreak of Cholera in Great Britain

    Outbreak of Cholera in Great Britain
    One of the main killers during the Industrial Revolution was Cholera. As urban cities grew, more factories were created which led to migrations from the countryside and immigration from different parts of Europe to America. Housing for the incoming workers was cramped in, with little regard for hygiene. Large slums were developing mainly around areas with small roads, and sewage works and washing facilities did not exist. This led to infected water supply causing people to fall ill much quicker.
  • Factory Act of 1833

    Factory Act of 1833
    At this time America's birth rate was rising so there was a large labor force. Companies hired young children to work in factories. However, they were only paid only a fraction of what an adult would get, and sometimes factory owners would get away with paying them nothing. Orphans were the ones subject to this slavelike labor. If the children weren't paid, factory owners would say that they gave the orphans food, shelter, and clothing, all of which were far below par.
  • Ireland's Famine

    Ireland suffered a terrible famine. Faced with a massive cost of feeding the starving population many local landowners paid for labourers to emigrate. About a million of these laborers migrated to Britian, and many others moved to North America. This led to an increased population to the cities.
  • Stopping Smallpox

    From 1843 to 1855 states required a smallpox vaccination (Edward Jenner’s vaccine). Although some disliked these coordinated measures, efforts against smallpox went on, and the disease continued to diminish in the wealthy countries. By 1897, smallpox had largely been eliminated from the U.S.
  • Railroad Transportation

    From 1844 to 1845, the building of railroads across the U.S helped people migrate from the countryside to urban cities. This kept the population of cities rising in numbers, whether they were skilled or unskilled, male or female. Many were able to attain jobs, thus expanding the labor force.
    Wealthier families were able to attain jobs that required more skill and knowledge, creating a gap between the upper class and lower class.
  • U.S. population reaches 31 million

  • End of Atlantic Slave Trade

    End of Atlantic Slave Trade
    In the early 19th century, the slave trade from Africa was ended under British leadership. New humanitarian considerations helped decline slave trade. Also, the new ability of industrial factories to organize free workers more effectively for production was a major factor in this development.
  • Studies of Rowntree(picture) and Booth

    Studies of Rowntree(picture) and Booth
    These writers helped change attitudes towards the causes of poverty. Booth carried out research on poor living conditions and poverty experienced in London, while Rowntree made a social investigation into the problems experienced by the poor in New York. These investigations provided statistical evidence for genuine concern for the poor. They said that illness and old age were greater causes of poverty than idleness and weakness.
    This was part of the advent of medical advances and discovory.
  • Women's Trade Union League (WTUL)

    Women's Trade Union League (WTUL)
    Founded in 1903 by Jane Addams, Mary Anderson and other trade unionists, the Women's Trade Union League devoted itself to securing better occupational conditions for women and encouraging women to join the labor movement.
    As the Industrial Revolution dragged on, many women acheived more jobs outside of home and was able to gain more status.
  • Margaret Sanger

    Margaret Sanger
    Margaret Sanger opens the first U.S. birth-control clinic in Brooklyn, N.Y. Her personal experience and work as a public-health nurse convinced her that family planning, especially where poverty was a factor, was a necessary step in social progress. Although the clinic is shut down 10 days later and Sanger is arrested, she eventually wins support through the courts and opens another clinic in New York City in 1923.