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Kristin Hughes; Major Civil Rights Protests, 1954-1965

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  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Several black children sought admission to public schools that required or permitted segregation based on race. The plaintiffs alleged that segregation was unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    That was the day when the blacks of Montgomery, Alabama, decided that they would boycott the city buses until they could sit anywhere they wanted, instead of being relegated to the back when a white boarded.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional.
  • Birmingham Children's March and Boycott

    Birmingham Children's March and Boycott
    This was a march by hundreds of school students in Birmingham, during the American Civil Rights Movement's Birmingham Campaign. Initiated and organized by Rev. James Bevel, the purpose of the march was to walk downtown to talk to the mayor about segregation in their city. Many children left their schools in order to be arrested, set free, and then to get arrested again the next day.
  • Woolworth's Sit-in

    Woolworth's Sit-in
    This was the most violently attacked sit-in of the '60s and the most publicized.It involved a White mob of several hundred, it went on for several hours while hostile police from Jackson's huge all-White police department stood by approvingly outside and while hostile FBI agents inside "observed." All of them were covered with sugar, salt, mustard, and other slop. They was beaten many times -- fists, brass knuckles, and a broken glass sugar container -- and were covered with blood.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    March on Washington was a peaceful demonstration to promote Civil Rights and economic equality for African Americans. Participants walked down Constitution and Independence avenues, then gathered before the Lincoln Monument for speeches, songs, and prayer. Televised live to an audience of millions, the march provided dramatic moments, most memorably the Rev Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.
  • Selma to Montgomery March

    Selma to Montgomery March
    On Sunday March 7, 1965, about six hundred people began a fifty-four mile march from Selma, Alabama to the state capitol in Montgomery. They were demonstrating for African American voting rights and to commemorate the death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, shot three weeks earlier by an state trooper while trying to protect his mother at a civil rights demonstration.