Eratosthenes (276-192 BC)first determined
the world’s circumference by using
observations obtained while looking down a
well on the summer solstice.
Pytheas (325 BC)worked out a
method for determining latitudes and
using astronomical measurements
proposed that tides were a product of
Jan 4, 1400
Prince Henry the Navigator mid (1400's)established a marine observatory to
improve the Portuguese sailing endeavors and
conquered one of the greatest trades
problems-getting around the tip of Africa.
Jan 6, 1500
Ptolemy (15th century)Geographia is a discussion of the data and of the methods he used. As with the model of the solar system in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today,
Jan 4, 1513
Ferdinand Magellan (1513)circumnavigated
the globe through a passage
way at 52° S latitude now
called the Straights of
Benjamin Franklin (1777)Discovering Surface currents
and therefore in 1777 published
the first map of the Gulf
James Cook (1778)Cook discovered Hawaiian group in 1778 and
determined the outline of the worlds largest ocean
and the first person known to cross the Atlantic
Charles DarwinDecember 27, 1831 – Under
Captain Robert Fitzroy a 5
year trip surveyed the coast
line resulted in
Matthew Maury (1806-1873)In 1853 established uniform methods of
making nautical and meteorological
observations at sea.
Challenger Expedition (December 1872 to May 1876)First large scale voyage with the
purpose of increasing knowledge of the
distribution of life in the ocean and of
the chemical and physical properties of
SonarTechnique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect other vessels.
bathyspheris a spherical deep-sea submersible which is unpowered and is lowered into the ocean on a cable.
Phoenicians (590 BC)Phoenicians circumnavigated
Africa and sailed the North Atlantic as far
as European Coast and British Isle where
they were known to trade for tin which is
used in making bronze.
Herodontus (490 BC)Herodontus constructed a map of the
Mediterranean Sea in 490 BC.
Eric he Red (982 A.D.)982 A.D. Eric the Red sailed westward from
Greenland and discovered Baffin Island.