History of Oceanography Erik Martinez, Alex Deshazo 1 period

  • 276

    Eratosthenes (276-192 BC)

    first determined
    the world’s circumference by using
    observations obtained while looking down a
    well on the summer solstice.
  • 325

    Pytheas (325 BC)

    worked out a
    method for determining latitudes and
    using astronomical measurements
    proposed that tides were a product of
    lunar influences.
  • Jan 4, 1400

    Prince Henry the Navigator mid (1400's)

    established a marine observatory to
    improve the Portuguese sailing endeavors and
    conquered one of the greatest trades
    problems-getting around the tip of Africa.
  • Jan 6, 1500

    Ptolemy (15th century)

    Geographia is a discussion of the data and of the methods he used. As with the model of the solar system in the Almagest, Ptolemy put all this information into a grand scheme. Following Marinos, he assigned coordinates to all the places and geographic features he knew, in a grid that spanned the globe. Latitude was measured from the equator, as it is today,
  • Jan 4, 1513

    Ferdinand Magellan (1513)

    the globe through a passage
    way at 52° S latitude now
    called the Straights of
  • Benjamin Franklin (1777)

    Discovering Surface currents
    and therefore in 1777 published
    the first map of the Gulf
  • James Cook (1778)

    Cook discovered Hawaiian group in 1778 and
    determined the outline of the worlds largest ocean
    and the first person known to cross the Atlantic
  • Charles Darwin

    December 27, 1831 – Under
    Captain Robert Fitzroy a 5
    year trip surveyed the coast
    line resulted in
  • Matthew Maury (1806-1873)

    In 1853 established uniform methods of
    making nautical and meteorological
    observations at sea.
  • Challenger Expedition (December 1872 to May 1876)

    First large scale voyage with the
    purpose of increasing knowledge of the
    distribution of life in the ocean and of
    the chemical and physical properties of
    the ocean.
  • Sonar

    Technique that uses sound propagation to navigate, communicate with or detect other vessels.
  • bathyspher

    is a spherical deep-sea submersible which is unpowered and is lowered into the ocean on a cable.
  • Phoenicians (590 BC)

    Phoenicians circumnavigated
    Africa and sailed the North Atlantic as far
    as European Coast and British Isle where
    they were known to trade for tin which is
    used in making bronze.
  • Herodontus (490 BC)

    Herodontus constructed a map of the
    Mediterranean Sea in 490 BC.
  • Eric he Red (982 A.D.)

    982 A.D. Eric the Red sailed westward from
    Greenland and discovered Baffin Island.