Zach's Fantastic Timeline

  • Invention of Cotton Gin

    Invention of Cotton Gin
    Eli Whitney is the man who invented the Cotton Gin. He was born in Massachusetts on December 5, 1765. He was a main pioneer in the production of cotton. The Cotton Gin is an automated machine that speeds up the process of removing the cottonseed from the raw cotton fibers. Before the invention, this process of removing the cottonseeds would take hundreds of man-hours to complete. Whitney faced many imposers who took his idea and made their own "Cotton Gin".
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    Zach's Fantastic Timeline

  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a secret organization that helped slaves escape slavery into the North. This name is actually very misleading because there was no railroad underground. Harriett Tubman was a main leader of the Underground Railroad. Slaves in the South referred to her as "Moses". She helped more than 300 slaves to freedom. Between 1810 and 1850 the South lost 100,00 slaves. The Underground Railroad used a system of houses and buisnesses to hold runaway slaves.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    Slaves would stay at these "safe-havens" until it was safe for them to move on. They would work their way up to the North and into freedom. The Underground Railroad was run throughout all of the South.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise established the balance of power in slave states and free states. Those in the South wanted to have slavery in more states. With Missouri becoming a slave state the balance of power would be altered. Henry Clay offered a "compromise" after Maine wanted statehood in the U.S. Missouri would be admitted as a slave state and Maine would become a free state. This compromise brought back balance to power in Congress.
  • Wilmont Proviso

    Wilmont Proviso
    On August 8, 1846, David Wilmont proposed an idea that would split Congress. He introduced this legislation to the House. It was proposed that the lands gained from the Mexican War would be Free-States. No slavery or involuntary servtitude would be allowed in those territories. Wilmont didn't really care about slavery, however, he thought that California should be a free state so that slaves wouldnt take the jobs of free whites. The house passed the Wilmont Proviso but it would never become law.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    With President Taylors death, Millard Fillmore moved into office. Fillmore wanted to have both sides pleased in a compromise. Senator leaders thought it best to break up one compromise into smaller pieces. First, California would be brought into the Union as a free state. The ruling of "popular soverignty" would decide if the state would be free or slave. Texas recieved ten million dollars since the New Mexico territory was lost.
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    The Slave Trade was abolished in Washington, D.C. Lastly there was a new Fugutive Slave Act that was passed in Congress.
  • "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

    "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
    "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is a novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The novel was a story about "Uncle Tom" who was a African American man in slavery. Tom was a married man and had 3 children. Harriet Beecher Stowe was a huge Abolishtionist of the time. This novel was such a main seller because people in the North thought they had an idea about how slavery was, but, with this book they were able to put a face on slavery. This book gave a picture to people of how terrible slavery really was.
  • "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

    "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
    "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was a best seller in many places other than the United States. It was also a best seller in Europe, Asia, and Great Britain and was translated to over 60 other languages.
  • Caning of Charles Sumner

    Caning of Charles Sumner
    This was a brutal attack on Senator Charles Sumner by Senator Preston Brooks. Sumner, a Anti-Slavery Republican, gave a speech on whether Kansas should be brought into the Union as a slave or free state. In his "Crime Against Kansas" speech he indirectly called out two Democratic Senators, Stephen Douglas and Andrew Bulter. Douglas from Illinois and Bulter from South Carolina. Preston Brooks a kinsmen of Bulter was insulted by Sumners comments.
  • The Caning of Charles Sumner

    The Caning of Charles Sumner
    On May 22, 1856 after Senate had adjourned, Brooks came behind Sumner and bashed him in the head with his cane numerous times. While bleeding tremendousily Sumner was carried out and Brooks just walked out not being bothered by the shocked onlookers.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    Dred Scott was an African-American slave in Missouri. His master was an Officer in the U.S. Army, took him from Missouri which was a slave state. Then into Illinois, a free state, then to Wisconsin. Scott lived in free territory for many years. When his master got orders from the Army, he took Scott back with him to the slave state of Missouri. Scott hired a lawyer and sued for his freedom in court, saying he should be a free man since he lived in a free state for many years.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    This case went all the way to the Supreme Court where Scott was denied his freedom. The judges of the Supreme Court declared that no slave or any desendant of a slave can become a U.S. citizen. With Scott being a "non-citizen" he could not sue a Federal Court and he had to remain in slavery.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    The Lincoln-Douglas Debates were a series of debates between the two during their runnign for Senator of Illinois in 1858. These debates were based on the main issues that were dividing our nation in half. Slavery, Popular Soverignty, and social statuses of black were these issues. This Senatorial Election put small town lawyer, Lincoln up against the returning Senator, Douglas. For months Lincoln and Douglas traveled all over Illinois and participated in 7 debates against each other.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    During these debates Douglas tried to make Lincoln seem as a "Black Republican". However Lincoln denied the acusations of being a radical. He believed in the opposistion of interfering with slavery in states where it already exsisted.
  • Raid on Harpers Ferry, Virgina

    Raid on Harpers Ferry, Virgina
    The Raid on Harpers Ferry was lead by John Brown. Brown was an Abolishtionist from the North. Brown devised a plan to take over the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry. After taking the arsenal slaves would join Brown in the fight for their freedom. However, this plan didnt work out according the way Brown wanted. He and 20 men sucessfully took the aresenal. There they took refuge in the aresnals engine room house. They then were surrounded by Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee.
  • Raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia

    Raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    Brown was sucessfully captured and taken to Charlestown, Virginia. He was put on trial and found guilty. Brown was hanged on December 2, 1859.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    During the Election of 1860 slavery was the main issue. Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckenridge as their Presidental Candidate. They're party platform pleged to protect slavery. The Northern Candidate was Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had more of a moderate view on slavery. Republicans believed that Lincoln would be a good challenge against Democratic Douglas. In his campaign Lincoln traveled through the South preaching on the value of having a Union.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    He also was talking out on secession. If needed he would convict Andrew Jackson for the Nullification Crisis about 30 years before.
  • Formation of the Confederate States of America

    Formation of the Confederate States of America
    On this date South Carolina was the first state that seceded from the Union. Shortly after South Carolina seceded many other southern states follwed such as, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, etc. Representatives from the seven states that seceded from the Union met in Montgomery, AL to create the Confederate States of America. They hoped to have a peaceful separation from the North. They wanted to have somewhat of a similiar Consitution as the U.S with some small changes.
  • Formation of the Confederate States of America

    Formation of the Confederate States of America
    One change that they wanted to make was to have Presidents serve 6-year long terms. The President of the C.S.A was Jefferson Davis. They also wanted to give Presidents the option of a item veto, and give cabinet officals chance to participate in Congressional debates. Lastly they wanted to prohibit protective tariffs and federal funding that would be used for interal improvements.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    This was the first battle of the Civil War between the sides. This battle however was not the first "head to head" battle. After Lincoln was anugarated as president he recieved a message from Major Rober Anderson stating that the Fort was running low on supplies and food. Fort Sumter however was outside of Charlestown, South Carolina. This was after South Carolina seceded from the Union. The Confederacy was not going to tolerate the presence of a foreign power in their territory.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    General P.G.T Beauregard ordered the evacuation of the Union presence Fort Sumter. Major Anderson didnt participate in any evacuation plan and on April 12, 1861 at 4:30 a.m. the General Beauregard opened fire on the fort. This was just a "shelling" on the fort. There was only one death due to an accidental explosion.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Bull Run was the first "head to head" battle of the Civil War. this battle is also known as the Battle of Manassas. The plan was for the Union forces under Gen. Irwin McDowell to attack Confederate forces under Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard. Beauregard held the strong position near Bull Run, outside of Manassas, VA. The Union wanted to try and defeat the bulk of the Confederate Army and open way to Richmond. There they would end the war with the capture of the Confederate capital.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    Thomas Jackson would be known as Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson after this battle. As Confederate troops were retreating, Jackson stood tall like a "wall" and remain on the "high ground" at Henry House Hill. Confederate troops recieved reinforcments and won the first battle of the Civil War.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    This is also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing in Tennessee. General Johnston lead Confederate troops to attack Union General Grants army on April 6, 1862. Although the Union was unprepared they still managed to hold off Confederate forces until reinforcements arrived. General Buell was the leader of the reinforcements for the Union Army. The Confederacy faced a big blow with the death of Gen. Johnston from a stray bullet. On April 7, 1862 Gen. Grant ordered a counterattack.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    With this counterattack the Confederacy retreated back to Cornith. If the Confederacy would have won this would have been a huge victory and might have shown Britain that they should be recognized. With the loss of the battle and loss of soliders both sides realized this would be a long bloody war.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    On September 16, 1862 Gen. McClellan and Union troops met Gen. Lee's force in Sharpsburg, MD. On the morning of September 17, 1862 Gen. Hooker's troops began an attack on the Confederate flank. This battle was the bloodiest day in American history. The Union had numerous attacks and the Confederates stood their ground. Although the Union had a huge advantage over the Confederacy number wise, "Stonewall" Jackson held their ground near Dunker Church.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    Later on in the day, General Burnside tried to push his troop to attack by moving across the stone bridge of Antietam Creek. A.P Hill's force came to save the day and help the Confederacy drive Burnside's troops back. This was a hard fought battle and gave Lincoln the "victory" that he needed and after this he delievered the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    Lincoln proposed the Emancipation Proclamation after the Battle of Antietam but it didnt come into effect until the following year. The Proclamation simply states that all states in war with the Union couldn't have slavery. However states such as Missouri, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Delaware kept their slaves. They were known as the border states and remainded neutral in the war. The Proclamation didnt end slavery in the nation, only in the Confederate states.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    After slaves were freed there was a large number who joined the Union and Confederate Armies. By the end of the war there were close to 200,000 black soliders fought for the Union. The most famous regiment was the 54th Massachusetts.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    This is one of the most famous battles of the Civil War. This battle lasted 3 days. On June 30th some Confederate soliders were headed to the town of Gettysburg, PA to get some shoes and Union troops were in the town. The next day the Confederates came back to the town and ran the Union troops out and the battle began. It was a long 3 day battle where the Confederates missed opportunities to win the war. The Union wins this battle and its basically determines the outcome of the war.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    Out of 75,000 Confederate troops there were 28,000 casualties. For the Union there was 23,000 casualties out of 88,000. This also was a very bloody battle in the Civil War.
  • Siege at Vicksburg

    Siege at Vicksburg
    Vicksburg was a Confederate stronghold along the Mississippi. Grant and Union forces wanted to take over this stronghold and cut the Confederacy in half. Grant and his men began the attacks on May 18, 1863 and they weren't completely successful until June 4, 1863. At this time Grant had surrounded and trapped the Confederate forces. Gen. Pemberton was in charge at Vicksburg and surrenedered to Grant under numerous siege attempts. With Vicksburg now in Union hands the Confederacy was cut in half.
  • Siege at Vicksburg

    Siege at Vicksburg
    Confederate President Jefferson Davis said that "Vicksburg is the nail head that holds the South's two halves together,". With the loss at Vicksburg the South was on the verge of losing the war.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Abraham Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address as a dedication to those who lost their lives on the battlefield of Gettysburg. Lincoln was the second speaker on that day. Edward Everrett gave an introduction to Lincoln that lasted 2 hours. Ironically Lincolns "address" was given in under 2 minutes. Lincolns address was on the lives that were lost on that battlefield. There was a total of more than 51,000 Confederate and Union solider casualties after this battle.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    He wanted to create a National Cemetary honoring those who lost their lives in the fight. This speech is known by its beginning of "Four score and seven years ago..".
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    Lincolns odds of winning reelection in 1864 were not in his favor. No President had won a second term since Andrew Jackson. Lincoln faced a great deal of critisim from the way he handled the war. Then there were many conservative Northerners who were angered by the Emancipation Proclamation. The Republican Party met in Baltimore, Maryland and Lincoln was selected to run for reelection. They also chose Andrew Johnson from Tennessee because of his Southern and War Democrat background.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    The Democrats nominated George B. McClellan. He pledged to help the war efforts better than Lincoln. McClellan was able to recieve 45% of the Electoral Votes and Lincoln won the Electoral votes by a landslide.
  • Shermans "March to the Sea"

    Shermans "March to the Sea"
    Shermans famous "March to the Sea" began in Atlanta, Georgia. After Sherman's troops ran Confederate forces out of Atlanta he burnt the city to the ground. After the burning of Atlanta he split his troops into 4 divisions and 2 columns. In this 62-day campaign Sherman and his troops covered a 60 mile radius of Georgia reaking havoc. Burning plantations, destroying bridges, taking livestock, and freeing slaves. After taking over Savannah, Georgia, Sherman headed north into South Carolina.
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea"

    Sherman's "March to the Sea"
    Sherman's men placed more damage in South Carolina than Georgia. South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union. Sherman had the idea of "total war" and it took it to the extreme.
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    The Freedmen's Bureau was created to help the 4 million slaves as they transformed their life from slavery to freedom. They built hospitals and schools for those former slaves. There were over 1,000 negro schools that were built. This bureau was not only a welfare agency, they helped former slaves get jobs and also helped them with labor contracts. In the post war time in the South the Bureau turned into the only protector of civil rights for former slaves.
  • Freedmen's Bureau

    Freedmen's Bureau
    The Bureau was able to accomplish thier goal of promoting education. That was they're main objective. The Bureau was discontiuned in 1872.
  • Siege of Richmond

    Siege of Richmond
    As the Civil War was drawing to an end Richmond would be the last attempt for the Union Army. The Union Army believed that Richmond, VA was the Captial of the Confederacy. With already foreseeing the capture of Richmond the Confederates set up another capital 100 miles away. General Lee had his troops in the city of Richmond ready for the Union Attack. Ironically Richmond and Washington D.C were within 100 miles of each other and yet neither side came close to the other.
  • Siege of Richmond

    Siege of Richmond
    Confederate troops met Union forces in Petersburg, VA. Once the Union broke through Confederate defenses General Lee informed President Davis to flee. Richmond was going to be successfully taken over by the Union.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virgina

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virgina
    There was a final battle of the Civil War at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. The Union forces opened fire on April 9, 1865 and then the Confederate troops sounded their final attack. The Confederate charge lasted about 2 hours. The Confederate line then retreated back into the village. General Gordon then sent the word to Lee advising him to surrender. At this time Lee had finally realized that this was the end.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia
    The negotiations between General Lee and General Grant at the McLean House near Appomattox Courthouse, VA. There they reached the proper terms of surrender and the Civil War was over.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln was assassinated in Fords Theatre in Washington D.C. Lincoln and his wife were attend the show "Our American Cousin". Reports have it that the Lincolns arrived to the show late but the President seemed in somewhat of a good mood. Sometime during the show, John Wilkes Booth was able to sneak into the presidents private booth. Then he put his single-shot .44 caliber derringer and pull of a shot into the back of the presidents head.
  • Assasination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assasination of Abraham Lincoln
    Officer Rathbone was Lincoln's guard that night. After Booth shot the Lincoln he then stabbed Rathbone. Booth then leaned onto the stage, breaking his ankle, and screaming "Sic Semper Tyrannis". This was the Virgina state motto, "Thus ever to tyrants". Lincoln survived that night but passed the next morning.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment was ratified on December 6, 1865. The 13th Amendment was the Amendment that Abolished Slavery. This Amendment was first passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864 and then passed by the House on January 31, 1865. It was not ratified til later that year. The Abolishion of slavery was mainly a Republican Party effort. Only four Democrats voted for it.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    Lincoln knew that after the Emancipation Proclamation there would be the need of an Amendment to legally promise the end to slavery. He even wanted the passing of this Amendment to be in the Republican Party platform for upcoming elections.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment was ratified on July 9, 1868. This Amendment gave citizenship to those born in native America. With this Amendment all former slaves who were born in America became citizens. Also this Amendment gave all citizens "life, liberty, and property without due process". This meant that all citizens were entitled to their liberty and property. States couldnt deny any person legal and equal protection under their jurisdiction law.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    This Amendment also opened up civil rights to all citizens. This Amendment helped former slaves to finally be recognized for their own property and liberty.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15th Amendment gave the right to vote for ALL men. It states that "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." This Amendment was ratified on Feburary 3, 1870 but wasnt really obided by for another century. Southern states used poll taxes and literacy tests to keep African Americans from voting.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    All men were guarenteed a vote after this Amendment. This Amendment was ratified during the period after the war (Reconstruction) in the South.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    In the Election of 1876 the Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes as their Presidental Candidate. The Democrats selected Samuel J. Tilden as their candidate. Tilden recieved 184 of the 185 Electoral Votes. The Republicans accused the Democrats of a false ballot. They said the Democrats bribed African Americans to vote against Tilden. On the other hand, Democrats accused the Republicans of changing the ballots so that Tilden wasn't a voting option.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    Congress appointed a Electoral Commission to find a solution to this problem. The Commission voted 8-7 in favor of Hayes. Hayes became the new President. Under the Compromise of 1877 Republicans would agree to the removal of federal troops in the South, appoint Democratic patronage positions in the South and finally give a Democrat a position in the cabinet. Reconstruction in the South was over.