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  • Invention of the cotton gin

    Invention of the cotton gin
    The cotton gin was patented by Eli Whitney on March 14, 1794. It was invented during the American Industrial Revolution. It was used to separate cotton from the seed. The cotton gin produced 50 pounds of clean cotton daily. Its development led to an increase in the availability of cotton. This meant that cotton could be processed easier which led to cheaper cloth. The demand for slaves increased in the south as a result. Cotton became known as "King Cotton" which affected politics.
  • Period: to

    Civil War

  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    Missouri petitioned Congress for admission to the Union as a state in 1818. There were 11 slave states and 11 free states before the Compromise. The free states controlled the House of Representatives with 105 votes to 81. In 1819, James Tallmadge, a New York Representative, proposed a slavery ban in Missouri. Henry Clay, known as the “great pacificator”, was instrumental in finalizing the compromise reached on March 3, 1820.
  • Missouri Compromise Continued

    Missouri Compromise Continued
    Maine was admitted as a free territory and Missouri was admitted as a slave territory. The Compromise identified all Louisiana Purchase territory north of the southern boundary of Missouri, except Missouri, would be free. Any territory below the Missouri line would be considered a slave territory.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad helped runaway slaves escape from the South. They headed to the North and to Canada. According to one estimate, over 100,000 slaves escaped from the South between 1810 and 1850. The system is believed to have started in the late 18th century. George Washington complained in 1786 that he had lost runaway slaves who were helped by a “society of Quakers, formed for such purposes.” In 1831, the system was called “The Underground Railroad.”
  • Underground Railroad Continued

    Underground Railroad Continued
    Terminology used to describe the business is similar to what terms are used today. Fugitives would rest and eat in homes and businesses called “stations” and “depots” and were run by “stationmasters.” Anyone who supported the efforts was called a “stockholder.” Those moving people from one place to another were called “conductors.” These conductors would assist the slaves by posing as a slave and helping the runaways escape from their owners.
  • Underground Railroad Continued...

    Underground Railroad Continued...
    People provided food, lodging, money and helped fugitives settle into a community with jobs. Levi Coffin, a Quaker, helped more than 3000 slaves to escape from the South and Harriet Tubman helped over 300 slaves to escape. This system created a working relationship between some whites and blacks and they assisted each other with the process of becoming free.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    David Wilmot was a Democratic member of Congress from 1845 to 1851. In 1846, a bill was considered by the House of Representatives that would provide $2,000,000 for negotiating with the Mexican government. Wilmot introduced a rider that would bar slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico. The House approved the bill in 1846. The Senate refused to take any action on the bill. John C. Calhoun, Senator of South Carolina, played a major role in the opposition of the bill.
  • Wilmot Proviso Continued

    Wilmot Proviso Continued
    The bill called the Wilmot Proviso would prevent the expansion of slavery into any of the new territory. This bill was presented a second time to the House in 1847 and still did not pass.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    In 1820, Henry Clay, a U.S. senator from Kentucky, was concerned over the spread of slavery with the Missouri Compromise. There were several issues to be addressed. First, the U.S. had acquired a large territory from its war with Mexico and was trying to determine if slavery should be allowed. Second, California had asked to enter the Union as a free state. This would threaten the balance between slave states and free states.
  • Compromise of 1850 Continued

    Compromise of 1850 Continued
    Third, there was a dispute over land. Lastly, Washington, D.C. was the largest slave market in North America. In 1850, Henry Clay presented a compromise. The Compromise of 1850 was passed on September 18, 1850. Texas would relinquish any land in dispute and be given 10 million dollars to pay of its debt to Mexico. New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah would be organized without slavery. Slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia while still allowing slavery.
  • Compromise of 1850 Continued ...

    Compromise of 1850 Continued ...
    California would be admitted as free state. The Fugitive Slave Act was passed to pacify politicians who objected to the imbalance of adding another free state. The most controversial bill of the Compromise of 1850 was the Fugitive Slave Act. It required citizens to assist with the recovery of fugitive slaves and denied a fugitive’s right to a jury trial. This gave the abolitionists more ammunition to put an end to slavery. The Underground Railroad reached its peak in helping slaves escape.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The book was published on March 20, 1852 and became her best known novel. This book changed how Americans view slavery. Stowe used this book to convince Northerners that slavery needed to end. The Fugitive Slave Act was passed to prevent people from helping slaves to escape. The unfair treatment of slaves in the South and the hardships that they experience are exploited in the book.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin Continued

    Uncle Tom's Cabin Continued
    Abraham Lincoln references Harriet Stowe as being a contributor to the Civil War. Uncle Tom’s Cabin demands for equality and the promise of freedom for all races.
  • Caning of Charles Sumner

    Caning of Charles Sumner
    Charles Sumner delivered what many call his “Crime against Kansas” speech on May 19-20, 1956. The speech criticized Senator Andrew P. Butler and other senators for their support of “popular sovereignty” provisions of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. Senator Butler’s cousin, South Carolina Representative, Preston S. Brooks entered in the chamber on May 22, 1856 to avenge him. Brooks began to attack Sumner by striking him with his walking cane repeatedly. This led to the unconsciousness of Sumner.
  • Caning of Charles Sumner Continued

    Caning of Charles Sumner Continued
    His recovery took 3 years before he could return to his senatorial duties. This attack signaled an end to compromise and sectional accommodation in the Senate. This attack is one of the most violent attacks ever recorded in congressional history in the senate chamber.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    Dred Scott, a Missouri slave, sued for his freedom in 1846. His argument was that he had served as a slave in the army surgeon but had lived for four years in Illinois, a free state, and Wisconsin, a free territory. He believed that his residence here on this free soil had erased his slave status. He was granted his freedom in 1850 by a Missouri Court. Two years later, the decision was reversed by the Missouri Supreme Court and he was forced to return to slavery.
  • Dred Scott Decision Continued

    Dred Scott Decision Continued
    This led to an appeal to the federal courts. The case continued for five years in the federal courts. On March 6, 1857, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories. The opinion of Chief Justice Taney was held with the highest regard when his opinion represented a “judicial defense of the most extreme proslavery position.” Two rulings were made.
  • Dred Scott Decision Continued ...

    Dred Scott Decision Continued ...
    First, the Dred Scott had no right to sue in federal court because neither slaves nor free blacks were citizens of the United States and that blacks were inferior and had no rights. The second ruling was that Congress had no right to exclude slavery from the federal territories since any law excluding slavery property from the territories was a violation of the Fifth Amendment law. This led to issues with slavery and the authority of the judicial system.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Doulgas participated in debates during the 1858 campaign for a US Senate seat from Illinois. Douglas, a Democrat, was the incumbent Senator and was elected in 1847. He helped with the Compromise of 1850. He was also a proponent of Popular Sovereignty and was responsible for the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. During the time, Lincoln was not known well. Lincoln’s opinion was that the US could not survive with half-slave and half-free states.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates Continued

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates Continued
    In 1858 Lincoln lost the Senate race to Douglas only to come back in 1860 and win the Presidential race. One of the most highly attended debates was the Freeport, Illinois debate. Over 15,000 people attended the debate. The result of the debate was the Freeport Doctrine. It states that people have the right to choose whether or not to exclude slavery from their limits.
  • Raid on Harpers Ferry

    Raid on Harpers Ferry
    The plan of John Brown was to establish a base in the Blue Ridge Mountains to assist runaway slaves and launch attacks on slaveholders. In 1858, he had the men and money to proceed with his original plan. He was asked to postpone his plan as a result of a blackmailer. He went into hiding for a year. The next summer, Brown rented a farm in Maryland, across from Harpers Ferry on the Potomac River. He waited patiently for his plan to begin.
  • Raid on Harpers Ferry Continued

    Raid on Harpers Ferry Continued
    He waited patiently for his plan to begin. Brown met with Douglass in August of 1859 and communicated his plan of seizing federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. On October 16, 1859, Brown set out for Harpers Ferry with 21 men. One of which, Dangerfield Newby had hoped to rescue his wife who was still a slave and 16 whites. Two of these were Brown’s sons. They captured Hall’s Rifle Works, a supplier of weapons to the government.
  • Raid on Harpers Ferry Continued............

    Raid on Harpers Ferry Continued............
    The rounded up citizens of the town and hoped that slaves would join them in their fight. The local militia pinned Brown and his men. Under the leadership of General Robert E. Lee, the marines and soldiers moved in and quickly ended the insurrection. Brown was seriously wounded and was taken to Charlestown, Virginia. He was tried, sentenced and executed.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    In April 1860, the Democrats met in Charleston, South Carolina to select their candidate for President. Stephen Douglas was felt to have the best chance at defeating the “Black Republicans.” However, Douglas was considered a traitor among Southern Democrats for his support of popular sovereignty. Northern Democrats selected Douglas six weeks later. Southern Democrats selected John C. Breckenridge as their candidate. He was then Vice-President.
  • Election of 1860 Continued

    Election of 1860 Continued
    The Republicans met in Chicago and selected Abraham Lincoln as their choice. Lincoln had become a symbol of frontier, hard work, a self-made man, and the American dream. The Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell, a wealthy slaveholder, as their candidate for President. Lincoln received 40% of the popular vote and 180 electoral votes and won the election. However, 60% of voters had selected someone other than Lincoln to run the country.
  • Formation of the Confederate States of America

    Formation of the Confederate States of America
    Representatives from the seven seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama to found the Confederate States of America in February 1861. The objective was a peaceful separation from the North. Jefferson Davis was selected to be the president of the Confederacy. He was a politician, planter, and war hero from Mississippi. Alexander Stephens of Georgia was selected as vice-president.
  • Formation of the Confederate States of America Continued

    Formation of the Confederate States of America Continued
    Stephens actually wanted to be president and spent most of this time trying to find a way out of being vice-president. The new constitution of the Confederate States of America was very similar to the U.S. Constitution. There were several changes. A single term was 6 years, a president could veto an item, there was a role for cabinet officials in congressional debates, and there was a prohibition of protective tariffs and federal funding for internal improvements.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    The bombing of Fort Sumter was the beginning of the American Civil War. On April 10, 1861, Brigadier General Beauregard demanded the surrender of the Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Commander Anderson refused. The Confederates opened fire on the fort on April 12, 1861 while the fort was unable to fight back. On April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter and evacuated the following day. All troops were ordered to leave the fort.
  • Fort Sumter Continued

    Fort Sumter Continued
    There were no casualties during the bombing. There was one artillerist killed when a cannon exploded when firing a salute during the evacuation on April 14 and three wounded.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    History states that the Civil War began on April 12, 1861 with the bombing of Fort Sumter. However, the true war did not start until the Battle of Bull Run. This battle was fought in Virginia on July 21, 1861. Brigadier General Irvin McDowell was pushed by President Lincoln to attach the Confederate forces just northeast of Manassas Junction. The Confederate forces were commanded by Brigadier General P.G. T. Beauregard.
  • First Battle of Bull Run Continued

    First Battle of Bull Run Continued
    The primary objective was to open the way to Richmond, the Confederate capital and end the war. Colonel Thomas Jackson earned the named, “Stonewall” because of his efforts to maintain the high ground at Henry House Hill. This battle convinced Lincoln and the North that the Civil War would be a long and costly affair. General McDowell was replaced by Major General George B. McClellan after the Confederate victory. He was responsible for reorganizing and training the troops.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The Battle of Shiloh began on April 6, 1862 when Confederate forces attached the Union at Pittsburg Landing. The Confederate forces were led by General Johnson. The Union forces were led by General Grant. General Johnson was killed by a stray bullet while directing the actions of his troops. The Union forces managed to hold their own until the arrival of General Buell and his army.
  • Battle of Shiloh Continued

    Battle of Shiloh Continued
    Grant’s large number gave him the advantage over the Confederates. Union forces took the victory. Approximately 23,746 men died. Even with a victory, the union forces had greater losses than the Confederates.
  • Siege of Richmond

    Siege of Richmond
    The key individuals in the Battle of Richmond or Siege of Richmond are Major General William Nelson and Major General E. Kirby Smith. The battle started when the Rebel cavalry moved north from Big Hill on the road to Richmond, Kentucky. They encountered Union troopers and the skirmish began. The battle only lasted a couple of days but officially started on August 29, 1862.
  • Siege of Richmond Continued

    Siege of Richmond Continued
    The Confederate army earned the victory with 5,650 casualties. The Union Soldier casualties consisted of 4,900 of the 5,650. The rebels captured approximately 4,000 Yankees. This opened the pathway to the north.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    Major General B. McClellan and his Union Army confronted Robert E. Lee’s army at Sharpsburg, Maryland on September 16, 1862. The following day, September 17, 1862, General Joseph Hooker assaulted the troops of General Lee and began the Battle of Antietam. This is known as the single bloodiest day in American military history.
  • Battle of Antietam Continued

    Battle of Antietam Continued
    The attacks went back and forth across Miller’s cornfield and the West Woods. Both sides tended to their wounded at night and consolidated their line for the next day’s fighting. The battle lasted 3 long days and neither troop fully crippled the other. The Battle of Antietam is considered a draw. Abraham Lincoln and the Union claimed the victory which supported Lincoln in his deliverance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation of Proclamation was issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. This meant that all slaves held in rebellious areas would be declared free. The original intention of the Civil War between the North and the South was not to end slavery. It was to prevent the secession of the Southern states and preserve the Union. On September 22, 1862, President Lincoln changed that intention.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Continued

    Emancipation Proclamation Continued
    He stated that “slaves in those states or parts of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, would be declared free.” He had hoped to inspire all blacks and slaves to support the Union cause. He also hoped to keep England and France from giving political recognition and military aid to the Confederacy. After this proclamation, every advancement of Federal troops expanded the domain of freedom.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    This battle is known as the most famous and most important Civil War Battle. It occurred July 1-3, 1863 in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The events that led up to the battles started on June 30 when a group of Confederate soldiers headed to Gettysburg to purchase shoes. The commander spotted the Federal cavalry heading toward town. On Wednesday morning, two divisions of Confederates headed back to town and ran into the Federal cavalry west of town at Willoughby Run.
  • Battle of Gettysburg Continued

    Battle of Gettysburg Continued
    The skirmish began. The group fought fiercely and lost many soldiers on both sides. Federals regrouped south of town near the cemetery and waited. Robert E. Lee ordered Confederate General R.S. Ewell to seize the high ground from the Federal. Gen. Ewell’s hesitation allowed the Union to bring in reinforcements with artillery. General George G. Meade arrived at the scene and felt strongly that this was the place to battle with Lee’s army.
  • Battle of Gettysburg Continued.......

    Battle of Gettysburg Continued.......
    Lee decided to attach the Union against the advice of General James Longstreet and without the assistance of Cavalry leader Jeb Stuart. The next morning, General Longstreet was ordered by Lee to attack also. At 10:30 p.m., the fighting came to an end. The Federals still held a strong defensive position. Both groups decided to count casualties and regroup. Lee decided the next day to game with a win by attacking at the center of the Union line along Cemetery Ridge.
  • Battle of Gettysburg Continued.................

    Battle of Gettysburg Continued.................
    However, before Lee could attack, the Union attacked the Rebels. Battle continued until July 3rd when Lee’s army had been forced to withdraw leaving 7,500 of his men dead on the battlefield. This led President Lincoln to deliver the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863 in honor or the troops that lost their lives during this battle.
  • Siege at Vicksburg

    Siege at Vicksburg
    The Mississippi River was a very important commercial artery in the United States before the American Civil War. The outbreak of the civil war blocked northern trade. One of the main Union objectives was to open the river and restore trade. This would also cut the Confederacy in half and isolate Texas, Louisiana and Arkansas. It would also cut the land route to Mexico which would prevent bypassing the Union blockade of the South.
  • Siege at Vicksburg Continued

    Siege at Vicksburg Continued
    By the end of 1862 the only stretch of river still blocked was in Vicksburg, Mississippi and Port Hudson, Louisiana. Grant needed to capture Vicksburg to restore trade. The Big Black River Campaign was launched in May 1863. Pemberton’s Confederates were holding strong in Vicksburg. Pemberton’s troops had protected Vicksburg well. However, they were exhausted and food was running low.
  • Siege at Vicksburg Continued.....

    Siege at Vicksburg Continued.....
    They had actually asked for a surrender from Pemberton or they would desert the army. On July 3 the Confederates waved the white flag. Grant and Pemberton met to discuss the surrender. On July 4, 1863 the surrender of the Confederates took place in Vicksburg. This led to the surrender of Port Hudson as well. The Mississippi was clear for northern ships.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863 at the dedication of the Soldier’s National Cemetery at Gettysburg. The speech was delivered after Edward Everett gave his two hour speech. It was written the night before the speech. Lincoln’s speech was short and to the point. It was a formally dedication of the ground where men had died and fought in the American Revolution.
  • Gettysburg Address Continued

    Gettysburg Address Continued
    The speech has been preserved by the Library of Congress. It is stored in a low temperature vault where other Top Treasurers of the Library are stored. There were five known copies of the Gettysburg Address. The library of Congress has two copies that had original been given to each of Lincoln’s private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay. The other three copies were written for charitable purposes.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    President Abraham Lincoln was nearly defeated in the election of 1864. He was seeking reelection. The first issue was that no president had been elected for a second term since Andrew Jackson in 1832. There had been nine Presidents in a row that had served just one term. Northern voters were upset with Lincoln because of the Emancipation of Proclamation. The Democratic Party chose George B. McClellan as their candidate. Lincoln feared that McClellan would win.
  • Election of 1864 Continued

    Election of 1864 Continued
    The seizing of Atlanta on September 6, 1864 changed everything. The war turned in the North’s favor. Two months later, Lincoln won the election. He won the electoral vote by 212 to 21. He now had the power to end the war.
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea"

    Sherman's "March to the Sea"
    Major General William T. Sherman began making plans for an attack against Savannah. He wanted to eliminate any resources that could be used by Confederate forces. He presented his plan to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and received approval to begin his departure to Atlanta on November 15, 1864. Sherman issued orders that materials needed by his troops were to be seized from the local population. Forces were divided into two troops.
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea" Continued

    Sherman's "March to the Sea" Continued
    Major General Oliver O. Howard led the Army of Tennessee to the right and Major General Henry Slocum led the Army of Georgia to the left. Sherman had 62,000 men where Lieutenant General William J. Hardee had only 13,000 troops. Hardee commanded the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Confusion was the ultimate goal in separating the troops. Sherman’s troops destroyed all manufacturing plants, agricultural infrastructure, and railroads as they moved forward.
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea" Continued...

    Sherman's "March to the Sea" Continued...
    Battles such as Buck Head Creek and Waynesboro were found in November and early December. Brigadier General John P. Hatch was brought in to assist with the protection of the Charleston and Savannah Railroad. He was forced to withdraw on November 30th. On December 17, 1864, Sherman contacted Hardee asking for his troops to surrender. Hardee escaped on December 20 and the mayor of Savannah surrendered the city to Sherman.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was created to assist with the transition from slavery to freedom in the south. It was created by Congress on March 3, 1865. This gave the Bureau “supervision” over all abandoned lands and control of all subjects related to refugees and freedmen. It was run by General O.O. Howard, a Civil War hero who was sympathetic to blacks.
  • Freedman's Bureau Continued

    Freedman's Bureau Continued
    The responsibilities of this Bureau was to introduce a system of free labor, oversee schools for freed persons, settle disputes and enforce contracts between the white landowners and their black labor force, and secure justice for black in state courts. President Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill in 1866 after it was renewed by a Congressional bill. He felt it was unconstitutional. Congress passed the bill over his veto. Some of the goals were accomplished by the Bureau.
  • Freedman's Bureau Continued........

    Freedman's Bureau Continued........
    A number of colleges and training schools for blacks were established, including Howard University and Hampton Institute. It ceased operations in 1872 because of lack of support from Southern and Northern politicians.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia
    The final act of war in Virginia ended with the surrender of General Robert E. Lee on April 9, 1865. The McLean House was used for the surrender meeting between Generals Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant. This signified the end of the South’s attempt at a separate nation. Lee was making his last attempt to reach Lynchburg where supplies were waiting for him.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Continued

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Continued
    Troops had been setup throughout the night to prevent Lee from getting to the Appomattox Station. Realizing his defeat, Lee ordered truce flags at 11:00 a.m. in the morning. He also realized that he was surrounded by troops and that his only decision was to surrender the Army of Northern Virginia. Word was sent to General Grant that Lee would surrender his troops.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865. John Wilkes Booth has planned to kidnap the president initially and take him to Richmond. However, Lincoln failed to appear on March 20, 1865 and Booth’s plan left six conspirators waiting. Richmond later fell to Union forces. Booth was determined to save the Confederacy.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Continued

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Continued
    Booth masterminded a plan to capitalize on the attendance of Lincoln’s plan to attend Laura Keene’s performance of “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14th. The plan was to assassinate President Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson, and Secretary of State William H. Seward. This would send the United States government into disarray. Lincoln and his wife arrived late to their private box above the stage.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Continued...

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Continued...
    Booth slipped into the private box around 10:15 and shot Lincoln with a .44-calier single-shot derringer. He then jumped onto the stage and shouted, “Sic simper tyrannis!” which means “Thus ever to tyrants!” This is the Virginia state motto. People thought this was part of the production. Lincoln was pronounced dead at 7:22 a.m. the following morning.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Continued........

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Continued........
    Booth was later captured after being shot in the neck on April 26, 1865. He died three hours later after he uttered his last words, “Useless, useless.” His co-conspirators were convicted and executed on July 7, 1865.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment was passed by Congress on January 31, 1865. This amendment abolished slavery in the United States. It also provides that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
  • 13th Amendment Continued

    13th Amendment Continued
    The ratification took place on December 6, 1865. The Senate passed the amendment in 1864. The House of Representatives passed the amendment in January 1865. President Lincoln signed the amendment on February 1, 1865. Many people believe that the Civil War was actually fought to abolish slavery.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment was passed by Congress on June 13, 1866. This amendment extended liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves. It was ratified on July 9, 1868. After the Civil War, Congress submitted three amendments to the state as part of their Reconstruction program. This program was to guarantee equal civil and legal rights to black citizens.
  • 14th Amendment Continued

    14th Amendment Continued
    Citizenship to all former slaves was granted with the major provision of the 14th amendment. Another provision was to grant equal protection of the law and due process of the law by both Federal and state governments. The 14th amendment was submitted to the states by the House Joint Resolution. The primary author was Congressman John A. Bingham of Ohio.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15th Amendment was passed by Congress on February 25, 1869. This amendment granted African American men the right to vote. The amendment declares that the “right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The House of Representatives passed the amendment with a vote of 144 to 44 and the Senate passed the amendment with a vote of 39 to 13.
  • 15th Amendment Continued

    15th Amendment Continued
    The ratification of this amendment took place on February 3, 1870. However, the amendment still was not fully embraced by everyone. Southern states still treated African Americans unfairly through their use of poll taxes, literacy tests, and other means. The majority of African Americans in the South were still not registered to vote until the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    One of the most disputed presidential elections in American history took place in the United States with the election of 1876. The Electoral votes were awarded to Rutherford B. Hayes by the Electoral Commission after a dispute. The majority of the votes went to Samuel J. Tilden. Tilden had 184 electoral votes and Hayes had 165 electoral votes.
  • Election of 1876 Continued

    Election of 1876 Continued
    There were 20 votes uncounted in the states of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. After a bitter legal and political battle, the disputed electoral votes were given to Hayes giving him the win over Tilden. This dispute is believed to have led to the Compromise of 1877. The Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South which would end Reconstruction. This basically gave power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers.