• Allies

    France,GB, and russia alliance. First called the Triple Entente
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire—an empire of mostly Middle Eastern lands controlled by the Turks—were later known as the Central Powers.
  • Assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip stepped from the crowd and shot the Archduke and his wife Sophie. Princip was a member of the Black Hand, an organization promoting Serbian nationalism. The assassinations touched off a diplomatic crisis. Austria-Hungary declared what was expected to be a short war against Serbia
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    Germany invaded Belgium, following a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan. This plan called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia.
  • Sinking of The British Arabic

    Sinking of The British Arabic
    U-boat sank another British liner, the Arabic, drowning two Americans. Again the United States protested, and this time Germany agreed not to sink any more passenger ships.
  • convoy system

    convoy system
    a heavy guard of destroyersescorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups
  • Sinking of The British Lusitania

    Sinking of The British Lusitania
    When a U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Of the 1,198 persons lost, 128 were Americans. The Germans defended their action on the grounds that the liner carried ammunition. Despite Germany’s explanation, Americans became outraged with Germany because of the loss of life. American public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers.
  • Sinking of The French passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of The French passenger liner Sussex
    Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmed
    French passenger steamer, the Sussex. The Sussex sank, and about 80 passengers, including Americans, were killed or injured. Once again the United States warned that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics. Again Germany agreed, but there was a condition: if the United States could not persuade Britain to lift its blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany would consider renewing unrestricted submarine war.
  • Battle of Somme

    Battle of Somme
    British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day alone. Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million, yet only about seven miles of ground changed hands. This bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, continued for over three years.
  • Committee on Public Information

    Committee on Public Information
    To popularize the war, the government set up the nation’s first propaganda agency, the Committee on Public Information (CPI). The head of the CPI was a former muckraking journalist named George Creel. Creel persuaded the nation’s artists and advertising agencies to create thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons, and sculptures promoting the war. He recruited some 75,000 men to serve as “Four-Minute Men,” who spoke about everything relating to the war: the draft, rationing, bond drives...
  • Zimmerman Note

    Zimmerman Note
    a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. The telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany and promised that if war with the United States broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” Next came the
    sinking of four unarmed American merchant ships, with a loss of 36 lives.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    The act required men to register with the government
    in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act. Of this number, almost 3 million were called up. About 2 million troops reached Europe before the truce was signed, and three-fourths of them saw actual combat. Most of the inductees had not attended high school, and about one in five was foreign-born.
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    In June 1917 Congress passed the Espionage Act, and in May 1918 it passed the Sedition Act. Under the Espionage and Sedition Acts a person could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort.
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    The main regulatory body was the War Industries Board (WIB). The board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency. It also urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products—for instance, by making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150. The WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It was established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch.
  • Food Administration

    Food Administration
    To help produce and conserve food, Wilson set up the Food Administration under Herbert Hoover. Instead of rationing food, he called on people to follow the “gospel of the clean plate.” He declared one day a week “meatless,” another “sweetless,” two days “wheatless,” and two other days “porkless.” Restaurants removed sugar bowls from the
    table and served bread only after the first course.
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    President Wilson established the National War Labor Board in 1918. Workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft exemptions. “Work or fight,” the board told them. However, the board also worked to improve factory conditions. It pushed for an eight-hour workday, promoted safety inspections, and enforced the child labor ban.
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    In July and August, they helped win the Second Battle of the Marne. The tide had turned against the Central Powers.
  • Austria-hungary surrenders to the Allies

    Austria-hungary surrenders to the Allies
    On November 3, 1918, AustriaHungary surrendered to the Allies.
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    German sailors mutinied against government authority. The mutiny spread quickly. Everywhere in Germany, groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary councils. On November 9, socialist leaders in the capital, Berlin, established a German republic. The kaiser gave up the throne.
  • Cease-fire and armistice

    Cease-fire and armistice
    Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue fighting. So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, in the eleventh month of 1918, Germany agreed to a cease-fire and signed the armistice, or truce, that ended the war.