Precursors to World War II

  • Fascists form in Italy

    Fascists form in Italy
    Led by Benito Mussolini and war veterans
  • Period: to

    Precursors to World War II

  • Treaty of Versailles

    Treaty of Versailles
    The Treaty of Versailles officially ended World War I. While President WIlson pushed for the adoption of his 14 points, the other victorious powers aimed more towards punishing Germany. This actions included:
    *Stripping Germany of all its colonies
    *Reducing and limiting the size of the German military
    *Took territory from Germany to create Poland and Czechoslovakia
    *Forbade Germany from expanding (uniting with Austria)
    *Demilitarize the Rhineland
    *Territory ceded to France (Alsaic Lorraine)
  • League of Nations Created

    League of Nations Created
    Officially created when the Treaty of Versailles was signed, The League of Nations comes into effect.
    During the 1920s, the League, with its headquarters in Geneva, incorporated new members and successfully mediated minor international disputes but was often disregarded by the major powers. The League’s authority, however, was not seriously challenged until the early 1930s, when a series of events exposed it as ineffectual.
  • Hitler assumes leadership of the Nazi Party

    Hitler assumes leadership of the Nazi Party
    After WWI, Hitler is discharged by the German military and goes to work for the German Worker Party. Placed in charge of media and propagande, HItler changes the name of the party to National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi for short)
  • Hitler takes over as Leader of Nazis

    Hitler takes over as Leader of Nazis
    In February, Hitler spoke before a crowd of nearly six thousand in Munich. To publicize the meeting, he sent out two truckloads of Party supporters to drive around with swastikas, cause a big commotion, and throw out leaflets, the first time this tactic was used by the Nazis.
    Hitler was now gaining notoriety outside of the Nazi Party for his rowdy, at times hysterical tirades against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians and political groups, especially Marxists, and always the Jews.
  • March on Rome

    March on Rome
    Benito Mussolini leads his Blackshirts on Rome so he can seize power. He succeeds, creating the world's first fascist government. King Victor Emmanuel III will have little choice but to turn the government over to Mussolini because he has the support of the military, the industrial and capitalist leaders, and the right-wing.
  • Beer Hall Putsch

    Beer Hall Putsch
    Along with other right wing factions, Hitler attempts to overthrow the Bavarian government with an armed uprising. The event became known as The Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler and 2000 Nazi’s march through Munich to the Beer Hall, to take over a meeting chaired by three of the most important individuals in Bavarian politics.
    The following day, the Nazis march in the streets, the police open fire. Hitler escapes but is captured, tried for treason and serves 9 months in Landsberg prison.
  • The Dawes Plan

    The Dawes Plan
    Financial aid offered to Germany by the US for assisting in restructuring of reparation payments after WWI in loans.
  • Mussolini assumes Dictatorial Powers

    Mussolini assumes Dictatorial Powers
    Benito Mussolini becomes dictator in Italy. Although Benito Mussolini has for a while been working to undermine Italian democracy, it is on this date that the mask drops and he moves openly.
  • Mein Kampf published

    Mein Kampf published
  • Great Depression

    Great Depression
    World wide depression triggers further feelings of loss and despair
  • Nazis take General Election

    Nazis take General Election
    In the General Election, the Nazi Party increases its representatives in parliament from 14 to 107. Hitler is now the leader of the second largest party in Germany.
  • Hilter becomes German Citizen

    Hilter becomes German Citizen
    This allows him to challenege von Hindenberg for the presidency
  • Hitler consolidates power

    Hitler consolidates power
    Hitler becomes chancellor of a coalition government, where the Nazis have a third of the seats in the Reichstag.
  • Hitler becomes Chancellor

    Hitler becomes Chancellor
    Hitler becomes chancellor of a coalition government, where the Nazis have a third of the seats in the Reichstag.
  • Reichstag Fire

    Reichstag Fire
    The German Reichstag is destroyed by fire. The plot and execution is almost certainly due to the Nazis but they point the finger at the communists and trigger a General Election.
  • Enabling Act

    Enabling Act
    The Enabling Act passed—powers of legislation pass to Hitler’s cabinet for four years, making him virtual dictator. He proclaims the Nazi Party is the only political party permitted in Germany. All other parties and trade unions are disbanded. Individual German states lose any autonomous powers, while Nazi officials become state governors.
  • Hitler furthers Nazi control

    Hitler furthers Nazi control
    Communists, Socialists, Trade Unions and strikes banned.
  • Undoing Versailles

    Undoing Versailles
    Hitler re-arms Germany with the aim of undoing the Treaty of Versailles and uniting all the German peoples. Military conscription is introduced.
  • Mussolini invades Ethiopia

    Mussolini invades Ethiopia
    Italy invades Ethiopia causing the League of Nations its first serious problem. MUssolini claimed that his policies of expansion were not different from that of other colonial powers in Africa.
    He saw it as an opportunity to provide land for unemployed Italians and also acquire more mineral resources to fight off the effects of the Great Depression.
  • Anschluss

    Anschluss
    The Austrian Chancellor, leader of the Austrian Nazi Party, invites the German army to occupy Austria and proclaim a union with Germany.
  • Munich Agreement

    Munich Agreement
    British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain meets Hitler in Germany. Britain, France and Italy sign the Munich Agreement which gives the Sudetenland (the German populated borderlands of Czechoslavakia), to Germany.
  • Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

    Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
    Peace treaty with Russia secured with the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. This agreement stated the non aggression pact and plans to break up Poland
  • Germany invades Poland

    Germany invades Poland
    Hitler invades Poland and after 3 weeks of lightning war or ‘Blitzkrieg’. The country is divided between Russia and Germany. Two days later, UK and France declare war officially starting WWII