Royal irish rifles ration party somme july 1916

World War I

  • Allies

    The Triple Entente - consisted of France, Britain, and Russia.
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  • 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    A-H had taken control of Bosnia in 1878 and accused Serbia of subverting its rule over Bosnia --> powder keg ready to explode. Archduke (Austria) visited Bosnian capital Sarajevo, Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip shot Archduke and wife. July 28 - A-H declared "short war" against Serbia. Alliances pulled nations together. Germany declared war on Russia. Germany declared war on France. Britain declared war on Germany and A-H
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    Germany invaded Belgium with this plan. Holding action against R ussia, combined with quick drive through Belgium to Paris. After France had fallen, the two German armies defeated Russia.
  • Sinking of the British liner Lusitania

    Sinking of the British liner Lusitania
    A German U-boat sank Lusitania off southern coast of Ireland. 128 Americans out of 1,198 people lost. Germans defended action by saying that liner carried ammunition. Americans angry with Germany --> public opinion against Germany and Central Powers
  • Sinking of the British liner Arabic

    Sinking of the British liner Arabic
    U-boat sank another BAritisn liner, drowning 2 Americans.
  • Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of French passenger liner Sussex
    Germany agreed to not sink any more passenger ships after Arabic, but then broke promise and torpedoed an unarmed French steamer, Sussex --> sank, 80 passengers (including U.S) were killed/injured. U.S. warned Germany that it would break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed tactics. Under condition: If U.S. cannot persuade Britain to lift blockade against food and fertilizers, Germany would reconsider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    lasted until mid-November, British suffered 60,000 casualties in the first day. 1.2 million total. Trench warfare continued over three years.
  • Zimmermann note

    Zimmermann note
    telegram from German foreign minister to German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. Proposed alliance between Mexico and Germany, and promised that if war w/ U.S. broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering TX, NM, AZ.
  • Selective Service Act of 1917

    Selective Service Act of 1917
    Required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end of 1918, 24 million men registered, and 3 million were called up.
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    American vice admiral William S. Sims convinced British to try convoy system. A heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth acros Atlantic in groups. By 1917, shipping losses cut in half.
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    President had control over economy, including power to fix prices and to regulate certain war-related industries. Main regulatory body = WIB, established in 1917 and reorganized in 1918 under leadership of Bernard M. Baruch. Board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency. Eliminate waste by standardizing products. Set quotas and allocated raw materials. Industrial production increase 20%. However, retail prices soared.
  • Food Administration

    Food Administration
    Agency for the administration of the Allies' food reserves. One of its important tasks was the stabilization of the price of wheat on the U. S. market.
  • Committee on Public Information

    Committee on Public Information
    It was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I.Established by Woodrow Wilson
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    1917: Congress passed Espionage Act which gave postal officials the authority to ban newspapers and magazines from the mails and threatened individuals convicted of obstructing the draft with $10,000 fines and 20 years in jail.
    1918: Congress passed Sedition Act which made it a federal offense to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the Constitution, the government, the American uniform, or the flag. The government prosecuted over 2,100 people under these acts.
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    Wilson established board to deal with disputes between management and labor. Those who refused to obey board decisions could lose draft exemptions. Improved factory conditions - pushed for 8-hr workday, promoted safety inspections, enforced child labor ban
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    U.S. troops helped win this battle, turning tides against Central Powers.
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies

    Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies
    Same day, German sailors mutinied against gov. authority. Soldiers and workers organized revolutionary councils. German republic established. Kaiser gave up throne.
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    Socialist leaders in Berlin established German Republic.
  • Cease-fire and armistice

    Cease-fire and armistice
    Germans too exhausted to continue fighting (though there were no Allied soldiers on German land and no truly decisive battle fought) so Germany agreed to cease-fire and signed armistice (truce) to end war.