World War 1

Timeline created by jeannievisa
  • Allies

    Also called Triple Entente
    Included France, Britain, Russia
  • Central Powers

    Central Powers
    Also called Triple Alliance <-- included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
    Germany and Austria-Hungary, together with the Ottoman Empire (mostly Middle Eastern land controlled by Turks) were called Central Powers
    Alliances provided measure of national security- did not want to disturb balance of power
  • 1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    1914 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    Balkan peninsula-powder keg of Euro
    Russia- access to Med Sea
    Germ- rail link to Ottoman
    AH accuse Serbia
    Heir of Austrian throne visited Bosnian capital Sarajevo
    Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip (member of Black Hand) shot Archduke & his wife July 28- Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Aug 1- Germany-obligated by treaty to support AH-declared war on Russia Aug 3- Germany declared war on Russia's alliance France. Britain declares war on Germany & AH after Germany invades Belgium
  • Schlieffen Plan

    Schlieffen Plan
    Germany invaded Belgium through Schlieffen Plan<-- called for a holding action against Russia, combined with a quick drive through Belgium to Paris; after France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia
  • Sinking of British liner Lusitania

    Sinking of British liner Lusitania
    Germany responded to British blockade with counterblockade-any Britain or Allied ships found near the waters of Britain would be sunk. German U-boat sank British liner Lusitania (128 Amer. killed) off the southern coast of Ireland <-- Germany defended their action saying that liner carried ammunition but American public opinion turned against Germany and Central Powers. President Wilson rules out military response to protest Germany.
  • Sinking of British liner Arabic

    Sinking of British liner Arabic
    German U-boat sank another British liner and killed 2 Americans. U.S protested and Germany agreed to not sink anymore passenger ships.
  • Sinking of French Passenger liner Sussex

    Sinking of French Passenger liner Sussex
    Marh 1916- Germany broke its promise not to sink any passenger ships and torpedoed an unarmed French passenger steamer. <- sank and 80 passengers including Americans were killed or wounded. U.S warns that it will break off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics. Germany agreed on conditions that if U.S could not persuade Britain to lift its blockade on food and fertilizers, Germany would consider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Battle of the Somme

    Battle of the Somme
    British- 60,000 casualties first day
    Final casualties- 1.2 million
    Trench warfare between German and Allied forces from France to Belgian coast to Swiss Alps
    Three kinds of trenches- front line, support, and reserve
    Dugouts to for officer quarters and command posts, "no mans land"
  • Zimmermann note

    Zimmermann note
    a telegram from German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. The telegram proposed an alliance between Mexico and Germany and that if war with U.S broke out Germany would support Mexico in recovering its lost territory (Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas)
  • Selective Service Act

    Selective Service Act
    Act passed by Congress that required men to register with the government to be randomly selected for military service. 24 million men were registered but only 3 million were called up. 2 million troops reached Europe before the treaty was signed, 3/4 experienced actual combat, 1 in 5 were foreign born, most did not attend high school
  • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    Espionage and Sedition Acts
    June 1917- Espionage Act passed
    May 1918- Sedition Act passed
    Violated 5th Amendment and targeted socialist & labor leaders- a person could be fined up to $10,000 & sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal about the government or war effort. HOR refused to seat Victor Berger, Eugene V. Debs was handed a 10 year prison sentence, Emma Goldman receive 2 year prison sentence & $10,000 fine for organizing No Conscription League
  • Convoy System

    Convoy System
    heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups <-- by 1917 shipping losses were cut in half
    convinced to British by American Vice Admiral William S. Sims to avoid U-boat attacks
  • War Industries Board

    War Industries Board
    Established in 1917 and recognized in 1918 under the leadership of Bernard M. Baruch (businessman). Encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency, urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products(making only 5 colors of typewriter ribbons instead of 150) WIB set production quotas and allocated raw materials, U.S industrial production increase 20%. Price controls only at wholesale level -> retail prices and corporate profits increase
  • Second Battle of the Marne

    Second Battle of the Marne
    Turning point of the war. Allies advance steadily after defeating Germans
  • Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies

    Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies
    Russia pulled out of war in 1917 and German armies shifted from eastern to western front in France. U.S. troops threw back German attacks at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood <-- helped win Second Battle of Marne
  • Establishment of the German Republic

    Establishment of the German Republic
    Germany mutinied against government authority. Groups of soldiers and workers organized revolutionary councils. Nov 9- socialists lead the capital, Berlin, and established a German republic. The kaiser gave up his throne. Germans too exhausted to fight <- 11th hour, 11th day, 11th month of 1918 Germany agreed to cease-fire and sign an armistice
  • National War Labor Board

    National War Labor Board
    established by President Wilson. Workers who refused to obey board decisions could lose their draft exemptions. “Work or fight,” the board told them. Board also worked to improve factory conditions. It pushed for an eight-hour workday, promoted safety inspections, and enforced the child labor ban.
  • Cease fire and armistice

    Cease fire and armistice
    Cease fire- suspension of fighting
    Armistice- Truce to end war
  • Food administration

    Food administration
    set up by Wilson and is managed by Herbert Hoover. Instead of rationing out the food, he called people to follow the "gospel of a clean plate". One day "meatless", two days "wheatless", another "sweetless", the other two days "porkless" Restaurants
    removed sugar bowls from the table and served bread only after
    the first course. Homeowners and schoolchildren plant. RESULT- American food shipments to Allies tripled, increased income 30%
  • Committee on Public Information

    Committee on Public Information
    nation's first propaganda agency <-- biased information used to influence people's thoughts and actions. Head of CPI was former journalist George Creel. 75,000 men to become "4 minute men" talked about everything on war. printed 25 million copies of "How the war came to America". RESULT- increase patriotism but also inflamed hatred and violations of civil liberties of certain ethnic groups and opponents of the war