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Transfer Task Unit 8

  • 100


    Aristotle was actually born in the year 324 BC. He believed in the geocentric theory, which is the belief that Earth is the center of the solar system. He also believed that the motions of the stars and planets were perfectley circular.
  • 140


    Ptolemy tries to prove Aristotle's ideas with math. Ptolemy believed in the geocentric idea.
  • Jan 1, 1543


    Copernicus expresses ideas about a heliocentric solar system which is the belief that the sun is the center of the solar system. He also expressed the idea that Earth spun on an axis.
  • Glileo

    Galileo also believed in a heliocentric solar system. He invented the telescope and used it to prove Copernicus's ideas correct.
  • Newton

    Issac Newton, who also believed in a heliocentric solar system, discovered gravity. He also improved Galileo's telescope. Newton died in 1727
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    The 1950s (summary)

    During the 1950s, scientists tested many rockets and misiles in facilities such as White Sands, New Mexico, for the Cold War. The US and USSR both took parts of Germany's V2 rockets after World War 2. This is how the two countries developed rocket technologies. In the late 1950s, the Soviet Union and the US both launched many artifical satelites, which are satelites made by man.
  • First Satelite

    First Satelite
    Sputnik 1 becomes the first Earth orbiter and first man-made object in space. It was made by the Soviet Union.
  • First American Satelite

    First American Satelite
    The first successful American satelite is bullet-shaped Explorer 1. It went higher than Sputnik at a height of 1,529 miles above the Earth.
  • NASA

    In response to the launch of Sputnik, president Eisenhower establishes NASA as America's space agency.
  • First Astronauts for NASA

    First Astronauts for NASA
    NASA chooses it's first seven pilots to man the Mercury missions. Their names are M. Scott Carpenter, Leory Cooper, John Glenn, Virgil Grissom, Walter Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Donald Slayton.
  • First Human in Space

    First Human in Space
    The Soviet Union sends the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into space aboard the capsule Vostok 1. He orbited Earth one time in an hour and 48 minutes, before landing safley on Earth.
  • First American in Space

    First American in Space
    The first American in space is astronaut Alan B. Shepard, flying in Freedom 7. His flight took 15 minutes and reached an altitude of 116 miles. Unlike Vostok 1, Alan had control of Freedom 7.
  • First American to Orbit Earth

    First American to Orbit Earth
    Astronaut John Glenn is the first American to orbit the Earth since Alan Shepard just went up. He orbited three times in four hours and 55 minutes. Glenn also took a picture of the Earth with a drugstore camera.
  • First Private Satelite

    First Private Satelite
    The first private satelite is launched by NASA to brodcast a TransAtlantic telivision show of an American flag waving that was broadcast from America to France. The name of the satelite AT&T hired NASA to launch was Testar 1.
  • First Woman in Space

    First Woman in Space
    The first woman in space is cosmaut Valentina Tereshkova aboard Vostok 6. She orbited Earth 48 times in 71 hours, longer than all of America's astronauts at the time combined.
  • First Space Walk

    First Space Walk
    The first space walk is performed by Soviet cosmaut Aleksei Leonov aboard the Voskhod 2. He floated around in space for about 10 minutes.
  • First American Space Walk

    First American Space Walk
    The first American space walk was performed by astronaut Edward White. He went into space on the Gemini GT-4 spacecraft and floated around in space for 23 minutes taking pictures of the Earth.
  • NASA's First Disaster

    NASA's First Disaster
    The Apollo 1 mission turns into a disaster on a prelaunch test when a spark of electricity in a pure oxygen environment causes an uncontrollable fire which kills the crew of three, who are Virgil Grissom, Edward White, and Rodger Chaffee. This causes NASA to add more saftey measures to thier spacecrafts.
  • Cosmaut Crash

    Cosmaut Crash
    Upon rentry to Earth, cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov was forced to put his spacecraft, Soyuz 1, into "ballistic" mode, which is when the spacecraft spins like a bullet. He crashes in the Soviet Union 25 miles away from Novoorsk.
  • Probe Reaches Venus

    Probe Reaches Venus
    The Soviet probe Venera 4 becomes the first probe to transmit data from another planet's atmosphere. It withstood Venus's gravity, which is 90 times stronger than Earth's, for 93 minutes. A day later, (June 13, 1967) the American probe Mariner 5 also reaches Venus. Both probes confirm that water can not exist on a planet with a 900 degree surface temperature.
  • First Moon Orbital Mission

    First Moon Orbital Mission
    On the American Apollo 8 mission, crew members Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, and Willian A. Anders became the first first people to leave Earth's gravity and orbit the moon. Apollo 8 was launched by the Saturn V rocket,the most powerful rocket ever made.
  • America Reaches The Moon!

    America Reaches The Moon!
    Neil Armstrong of the United States becomes the first person to go on the moon after he and his co-pilot "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. pilot the spacecraft Eagle safley to the moon's surface. Armstrong and Aldrin spent 90 minutes doing experiments, planting the U.S flag, and talking to president Nixon on the phone.
  • Apollo 13: Near Disater

    Apollo 13: Near Disater
    The Apollo13 mission was supposed to land on the moon, but when systems got damaged, such as water, oxygen, and the main engines, Apollo 13 was forced to orbit the moon. Crew members James Lovell, John Swigert Jr., and Fred Haise had to survive with rationed water and oxygen for 95 hours in a module originally designed to last 50 hours. Apollo 13 successfully splashed down to Earth on April 17.
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    First Soviet Space Station

    Salyut is the first Soviet space station. It is launched unmaned to orbit the Earth. When it was sucsesfully in space, to missions got launched to it. The first mission, Soyuz 10 was unable to dock with the space station. Soyuz 11 sucsesfully docked, but unfortunatly the crew, after spending 23 days in space, died when air leaked as they were rentering thier space craft.
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    First Lunar "Rover" Mission

    Astronauts David Scott and James on the apollo 15 mission ride the lunar "rover" on the moon's surface. Using this four wheeled electrical veichle, they collect a sample of the moon's crust and lots of other moon rocks.
  • Picture Taken of Saturn

    Picture Taken of Saturn
    The American probe Pioneer 5 takes a close up of Saturn after taking picures of Jupiter's moons. This advances exploration of Outer Planets.
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    Skylab is the first American space station. It was damaged shortly after it was launched, but several space walks helped to repair it afterwards. Skylab was occupied by several crews for 6 of the 75 months it was in space.
  • First International Space Mission

    First International Space Mission
    The U.S and Soviet Union work together to make the first international space opperation. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project was made to test docking and rendevous procedures that could be used on future space stations.
  • First Mars Probes

    First Mars Probes
    The American Mars robotic explorer Viking 1 becomes the first successful soft landing object on Mars. On September 3 the other U.S probe Viking 2 lands safley. The two probes confirm why Mas is red and take tests of the atmosphere.
  • Voyager 1 and 2

    Voyager 1 and 2
    The American twin probes Voyagers 1 and 2 take off to explore the outer planets Jupiter and Saturn. Voyager 1 was launched later because its route was more direct to Jupiter. The probes used a rare planetary alignment of the outer planets to go much faster using the gravity of the planets. The Voyager 1 is still transmiting today from deep space.
  • Begining of the Space Shuttle Era

    Begining of the Space Shuttle Era
    The Columbia shuttle goes on its first flight and becomes the first reuseable space craft as it takes astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen on a 54 hour Earth orbit.
  • First American Woman in Space

    First American Woman in Space
    The first American woman in space is astronaut Sally Ride, 20 years after the first woman in space. Sally Ride went on the space shuttle Challenger and helped launch satelites.
  • First African American in Space

    First African American in Space
    Air Force Colonel Guion S. Bluford of the United States becomes the first African American in space aboard the space shuttle Challenger.
  • The Challenger Disaster

    The Challenger Disaster
    Tragedy strikes as the space shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after lift off killing it's crew of 7. This makes NASA reform its managment and saftey.
  • Mir: The Russian Station

    Mir: The Russian Station
    The first part of the Russian station Mir is launched. Mir lasted three times it's planned lifetime with 29 Russians, 3 Americans, 2 French, and 1 German astronuats visiting it. This more modern space station helped make way for the International Space Station. Mir was taken down on March 23, 2001.
  • Hubble Telescope, Take 1

    Hubble Telescope, Take 1
    The train car-sized Hubble Telescope is successfully launched by the space shuttle Discovery on a mission to transmit pictures from space.
  • Hubble Telescope, Take 2

    Hubble Telescope, Take 2
    The space shuttle Endeavour's crew does 5 space walks to repair the Hubble Telescope and give it better technology.
  • Era of the International Space Station

    Era of the International Space Station
    The Russian module Zarya is the first module of the ISS launched. Later the American module Unity is launched. When these two modules are linked together on December 4, it begins the construction of the ISS.
  • The Columbia Tragedy

    The Columbia Tragedy
    15 minutes before landing, the shuttle Columbia burns while rentering Earth's atmosphere. It's crew of seven dies on the shuttle's 28th flight.
  • Spirit and Opportunity

    Spirit and Opportunity
    Twin Mars robotic explorers Spirit and Opportunity of the U.S land on Mars and begin transmiting photos and readings of the atmosphere. These two probes unexpectedly continue to transmit today.
  • Cassini Reaches Saturn

    Cassini Reaches Saturn
    The American probe Cassini Reaches the outer planet Saturn and begins orbiting the planet. It takes photos and tests and launches a smaller probe to Saturn's moon Titan. Cassini helps scientists understand Saturn better and advances exploration of the outer planets.
  • Space Shuttle Discovery

    Space Shuttle Discovery
    The shuttle Discovery is the first shuttle launch since the Columbia disaster. It delivers supplies to the International Space Station.
  • Pheonix Probe

    Pheonix Probe
    The American Mars robotic explorer Pheonix lands on Mars. Its purpose is to study frozen polar water.
  • Last Shuttle Flight

    Last Shuttle Flight
    The space shuttle Atlantis is launched for the end of the shuttle program.