Tonga Eruption

  • Sulfur Dioxide Plumes

    8-to-14-kilometre-high (5.0 to 8.7 mi) plumes containing sulfur dioxide drifted to the north-northeast and spread over the Niuatoputapu, Haʻapai and Vavaʻu island groups.
  • Steam Plumes and Steam Bursts

    Surtseyan explosions, steam plumes and steam bursts were recorded by a Tonga Navy crew on 23 December 2021, during which time the first ground-based images of the eruption were created
  • Satellite Imagery

    On 25 December 2021, satellite imagery revealed that the island had increased in size by 300–600 metres (980–1,970 ft) on its eastern side.
  • Gas Emissions

    Steam and gas emissions reached altitudes of 10.3–12.2 kilometres (6.4–7.6 mi). Ash plumes reached heights of only 3 kilometres (1.9 mi), depositing ash only adjacent to the volcano
  • Surges of Surtseyan Activity

    Several surges of Surtseyan activity occurred, some of which were witnessed by passengers on a small South Seas Charters boat. Eruption plumes during the second half of December 2021 interrupted air travel to Tonga multiple times