SOCRATES"No one commits an evil act knowingly and doing wrong arises out of ignorance"
Socrates claims that no one does something wrong on purpose, and that all evil is the result of ignorance. To say the least, it's a generous viewpoint. Doing wrong affects the person who does it, and since no one acts against their own interests consciously, all wrongdoing, all evil, must be the outcome of ignorance.
ARISTOTLE"The Golden Mean Principle" according to this theory, if you want to be happy, you should live a moderate life. Aristotle's ethics is concerned with behaviors that are beneficial to man's benefit, not with activities that are right in and of themselves, regardless of other considerations. For example, Too much food is gluttony, and not enough food equals hunger. Too much profit in a company can lead to disaster.
PLATOIt is only by being virtuous that we can hope to be happy. Ethics is defined as a desire to do the right thing and live a good life. Plato's major goal is to challenge most people's perspectives about goodness, because it is here that they go horribly wrong in their attempts to live happy lives. Most people consider morality to be a modest benefit or even a hindrance to leading a happy life. This, according to Plato, is wrong; we can only be virtuous if we are good.
MORAL POSOTIVISMBelieves that human are basically selfish creatures who would do anything to improve their position. Thomas Hobbes, the 17th century English philosopher, says that humans are selfish animals who would act on their own bad inclinations if left to their own devices. He argues that they should not be trusted to make their own decisions. Furthermore Hobbes believed that nations, like persons, are motivated by self-interest. Each country, in his opinion, is constantly fighting for power and money.
UTILITARIANISM"Do whatever produces the greatest good for the greatest number" Theory states that it is the effects of an action, not the motive, that determine whether or not it is right. An action is excellent if and when it produces positive effects, if it leads to success, and if it helps you achieve your goal. For example, more benefit for less cost is a good activity. It can also be used to settle disputes between labor and management.